1655Rajpathak et al 2009 - The role of iron in type 2 diabetes in humansThe role of iron in type 2 diabetes in humans The role of iron in type 2 diabetes in humansRajpathak SN, Crandall JP, Wylie-Rosett J, Kabat GC, Rohan TE, Hu FB.17/07/2009Biochim Biophys Acta.1790(7):671-81. Epub 2008 May 3.
The role of micronutrients in the etiology of type 2 diabetes is not well established. Several lines of evidence suggest that iron play may a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.
Iron is a strong pro-oxidant and high body iron levels are associated with increased level of oxidative stress that may elevate the risk of type 2 diabetes. Several epidemiological studies have reported a positive association between high body iron stores, as measured by circulating ferritin level, and the risk of type 2 diabetes and of other insulin resistant states such as the metabolic syndrome, gestational diabetes and polycystic ovarian syndrome. In addition, increased dietary intake of iron, especially that of heme iron, is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in apparently healthy populations.
Results from studies that have evaluated the association between genetic mutations related to iron metabolism have been inconsistent. Further, several clinical trials have suggested that phlebotomy induced reduction in body iron levels may improve insulin sensitivity in humans. However, no interventional studies have yet directly evaluated the effect of reducing iron intake or body iron levels on the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Such studies are required to prove the causal relationship between moderate iron overload and diabetes risk.
iron, type 2 diabetes, risk, human study, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18501198View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1718Bull 2009 - Survey of complementary and alternative therapies used by children with specific learning difficulties (dyslexia).Survey of complementary and alternative therapies used by children with specific learning difficulties (dyslexia).Survey of complementary and alternative therapies used by children with specific learning difficulties (dyslexia).
Bull L.01/07/2009Int J Lang Commun Disord. 44(2):224-35.
BACKGROUND:Dyslexia is a common learning difficulty affecting up to 10% of British children that is associated with a wide range of cognitive, emotional and physical symptoms. In the absence of effective conventional treatment, it is likely that parents will seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to try and help their children. However, little is known about the level of CAM use or the type of CAM used by dyslexic children.
AIMS:This study assessed: (1) the lifetime use of CAM by dyslexic children, (2) the role of socio-demographic factors in CAM use by dyslexic children, (3) parental attitudes towards CAM use in the treatment of dyslexia, and (4) how parents' understanding of dyslexia affects CAM use.
METHODS & PROCEDURES:A semi-structured questionnaire-based survey of parents of 148 dyslexic school children was undertaken. The children had been recruited to a university research programme investigating the effectiveness of a complementary therapy for the treatment of learning difficulties.
OUTCOMES & RESULTS:Lifetime use of CAM was 55.4% (82 children). The most popular CAM approaches were nutritional supplements/special diets (63 children) followed by homeopathy (29 children) and osteopathy/chiropractic manipulation (29 children). Socio-demographic factors did not predict CAM use. In total, parents of 101 dyslexic children reported that an interest in CAM for the treatment of dyslexia was based on their preference for CAM for their families more generally. Parents who thought that dyslexia was a 'medical/health' disorder were more likely to have used CAM with their children (p<0.01) than other parents in this survey.
CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS:Educational and health professionals should be aware that many dyslexic children use CAM. Parents of dyslexic children should be provided with evidence-based advice to help them make informed therapeutic choices.
dyslexia, CAM, nutrition, diet, dietary supplements, alternative therapies, treatment, survey, human studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18608596View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1383Craig et al 2009 - Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets.Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets.Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets.Craig WJ, Mangels AR; American Dietetic Association.01/07/2009 J Am Diet Assoc.109(7)1266-82.
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that appropriately planned vegetarian diets, including total vegetarian or vegan diets, are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases.
Well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for individuals during all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, and for athletes. A vegetarian diet is defined as one that does not include meat (including fowl) or seafood, or products containing those foods.
This article reviews the current data related to key nutrients for vegetarians including protein, n-3 fatty acids, iron, zinc, iodine, calcium, and vitamins D and B-12. A vegetarian diet can meet current recommendations for all of these nutrients. In some cases, supplements or fortified foods can provide useful amounts of important nutrients.
An evidence- based review showed that vegetarian diets can be nutritionally adequate in pregnancy and result in positive maternal and infant health outcomes. The results of an evidence-based review showed that a vegetarian diet is associated with a lower risk of death from ischemic heart disease. Vegetarians also appear to have lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, lower blood pressure, and lower rates of hypertension and type 2 diabetes than nonvegetarians. Furthermore, vegetarians tend to have a lower body mass index and lower overall cancer rates.
Features of a vegetarian diet that may reduce risk of chronic disease include lower intakes of saturated fat and cholesterol and higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, soy products, fiber, and phytochemicals.
