1798Page & Brewster 2009 Depiction of food as having drug-like properties in televised food advertisements directed at children: portrayals as pleasure enhancing and addictiveDepiction of food as having drug-like properties in televised food advertisements directed at children: portrayals as pleasure enhancing and addictiveDepiction of food as having drug-like properties in televised food advertisements directed at children: portrayals as pleasure enhancing and addictivePage RM, Brewster A.01/05/2009J Pediatr Health Care.23(3):150-7. Epub 2008 Mar 26.
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine food commercials airing during children's TV programming for portrayals of behaviors associated with substance use, violence, disrespect, and stealing. It was hypothesized that these behaviors would be present and would be more frequent in commercials advertising specific products (e.g., ready-to-eat cereals) than for those advertising restaurants (e.g., fast food).
METHOD:A content analysis of 147 food commercials televised during children's TV programming on U.S. broadcast networks examined commercials for behaviors associated with substance use behavior, physical violence, and other problematic behaviors for children.
RESULTS:Commercials contained depictions of exaggerated pleasure sensation and dependency/addiction, portrayals of physical violence, trickery, thievery/stealing, fighting and taking extreme measures to obtain a food, and treating adults with disrespect. More portrayals appeared in commercials for high-sugar cereals than in those for fast-food restaurants.
DISCUSSION: Findings raise concern about the presence of this content in televised food advertisements targeting children and serve to alert pediatric health professionals and other child health advocates to take a closer look at this issue.
food advertising, antisocial behaviour, brandinghttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19401247View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1434White et al 2009 - Maternal obesity is necessary for programming effect of high-fat diet on offspringMaternal obesity is necessary for programming effect of high-fat diet on offspringMaternal obesity is necessary for programming effect of high-fat diet on offspringWhite CL, Purpera MN, Morrison CD.01/05/2009Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 296(5)R1464-72. Epub 2009 Feb 25.
We tested the hypothesis that maternal consumption of dietary fat, independent from obesity, increases serum leptin in neonatal pups and predisposes them to adult obesity. Female rats either were fed a high-fat (HF) diet or a low-fat (LF) diet or were fed the HF diet but pair fed (PF) to the caloric intake of the LF group for 4 wk before breeding and throughout gestation and lactation. Dams consuming the HF diet had increased adiposity and were hyperphagic. At weaning, pups born to obese dams had significantly higher body fat and serum leptin levels and reduced insulin tolerance compared with offspring of LF-fed dams. Pups were weaned onto a chow diet until 8 wk of age, when they were then fed either HF or LF diet. At 18 wk of age, offspring from obese HF dams weighed more than offspring from nonobese LF or PF dams, and offspring eating HF diet weighed significantly more than those eating LF diet. Consequently, HF-fed offspring of obese HF dams weighed the most and LF-fed offspring from obese HF dams were similar in weight to HF-fed offspring from nonobese LF dams. These data suggest that maternal obesity exerts an independent effect on offspring body weight that is of similar magnitude as the effect of the offspring's adult diet. Furthermore, there was no difference in body weight between the nonobese LF and PF offspring on either diet. Together, these data suggest that maternal adiposity, and not dietary fat per se, induces hyperleptinemia and insulin resistance in offspring, as well as an increased body weight that persists into adulthood.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19244583?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_SingleItemSupl.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=3&log$=relatedarticles&logdbfrom=pubmedView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1884Li et al 2009 - Antidepressant-like effects of curcumin on serotonergic receptor-coupled AC-cAMP pathway in chronic unpredictable mild stress of ratsAntidepressant-like effects of curcumin on serotonergic receptor-coupled AC-cAMP pathway in chronic unpredictable mild stress of ratsAntidepressant-like effects of curcumin on serotonergic receptor-coupled AC-cAMP pathway in chronic unpredictable mild stress of ratsLi YC, Wang FM, Pan Y, Qiang LQ, Cheng G, Zhang WY, Kong LD.30/04/2009Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 33(3):435-49. Epub 2009 Jan 22.
Serotonergic receptors take their physiologic effects by affecting adenylyl cyclase (AC) catalytic activity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentration. AC-cAMP second messenger pathway has been recently suggested to play an important role in depression. Therefore, the compound that regulates the signal pathway may have potential as antidepressant.