The variability of dietary practices among vegetarians makes individual assessment of dietary adequacy essential. In addition to assessing dietary adequacy, food and nutrition professionals can also play key roles in educating vegetarians about sources of specific nutrients, food purchase and preparation, and dietary modifications to meet their needs.
vegetarian, diet, nutrient intakes, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19562864?ordinalpos=2&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1863Grant & Soles 2009 - Epidemiologic evidence supporting the role of maternal vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for the development of infantile autismEpidemiologic evidence supporting the role of maternal vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for the development of infantile autismEpidemiologic evidence supporting the role of maternal vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for the development of infantile autismGrant WB, Soles CM.01/07/2009Dermatoendocrinol. 1(4):223-8.
This study examines whether maternal vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for infantile autism disease (IAD).
We used epidemiologic data seasonal variation of birth rates and prevalence of IAD for cohorts born before 1985.
For seven studies reporting spring-to-summer excess birth rates for IAD, the season progressed from broad near 30 degrees N latitude, spring/summer in midlatitudes, to winter at the highest latitude. Also, using data from 10 studies, we found a strong effective latitudinal (related to wintertime solar ultraviolet B radiation) increase in IAD prevalence.
These findings are consistent with maternal vitamin D deficiency's being a risk factor for IAD, possibly by affecting fetal brain development as well as possibly by affecting maternal immune system status during pregnancy. Further investigation of this hypothesis is warranted.
Vitamin D, Vit-D, Vit_D, autism, human study, epidemiological study, free full texthttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20592795View this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text of this article is available online.
1796Harris et al 2009 - Priming effects of television food advertising on eating behaviorPriming effects of television food advertising on eating behaviorPriming effects of television food advertising on eating behaviorHarris JL, Bargh JA, Brownell KD.01/07/2009Health Psychol.28(4):404-13.
OBJECTIVE: Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during TV viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food.
DESIGN:In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-age children watched a cartoon that contained either food advertising or advertising for other products and received a snack while watching. In Experiment 2, adults watched a TV program that included food advertising that promoted snacking and/or fun product benefits, food advertising that promoted nutrition benefits, or no food advertising. The adults then tasted and evaluated a range of healthy to unhealthy snack foods in an apparently separate experiment.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Amount of snack foods consumed during and after advertising exposure.
RESULTS: Children consumed 45% more when exposed to food advertising. Adults consumed more of both healthy and unhealthy snack foods following exposure to snack food advertising compared to the other conditions. In both experiments, food advertising increased consumption of products not in the presented advertisements, and these effects were not related to reported hunger or other conscious influences.
CONCLUSION: These experiments demonstrate the power of food advertising to prime automatic eating behaviors and thus influence far more than brand preference alone.
food advertising, taste and preferences, snacking, obesity, human studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19594263View this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text of this article is available online
1587Hoffman et al 2009 - Toward optimizing vision and cognition in term infants by dietary docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid supplementation: a review of randomized controlled trials.Toward optimizing vision and cognition in term infants by dietary docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid supplementation: a review of randomized controlled trials. Toward optimizing vision and cognition in term infants by dietary docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid supplementation: a review of randomized controlled trials.
Hoffman DR, Boettcher JA, Diersen-Schade DA.07/06/2009Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 81(2-3)151-8. Epub 2009 Jun 7.
The question of whether a dietary supply of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) imparts advantages to visual or cognitive development in term infants has been debated for many years. DHA and ARA are present in human milk, and nursing infants consume these fatty acids needed for rapid synthesis of cell membranes, particularly neural cells. The reported mean DHA and ARA levels of human milk worldwide are 0.32% and 0.47% of total fatty acids, respectively. Prior to 2002 in the US, formula-fed infants did not receive these fatty acids and relied solely on endogenous conversion of the dietary essential omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids, alpha-linolenic and linoleic acids, to DHA and ARA, respectively. Formula-fed infants were found to have significantly less accretion of DHA in brain cortex after death than breastfed infants. Numerous studies have found positive correlations between blood DHA levels and improvements in cognitive or visual function outcomes of breastfed and formula-fed infants. Results of randomized controlled clinical trials of term formula-fed infants evaluating functional benefits of dietary DHA and ARA have been mixed, likely due to study design heterogeneity. A comparison of visual and cognitive outcomes in these trials suggests that dietary DHA level is particularly relevant. Trials with formulas providing close to the worldwide human milk mean of 0.32% DHA were more likely to yield functional benefits attributable to DHA. We agree with several expert groups in recommending that infants receive at least 0.3% DHA, with at least 0.3% ARA, in infant feedings; in addition, some clinical evidence suggests that an ARA:DHA ratio greater than 1:1 is associated with improved cognitive outcomes.
omega-3, omega-6, fatty acids, DHA, AA, infant feeding, vision, cognition, RCTs, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19505812View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
12312 June 2009 - FAB CONFERENCE - CARDIFF - Feeding a Better Future: Mothers' and Children's Diets02/06/200902/06/2009
About the conference:
An exceptional opportunity to hear from a panel of top UK experts, researchers and practitioners about how nutrition affects behaviour, learning and mood - specifically in mothers' and children.
There is endless media coverage about the food we consume. So why do we still eat such poor diets? And what part do they play in children's worsening behaviour and the rising numbers of special needs pupils?
What can we expect if pregnant mothers and their babies don't get a well-balanced diet? And is current dietary advice appropriate? Find out which nutrients in mothers' diets are most strongly linked with behaviour and intelligence in their children.
How do children develop their eating patterns, and what lifelong effects do these have? How can you deal with 'fussy eating' and encourage healthy food choices?
School meals from a new perspective - hear inspiring examples from around the world. And learn how to make informed food choices for your children and families.
Hear the latest evidence on the links between diet, brains and behaviour - and what practical steps can be taken to encourage healthy eating at home and at school.
Speakers and Programme:
Food and Behaviour: An Overview by Dr Alex Richardson, (Founder and Director, FAB Research; Senior Research Fellow, University of Oxford; Author of 'They Are What You Feed Them')
Recent dietary changes and their consequences for human brain development by Professor Michael Crawford, (Founder and Director of The Institute of Brain Chemistry and Human Nutrition, London Metropolitan University)
Key findings about food and behaviour from the 'Children of the 90s' Study - a world-famous long-term follow-up study of over 14,000 pregnant mothers and their children by Dr Pauline Emmett, (Independent Sr Research Fellow, Centre for Child and Adolescent Health, Bristol)
The Gwent behaviour study - latest results and their implications by Professor Amanda Kirby, (Medical Director, The Dyscovery Centre, University of Wales, Newport)
Improving children's diets - The school food revolution by Professor Kevin Morgan, (School of City & Regional Planning, Cardiff University)
The role of diet in ADHD, autism and related conditions' and 'Encouraging healthy eating at home and in schools: practical tips and guidance by David Rex, Child Health Dietitian NHS Highland, & Healthy Eating in Schools Co-ordinator
9am to 4.30pmCardiffThe Barcelo Angel Hotel, Castle Street, CF10 1SZFiona O'Feeadmin@fabresearch.org01463 667318FAB Cardiff flyer 3.pdfDownload flyer and booking form hereFAB Cardiff booking form only (4).docDownload booking form only hereimages.jpgFULL RATE (Commercial organisations; Central govt)125REDUCED RATE (Local authorities, Health, Education, Social Work, Charitable and Voluntary Organisations)99FAB Associate Members80SUPPORTED RATE (Students, parents and carers)60Press place50
1393Anandan et al 2009 - Omega 3 and 6 oils for primary prevention of allergic disease: systematic review and meta-analysis.Omega 3 and 6 oils for primary prevention of allergic disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. Omega 3, omega-6, primary prevention, allergic disease, systematic review, meta-analysis.Anandan C, Nurmatov U, Sheikh A.01/06/2009Allergy. 64(6)840-8. Epub 2009 Apr 7.
BACKGROUND: There is conflicting evidence on the use of omega 3 and omega 6 supplementation for the prevention of allergic diseases. We conducted a systematic review evaluating the effectiveness of omega 3 and 6 oils for the primary prevention of sensitization and development of allergic disorders.
METHODS: We searched The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, PsycInfo, AMED, ISI Web of Science and Google Scholar for double-blind randomized controlled trials. Two authors independently assessed articles for inclusion. Meta-analyses were undertaken using fixed effects modelling, or random effects modelling in the event of detecting significant heterogeneity.
RESULTS: Of the 3129 articles identified, 10 reports (representing six unique studies) satisfied the inclusion criteria. Four studies compared omega 3 supplements with placebo and two studies compared omega 6 supplements with placebo. There was no clear evidence of benefit in relation to reduced risk of allergic sensitization or a favourable immunological profile. Meta-analyses failed to identify any consistent or clear benefits associated with use of omega 3 (atopic eczema: RR = 1.10 (95% CI 0.78-1.54); asthma: RR = 0.81 (95% CI 0.53-1.25); allergic rhinitis: RR = 0.80 (95% CI 0.34-1.89) or food allergy RR = 0.51 (95% CI 0.10-2.55)) or omega 6 oils (atopic eczema: RR = 0.80 (95% CI 0.56-1.16)) for the prevention of clinical disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to the evidence from basic science and epidemiological studies, our systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that supplementation with omega 3 and omega 6 oils is probably unlikely to play an important role as a strategy for the primary prevention of sensitization or allergic disease.
omega-3, omega-6, fatty acids, allergy, atopic disease, primary prevention, pregnany, infants, RCT, systematic review, meta-analysis, O-CIhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19392990?itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=4View this and related abstracts via PubMed here.