Curcumin is the main component of Curcuma longa L, a well-known indigenous herb with comprehensive bioactivities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and curcumin on behaviours and serotonergic receptor-coupled AC-cAMP signal pathway in rats.
Curcumin produced beneficial effects on the stressed rats by effectively improving CUMS-induced low sucrose consumption and reducing serum corticosterone levels in rats. Moreover, curcumin enhanced AC activity and cAMP levels in platelet and various brain regions, and up-regulated mRNA expressions of AC subtypes AC 2, AC 8 and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus, cortex and hypothalamus of the CUMS rats. Curcumin also attenuated CUMS-induced reductions of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels and high expressions of central 5-HT(1A/1B/7) receptors in rats.
These results suggested that the potent antidepressant property of curcumin might be attributed to its improvement of AC-cAMP pathway as well as CREB via suppressing central 5-HT(1A/1B/7) receptors in the CUMS rats. Our findings provided a basis for examining the interaction of serotonergic receptors and AC-cAMP pathway in depression and curcumin treatment.
curcumin, antioxidant, stress, depression, anti-depressant, serotonin, 5-HT, animal study, experimental studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19302828View this and related abstracts via Pubmed here
1292Rees et al 2009 - Omega-3 deficiency associated with perinatal depression: Case control studyOmega-3 deficiency associated with perinatal depression: Case control study Omega-3 deficiency associated with perinatal depression: Case control study; ReesRees AM, Austin MP, Owen C, Parker G.30/04/2009Psychiatry Res. 166(2-3)254-9. Epub 2009 Mar 5
Women are depleted of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) during the perinatal period due to fetal diversion. An association has been shown between lowered n-3 PUFAs and depression in general. We therefore hypothesise that women with lower n-3 PUFA levels are at greater risk of depression during pregnancy. Sixteen depressed and 22 non-depressed women were recruited during the third trimester and fasting bloods were taken for plasma fatty acid analysis. High docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), high total n-3 and a low n-6:n-3 ratio were associated with significantly lower odds of depression. After adjustment for parity, age and education level, those with high DHA still had significantly lower odds of being depressed. Those with high total n-3 and a low n-6:n-3 ratio were also at significantly reduced risk of depression, although the magnitude of the difference was reduced. Study results quantified women with lower omega-3 PUFA levels as being six times more likely to be depressed antenatally, compared to women who had higher omega-3 PUFA levels. The prophylactic benefits of supplementation either prenatally or during pregnancy require close study to assess whether omega-3 PUFAs play a role in the prevention of perinatal depression.
omega-3, LC-PUFA, depression, perinatal, pregnancy, case-control study, blood fatty acids, plasma http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19268372?ordinalpos=3&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
186524 April 2009 - Scientific American - What If Vitamin D Deficiency is a Cause of Autism?Autism and Vitamin Dby Gabrielle Glaser24/04/2009
A few researchers are turning their attention to the sunshine vitamin as a culprit, prompted by the experience of immigrants that have moved from their equatorial country to two northern latitude locations
As evidence of widespread vitamin D deficiency grows, some scientists are wondering whether the sunshine vitamin—once only considered important in bone health—may actually play a role in one of neurology's most vexing conditions: autism.
The idea, although not yet tested or widely held, comes out of preliminary studies in Sweden and Minnesota. Last summer, Swedish researchers published a study in Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology that found the prevalence of autism and related disorders was three to four times higher among Somali immigrants than non-Somalis in Stockholm. The study reviewed the records of 2,437 children, born between 1988 and 1998 in Stockholm, in response to parents and teachers who had raised concerns about whether children with a Somali background were overrepresented in the total group of children with autism.
In Sweden, the 15,000-strong Somali community calls autism "the Swedish disease," says Elisabeth Fernell, a researcher at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm and a co-author of the study.
In Minnesota, where there are an estimated 60,000 Somali immigrants, the situation was quite similar: There, health officials noted reports of autism among Somali refugees, who began arriving in 1993, comparable to those found in Sweden. Within several years of arrival, dozens of the Somali families whose children were born in the U.S. found themselves grappling with autism, says Huda Farah, a Somali-born molecular biologist who works on refugee resettlement issues with Minnesota health officials. The number of Somali children in the city's autism programs jumped from zero in 1999 to 43 in 2007, says Ann Fox, director of special education programs for Minneapolis schools. The number of Somali-speaking children in the Minneapolis school district increased from 1,773 to 2,029 during the same period.