1563Bitanihirwe & Cunningham 2009 - Zinc: The brain's dark horseZinc: The brain's dark horse Zinc: The brain's dark horse Bitanihirwe, B. K. and Cunningham, M. G.01/06/2009Synapse631029-1049
Zinc is a life-sustaining trace element, serving structural, catalytic, and regulatory roles in cellular biology. It is required for normal mammalian brain development and physiology, such that deficiency or excess of zinc has been shown to contribute to alterations in behavior, abnormal central nervous system development, and neurological disease.
In this light, it is not surprising that zinc ions have now been shown to play a role in the neuromodulation of synaptic transmission as well as in cortical plasticity. Zinc is stored in specific synaptic vesicles by a class of glutamatergic or “gluzinergic” neurons and is released in an activity-dependent manner. Because gluzinergic neurons are found almost exclusively in the cerebral cortex and limbic structures, zinc may be critical for normal cognitive and emotional functioning.
Conversely, direct evidence shows that zinc might be a relatively potent neurotoxin. Neuronal injury secondary to in vivo zinc mobilization and release occurs in several neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, in addition to epilepsy and ischemia.
Thus, zinc homeostasis is integral to normal central nervous system functioning, and in fact its role may be underappreciated. This article provides an overview of zinc neurobiology and reviews the experimental evidence that implicates zinc signals in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases. A greater understanding of zinc's role in the central nervous system may therefore allow for the development of therapeutic approaches where aberrant metal homeostasis is implicated in disease pathogenesis.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19623531View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1538Dogan et al 2009 - Psychotic disorder and extrapyramidal symptoms associated with vitamin B12 and folate deficiencyPsychotic disorder and extrapyramidal symptoms associated with vitamin B12 and folate deficiency Psychotic disorder and extrapyramidal symptoms associated with vitamin B12 and folate deficiency Dogan M, Ozdemir O, Sal EA, Dogan SZ, Ozdemir P, Cesur Y, Caksen H.01/06/2009J Trop Pediatr.55(3)205-7. Epub 2008 Dec 18.
Vitamin B12 and folate deficiency causing neuropsychiatric and thrombotic manifestations, such as peripheral neuropathy, subacute combined degeneration of cord, dementia, ataxia, optic atrophy, catatonia, psychosis, mood disturbances, myocardial infarction and portal vein thrombosis are well known.
This present report highlights an unusual presentation of vitamin B12 deficiency-psychotic disorder, extrapyramidal symptoms in a 12-year-old boy. His symptoms responded to parenteral vitamin B12 therapy. So with this report we emphasized that serum vitamin B12 and folate levels should be measured, especially in those patients who present with other known neuropsychiatric features of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency.
schizophrenia, psychosis, Vitamin B12http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19095695View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1606Tozuka et al 2009 - Diet-induced obesity in female mice leads to peroxidized lipid accumulations and impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis during the early life of their offspringDiet-induced obesity in female mice leads to peroxidized lipid accumulations and impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis during the early life of their offspring Diet-induced obesity in female mice leads to peroxidized lipid accumulations and impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis during the early life of their offspring Tozuka Y, Wada E, Wada K.01/06/2009FASEB J. 23(6)1920-34. Epub 2009 Jan 21.
Maternal obesity may affect the child's long-term development and health. However, there is little information about the involvement of maternal obesity in the brain development of offspring. Here, we investigated the effects of maternal obesity on the hippocampal formation of offspring. Adult female mice were fed either a normal diet (ND, 4% fat) or a high-fat diet (HFD, 32% fat) 6 wk before mating and throughout pregnancy and the majority of lactation. We found that infants from HFD-fed dams (HFD offspring) showed obesity and hyperlipidemia during suckling. In HFD offspring, lipid peroxidation was promoted in serum and the hippocampal dentate gyrus, where neurogenesis takes place throughout postnatal life. Using a BrdU-pulse labeling study, we showed that malondialdehyde, a product of peroxidized lipids, reduced the proliferation of hippocampal progenitor cells in vitro and that neurogenesis in HFD offspring during postnatal development was similarly lowered relative to the ND animals. These results indicated that maternal obesity impairs hippocampal progenitor cell division and neuronal production in young offspring possibly due to metabolic and oxidative changes.
obesity, maternal obesity, diet, high-fat diet, pregnancy, nutritional programming, neurogenesis, hippocampus, biochemical study, animal studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19158155View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1438Isaacs et al 2009 - Early diet and general cognitive outcome at adolescence in children born at or below 30 weeks gestation.Early diet and general cognitive outcome at adolescence in children born at or below 30 weeks gestation.Early diet and general cognitive outcome at adolescence in children born at or below 30 weeks gestation.Isaacs EB, Morley R, Lucas A.15/05/2009J Pediatr. 155(2)229-34. Epub 2009 May 15.
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that effects of early diet on cognition observed at age 8 years persist in adolescents born preterm at < or = 30 weeks gestational age.
STUDY DESIGN: A subgroup from a preterm infant cohort recruited for a randomized trial studying the effects of early dietary intervention was assessed at age 16 years. IQ scores were compared between those assigned a high-nutrient diet (n = 49) or standard-nutrient diet (n = 46) in infancy at both 8 and 16 years.
RESULTS: At age 8 years, the high-nutrient group had higher mean Verbal IQ (VIQ; P = .03), Performance IQ (P = .01), and Full-Scale IQ (P = .02) scores compared with the standard-nutrient group; the VIQ difference persisted at adolescence (P = .02). This effect was accounted for principally by a significant difference in the mean Verbal Comprehension Index score (P < .008).
CONCLUSIONS: A brief period of dietary intervention after preterm birth, principally between 26 and 34 weeks of gestation, affected IQ at age 16 years. A standard-nutrient diet was associated with lower VIQ, accounted for mainly by differences in verbal comprehension, which persisted after control of social factors.
diet, prematurity, intelligence, cognitive development, children, human study, RCT, randomised controlled trialhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19446846?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_SingleItemSupl.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=3&log$=relatedarticles&logdbfrom=pubmedView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1781Schnebelen et al 2009 - Nutrition for the eye: different susceptibility of the retina and the lacrimal gland to dietary omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA incorporation.Nutrition for the eye: different susceptibility of the retina and the lacrimal gland to dietary omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid incorporation.Nutrition for the eye: different susceptibility of the retina and the lacrimal gland to dietary omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid incorporation.
Schnebelen C, Viau S, Grégoire S, Joffre C, Creuzot-Garcher CP, Bron AM, Bretillon L, Acar N.15/05/2009Ophthalmic Res. 41(4):216-24. Epub 2009 May 15.
The purpose of this study was to compare the susceptibility of the retina and the exorbital lacrimal gland to dietary supplies of long-chain omega-3 (omega3) and omega-6 (omega6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs).
Male Wistar rats were fed a 5% lipid diet containing: (1) 10% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 7% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or (2) 10% gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), or (3) 10% EPA, 7% DHA and 10% GLA or (4) a balanced diet deprived of EPA, DHA and GLA for 3 months. Lipids were extracted from plasma phospholipids, retina and exorbital lacrimal gland, and fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography.
Dietary supplementation with EPA and DHA increased omega3 PUFA levels in plasma phospholipids as well as in the retina and the exorbital lacrimal gland. By contrast, GLA supplementation favored omega6 PUFA incorporation, and particularly the incorporation of the end-chain omega6 product, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), into all tissues. Supplementation with EPA, DHA and GLA increased the levels of DHA, EPA and dihomo-GLA (dGLA), whereas arachidonic acid (AA) was unchanged and DPA decreased in the retina and the lacrimal gland. The ability of both tissues to incorporate PUFAs from blood was evaluated. The results showed that the retina was more selective than the lacrimal gland for EPA.
In spite of the different susceptibility of the retina and the lacrimal gland to dietary PUFAs, these results suggest that the concomitant use of dietary omega3 and omega6 PUFAs may be useful in modulating inflammation in both tissues.
omega-3, omega-6, fatty acids, vison, brain development, retina, animal studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19451735View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1596Yavin et al 2009 - Delayed cell migration in the developing rat brain following maternal omega 3 alpha linolenic acid dietary deficiencyDelayed cell migration in the developing rat brain following maternal omega 3 alpha linolenic acid dietary deficiency Delayed cell migration in the developing rat brain following maternal omega 3 alpha linolenic acid dietary deficiencyYavin E, Himovichi E, Eilam R.14/05/2009Neuroscience162(4)1011-22. Epub 2009 May 14.
Diminished levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), the major polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) synthesized from alpha linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), have been implicated in changes in neurotransmitter production, ion channel disruption and impairments of a variety of cognitive, behavioral and motor functions in the perinatal and adult mammal. Neuronal migration in the cortex and hippocampus of newborn and postnatal rats after ALA-deficiency, beginning on the 2nd day after conception and continuing for three weeks, was investigated. A marked decrease in the migration of bromodeoxyuridine((+))/neuronal nuclei((+))/neurofilament((+)) and glia fibrillary acidic protein((-)) neuronal cells to the dense cortical plate was accompanied by a corresponding abundance of non-migrating cells in several regions such as cortical layers IV-VI, corpus callosum and the sub-ventricular zone of ALA-deficient newborns. Similarly, a delayed migration of cells to CA1 and dentate gyrus areas was noticed while most cells were retained in the subicular area adjacent to the hippocampus. The reversibility of delay in migration in the hippocampus and cortex, after one and two weeks respectively, may be attributed to a temporary reelin disorganization or partial deficiency. Transient obstruction of neuronal cell migration may have long-lasting consequences on the organization of neuronal assemblies, on the connection between neurons (lateral connections) and acquisition of function in the adult brain.