Few, if any, Somalis had ever seen anything like it. "It has shocked the community," Farah says. "We never saw such a disease in Somalia. We do not even have a word for it."
What seemed to link the two regions was the fact that Somalis were getting less sun than in their native country—and therefore less vitamin D. The vitamin is made by the skin during sun exposure, or ingested in a small number of foods. At northern latitudes in the summertime, light-skinned people produce about 1,000 international units (IUs) of vitamin D per minute, but those with darker skin synthesize it more slowly, says Adit Ginde, an assistant professor at the University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine. Ginde recommends between 1,000 to 2,000 IUs per day, calling current recommendations of 200 IUs per day outmoded.
It’s hard to definitively assess the extent to which Somali immigrant families in Sweden and Minnesota are experiencing increased rates of autism. Somalia doesn't have great records of the condition, says Rebecca Berkowitz, who works for a United Nations–affiliated NGO called Global Education Motivators. "Children in Somalia may not even be getting diagnosed with autism due to the overall lack of awareness of the disorder," Berkowitz says, in a nod to the fact that there is no Somalian word for it. And Swedish scientists have reported autism rates overall have risen since they began studying the epidemiology of the disorder in the mid-1980s—just as U.S. Centers for Disease Control officials have noted an increase.
Still, proponents of the vitamin D–autism link say there is biological plausibility to their theory. They cite a 2007 review by Allan Kalueff, a researcher now at Tulane University, in Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care. That review—based on more than 20 studies of animals and humans—concluded that vitamin D during gestation and early infancy was essential for "normal brain functioning."
At the same time, the theory needs a lot of data to back it before others will give it much credence, given how many other potential reasons there are for a climb in autism rates. Even Kalueff says he isn’t sure how vitamin D could be related to autism, even if it is an important player in the brain: "Discussions around autism specifically may be a right step or a wrong step, but they should not distract us from a much bigger picture."
Catherine Lord, the director of the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor's Autism and Communication Disorders Center, says she finds the Swedish study intriguing. "But it is going to be really important to replicate these findings," says Lord, who has studied the disorder for 40 years and has been instrumental in developing autism diagnostic instruments used in practice and research worldwide. “We are talking about a small group of children with a lot of social factors, including that these kids are very conspicuously different from your average Swedish child, and being assessed by people who are from very different culture." There is also the issue of consanguinity, she says, as many Somalis marry cousins. "This doesn't mean the study is wrong," she says. "But we need methodical testing."
So Fernell and her colleagues are now measuring vitamin D blood levels in mothers and children with autism of both Somali and Swedish origin and comparing them with a control group of mothers and healthy children. She will not say how many subjects the study includes, describe any preliminary results nor say when it will be complete. Farah says Minneapolis researchers are now preparing to study the vitamin D levels of pregnant Somalis, other ethnic groups and Minnesotans of European stock. (That data is particularly hard to come by because Vitamin D levels are not typically screened in pregnancy in the U.S., says Stacy Brooks, a spokeswoman for the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.)
The other potential reasons for a climb in autism rates: There is increased attention to the condition in the U.S., and Somalis are more likely to see a doctor after moving here. Also, genes, studies have found, may play a role; a number of papers, including a 1989 study of five Nordic countries and a 1995 British study, found that the concordance rate among identical twins was as high as 90 percent. (Then there is the much-ballyhooed but ultimately disproved link to vaccines.)
Somali refugees, in particular, faced multiple stressors as they adjusted to their new lives in Sweden and Minnesota: They had fled civil war, lost a supportive tribal culture, and replaced a diet of fruit, fresh meat and grains with processed food. Perhaps, most importantly, they had traded family compounds and regular exposure to the equatorial sun for cloistered high-rise apartments.