omega-3, alpha-linolenic acid, ALA, DHA, pregnancy, maternal diet, omega-3 deficiency, neuronal migration, brain development, animal studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19447164View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1375Chytrova et al 2009 - Exercise contributes to the effects of DHA dietary supplementation by acting on membrane-related synaptic systems.Exercise contributes to the effects of DHA dietary supplementation by acting on membrane-related synaptic systems.Exercise contributes to the effects of DHA dietary supplementation by acting on membrane-related synaptic systems.Chytrova G, Ying Z, Gomez-Pinilla F.13/05/2009Brain Res2009 May 13. [Epub ahead of print]
Dietary omega-3 fatty acid (i.e. docosohexaenoic acid (DHA)) and exercise are gaining recognition for supporting brain function under normal and challenging conditions. Here we evaluate the possibility that the interaction of DHA and exercise can involve specific elements of the synaptic plasma membrane.
We found that voluntary exercise potentiated the effects of a 12-day DHA dietary supplementation regimen on increasing the levels of syntaxin 3 (STX-3) and the growth-associated protein (GAP-43) in the adult rat hippocampus region. STX-3 is a synaptic membrane-bound protein involved in the effects of DHA on membrane expansion. The DHA diet and exercise also elevated levels of the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B, which is important for synaptic function underlying learning and memory. The actions of exercise and DHA dietary supplementation reflected on enhanced learning performance in the Morris water maze as learning ability was associated with higher levels of STX-3 and NR2B. The overall findings reveal a mechanism by which exercise can interact with the function of DHA dietary enrichment to elevate the capacity of the adult brain for axonal growth, synaptic plasticity, and cognitive function.
Exercise, diet, omega-3, DHA, membrane function, membrane fluidity, synaptic plasticity, memory, learning, cognition, animal study, Free Full Texthttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19446534?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text of this paper is available online
137111 May 2009 - Psychiatry weekly - Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Mood Disorders: Integrative Treatment StrategiesOmega-3 Fatty Acids and Mood Disorders: Integrative Treatment Strategies11/05/2009Marlene Freeman MD
In this brief, open-access article in Psychiatry Weekly, Marlene Freeman MD discusses the use of 'complementary' treatments such as omega-3 fatty acids in the management of mood disorders
Dr. Marlene Freeman is interested in mood disorders in women, with particular regard to the heightened safety concerns of psychiatric treatment during the perinatal period. She has carried out several studies of her own into fatty acid treatments in psychiatric disorders, and she was the lead author of the American Psychiatric Association's review: 'Omega-3 fatty acids: evidence basis for treatment and future research in psychiatry'.
http://www.psychiatryweekly.com/aspx/article/articledetail.aspx?articleid=940View this article in full via Psychiatry Weekly here
12286 May 2009 - FAB CONFERENCE - EDINBURGH - Eating for Health, Mental Performance and Wellbeingconference Edinburgh06/05/200906/05/2009
Food and Behaviour Research presents:
Eating for Health, Mental Performance and Wellbeing - a one-day professional conference aimed at professionals working in Education and Health ; Local Authority Staff; Professionals working in Criminal Justice; Policy Makers; School, College and University Caterers; Voluntary Organisations; Social Enterprise; Parents; Carers and those working with children and young people; the Media.
What influence does the food we eat have on our brains?
How does the modern diet impact on our mental performance and wellbeing?
Children's behaviour, learning and mental health problems are rising as fast as rates of obesity and diabetes, while many people are feeling tired, agitated and depressed - so what's going on?
Can better informed food choices and dietary intervention reduce these symptoms and really make a difference?
Hear the latest evidence on the links between diet, brains and behaviour - and what practical steps can be taken to encourage healthy eating
Speakers and Programme:
Food and Behaviour - An Overview by Dr Alex Richardson, Director of FAB Research; Senior Research Fellow, University of Oxford, Author of 'They Are What You Feed Them'
Food and Mood: Dietary Factors in Depression and An Early Intervention Programme for Mental Health Problems by Professor Malcolm Peet, Consultant Psychiatrist; NHS consultant
The potential for intervention using fatty acid supplements in autism by Dr Gordon Bell, Project Leader of Nutrition Group, University of Stirling
Chronic Fatigue and Depression - lessons from a practice by Dr Tom Gilhooly, Glasgow-based GP and Medical Advisor
Omega-3 for behaviour, learning and mood. Latest evidence and implications for practice by Dr Alex Richardson, Director of FAB Research; Senior Research Fellow, University of Oxford, Author of 'They Are What You Feed Them'
Encouraging healthy eating in schools - practical tips by David Rex, Child Health Dietitian NHS Highland & Healthy Eating in Schools Co-ordinator
Food for Tot (a project aimed at helping families to develop the skills and knowledge they need to make informed dietary choices for their families) by Barbara Jessop, Development Worker, Greengables Nursery School, Edinburgh
9.30am to 4.30pmEdinburghThe Carlton Hotel, North Bridge, Edinburgh EH1 1SDFiona O'Feeadmin@fabresearch.org01463 667318FAB Edinburgh Flyer and Booking form.pdfDownload flyer hereFAB Edinburgh Booking form web.docDownload booking form hereedinburgh.jpg
136704 May 2009 - Pediatric Academic Societies Meeting - Lack of Food Variety Puts Kids with Autism at Risk for Poor NutritionLack of Food Variety Puts Kids with Autism at Risk for Poor Nutrition, Two Studies at PAS Suggest Food Variety and Cognition-Related Fatty Acid are Important to Well Being of Affected Children04/05/2009Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
The strong preference kids with autism have for certain foods places them at risk for nutritional deficiencies because their diets lack sufficient variety, according to research from Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center at this year's Pediatric Academic Societies meeting in Baltimore.
Presenting their findings May 4, the researchers said screening children for the amount of variety of food in their diets may be a good clinical marker to predict which children might be at risk for nutrition problems. Kids with low food variety scores who are at risk could then be referred to dieticians or therapists to help them expand food choices and improve nutrition, said Michelle Zimmer, MD, lead investigator and a pediatrician in the division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics at Cincinnati Children's.
The study is one of two presented by Dr. Zimmer and colleagues this year at PAS that deal with autism, the second one showing that the red blood cells of children with autism have low levels of a fatty acid linked to cognitive function. This finding, the researchers report, warrants further research into how the low fatty acid levels may trigger biochemical changes in the brain linked to autism.
The team found that levels of docosahexanoic acid and total omega-3 fatty acids were significantly lower in the red blood cells of autistic children than in normally developing children. Omega-3 fatty acids are nutritionally important substances considered vital to the normal development of children.
Evidence of abnormal fatty acid metabolism in children with autism runs counter to at least one previous study that suggested no difference between normally developing and autistic children. The different results between studies may be explained by the current research focusing on an older group of children, Dr. Zimmer said.
"The fatty acid docosahexanoic is linked to other mental health issues, and this raises questions about whether there are functional issues in neural cells involving a deficiency of essential fatty acids," said Dr. Zimmer. "The main point of the study is we cannot rule that fatty acids are part of the story of what is going on with kids who have autism."
Dr. Zimmer said its possible older children with autism have had more time to use up their bodies' stores of omega-3 fatty acids and are unable to replenish those stores. The 21 children with autism in this study were between the ages of 3 and 18 years, as were the 20 age-matched normally developing children and 10 if their siblings who served as control subjects.
The research team is conducting a larger study with more children to verify its PAS findings. Dr. Zimmer said another study is also under design to give essential omega-3 fatty acids, such as docosahexanonic acid, to children with autism to see what impact it has on brain chemistry and/or the disorder.
Increasing foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids in the diets of autistic children has been suggested by some researchers as potentially beneficial, Dr. Zimmer said. Although doing so would not have a negative impact on the children, until studies are conducted it isn't known what affect, if any, it might have, she added. Also, given the findings of the previous study on the lack of food variety among kids with autism, augmenting their diets could be challenging.
Most of the 19 autistic children in the food study had much lower food variety scores in their diets than typically developing children. A majority of the children with autism also suffered from nutritional deficiencies. The researchers concluded children with autism and low food variety scores are at risk for mild and serious nutritional deficiencies.
Researchers participating in studies were from the division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics and Division of Neurology at Cincinnati Children's. Researchers from the department of Pathology at the University of Cincinnati participated in the study on food variety.
The PAS meeting is the largest international meeting focused on research in child health. It is sponsored by the AmericanAcademy of Pediatrics, the American Pediatric Society, the Society for Pediatric Research, and the Ambulatory Pediatric Association.
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center is one of America's top three children's hospitals for general pediatrics and is highly ranked for its expertise in digestive diseases, respiratory diseases, cancer, neonatal care, heart care and neurosurgery, according to the annual ranking of best children's hospitals by U.S. News & World Report. One of the three largest children's hospitals in the U.S., Cincinnati Children's is affiliated with the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine and is one of the top two recipients of pediatric research grants from the National Institutes of Health. For its achievements in transforming healthcare, Cincinnati Children's is one of six U.S. hospitals since 2002 to be awarded the American Hospital Association-McKesson Quest for Quality Prize ® for leadership and innovation in quality, safety and commitment to patient care. The hospital is a national and international referral center for complex cases, so that children with the most difficult-to-treat diseases and conditions receive the most advanced care leading to better outcomes.
Nick Miller - firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/about/news/release/2009/Lack-of-Food-Variety-Puts-Kids-with-Autism-at-Risk-for-Poor-Nutrition-05-04-2009.htmView the original press release from Cincinatti Children's Hospital medical center here
135801 May 2009 - Medical News from AAN - Diet Linked to Alzheimer's RiskMedical News from AAN: American Academy of Neurology Meeting01/05/2009By Kristina Fiore, Staff Writer, MedPage Today; reviewed by Dori F. Zaleznik, MD; Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston.
SEATTLE, May 1 -- A diet that's high in vegetables, nuts, and fish but low in fatty dairy products may help protect against Alzheimer's disease, researchers said here.
Patients in the highest tertiles of such a diet had a 42% reduced risk of developing Alzheimer's, Yian Gu, Ph.D., of Columbia University, and colleagues said at the American Academy of Neurology Meeting.
"There was a significant relationship for the seven nutrients that are most consistently associated with Alzheimer's disease," Dr. Gu said.
Dr. Gu and her colleagues used the Reduced-Rank Regression model to analyze dietary patterns that might explain the variation of nutrients that is believed to be related to disease risk.
They evaluated the diet via those seven Alzheimer's disease-related nutrients: saturated fats, monounsaturated fats, omega-3 fatty acids, omega-6 fatty acids, vitamin E, vitamin B12, and folate.
The researchers prospectively assessed 2,136 healthy elderly patients in New York who provided dietary information. Participants were evaluated with the same standardized neurological and neuropsychological measures every one-and-a-half years. A total of 251 patients developed Alzheimer's disease over the four-year follow-up period.
In a multivariate analysis, the researchers found that a diet high in omega-3, omega-6, folate, and vitamin E, and low in saturated fat and B12, was strongly associated with lower risk of Alzheimer's disease. Compared with the lowest scores for dietary pattern, the middle and highest tertiles had significantly reduced risks of developing Alzheimer's (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.05 and HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.84, respectively, P<0.01).
Dr. Gu said the B12 finding was "surprising" since deficiency of the nutrient is associated with dementia. However, a major dietary source of B12 is meat, which is also a large source of saturated fat, she said.
The protective diet was characterized by higher intakes of cruciferous vegetables, green-leafy vegetables, fish, nuts, and tomatoes, and by a lower intake of high-fat dairy products.
Dr. Gu said that further study of Alzheimer's disease-related nutrients can better identify dietary patterns that relate to disease risk.
The researchers reported no disclosures.
Primary source: American Academy of Neurology Source reference: Gu Y, et al "A dietary pattern protective against Alzheimer's disease" AAN 2009; Abstract P09.115.
Explain that in a prospective study, diets rich in omega-3, omega-6, folate, and vitamin E, and low in saturated fat and B12, were strongly associated with lower risk of Alzheimer's disease.
Note that this study was published as an abstract and presented as a poster at a conference. These data and conclusions should be considered to be preliminary until published in a peer-reviewed journal.
http://www.medpagetoday.com/MeetingCoverage/AAN/14012View this article via the MedPage today website here
1351Mangat 2009 - Do vegetarians have to eat fish for optimal cardiovascular protection?Do vegetarians have to eat fish for optimal cardiovascular protection?Do vegetarians have to eat fish for optimal cardiovascular protection?Mangat I.01/05/2009 Am J Clin Nutr. 89(5)1597S-1601S. Epub 2009 Mar 25.
Interest in the cardiovascular protective effects of n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids has continued to evolve during the past 35 y since the original research describing the low cardiovascular event rate in Greenland Inuit was published by Dyerberg et al. Numerous in vitro experiments have shown that n-3 fatty acids may confer this benefit by several mechanisms: they are antiinflammatory, antithrombotic, and antiarrhythmic. The n-3 fatty acids that have received the most attention are those that are derived from a fish source: namely, the longer-chain n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3). More limited data are available on the cardiovascular effects of n-3 fatty acids derived from plants such as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3). Observational data suggest that diets rich in EPA, DHA, or ALA do reduce cardiovascular events, including myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death; however, randomized controlled trial data are somewhat less clear. Several recent meta-analyses have suggested that dietary supplementation with EPA and DHA does not provide additive cardiovascular protection beyond standard care, but the heterogeneity of included studies may reduce the validity of their conclusions. No data exist on the potential therapeutic benefit of EPA, DHA, or ALA supplementation on those individuals who already consume a vegetarian diet. Overall, there is insufficient evidence to recommend n-3 fatty acid supplementation for the purposes of cardiovascular protection; however, ongoing studies such as the Alpha Omega Trial may provide further information.
omega-3, vegetarian, diet, dietary intake, EFA-HUFA conversionhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19321560?ordinalpos=2&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts here
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