But some of those potential cultural reasons could also point to vitamin D. Surrounded by strangers, the predominantly Muslim women covered themselves almost continuously when outdoors, says Gregory A. Plotnikoff, medical director of the Penny George Institute for Health and Healing in Minneapolis. Plotnikoff, an internist, speaks Somali and has many Somali patients. That meant less exposure to the sun for pregnant women, who would have worn less modest dress in private areas of their own family compounds.
And there is other evidence for a vitamin D link: Last November, Cornell University researchers published a study in Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine showing that children in rainy (and therefore more overcast) counties of Oregon, Washington and California were two times more likely to be diagnosed with autism than their counterparts in drier parts of the state. "Our research is sufficiently suggestive of an environmental trigger for autism associated with precipitation, of which vitamin D deficiency is one possibility," says study co-author Michael Waldman, a professor of management and economics at Cornell's Johnson Graduate School of Management. "Further research focused on vitamin D deficiency is clearly warranted." His research on environmental links to autism are ongoing; he plans to publish in the coming months but will not disclose any of his studies until they are accepted by a journal.
Gene Stubbs, an associate professor emeritus of psychiatry and pediatrics at Oregon Health & Science University, says the preliminary research is already intriguing. "We don't have proof, but I am certainly leaning in the direction that this hypothesis could be correct for a proportion of kids," says Stubbs, who has been studying autism for 30 years. He is launching a pilot study of 150 pregnant women who have at least one child diagnosed with the disorder. The women will receive 5,000 IUs of vitamin D3 during gestation and 7,000 IUs during lactation. "If we find that we are able to reduce the recurrence rate of autism within families substantially enough, others will want to study this in larger groups with larger controls."
Deficiencies of Vitamin D have become widespread in many countries because so many people get relatively little exposure to bright sunshine. This may reflect location and climate (e.g. those living in the UK, northern US, Canada and Scandinavia are at risk), indoor lifestyles, and/or habits of dress. Skin colour is also a key factor, because people with darker skin need more sunshine exposure to make the same amount of Vitamin D as those with lighter skin.
Vitamin D deficiency has many negative effects on health - including poor calcium absorption (hence weak bones) and immune system dysfunction. It can be particularly damaging during pregnancy, as there is mounting evidence that Vitamin D deficiency in utero leads to structural brain changes that raise the risk of not only autism, but also ADHD and schizophrenia. Improving Vitamin D status in mothers-to-be could therefore have huge public health benefits, and the existing evidence strongly supports large research trials to investigate this.
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=vitamin-d-and-autismView this article via Scientific American here
1377Muthayya et al 2009 - Effect of fortification with multiple micronutrients and n-3 fatty acids on growth and cognitive performance in Indian schoolchildren: the CHAMPION Study.Effect of fortification with multiple micronutrients and n-3 fatty acids on growth and cognitive performance in Indian schoolchildren: the CHAMPION (Children's Health and Mental Performance Influenced by Optimal Nutrition) Study. Effect of fortification with multiple micronutrients and n-3 fatty acids on growth and cognitive performance in Indian schoolchildren: the CHAMPION (Children's Health and Mental Performance Influenced by Optimal Nutrition) SMuthayya S, Eilander A, Transler C, Thomas T, van der Knaap HC, Srinivasan K, van Klinken BJ, Osendarp SJ, Kurpad AV.15/04/2009 Am J Clin Nutr. 89(6)1766-75. Epub 2009 Apr 15.
BACKGROUND: Fortification with multiple micronutrients has been shown to improve growth and cognitive performance among children in developing countries, but it is unknown whether higher concentrations are more effective than lower concentrations.
OBJECTIVE: We compared the effect of 2 different concentrations of a combination of micronutrients and n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids on indicators of growth and cognitive performance in low-income, marginally nourished schoolchildren in Bangalore, India.
DESIGN: In a 2-by-2 factorial, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 598 children aged 6-10 y were individually allocated to 1 of 4 intervention groups to receive foods fortified with either 100% or 15% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance of micronutrients in combination with either 900 mg alpha-linolenic acid plus 100 mg docosahexaenoic acid or 140 mg alpha-linolenic acid for 12 mo. Anthropometric and biochemical assessments were performed at baseline and 12 mo. Cognitive performance was measured at baseline and at 6 and 12 mo.
RESULTS: The high micronutrient treatment significantly improved linear growth at 12 mo (0.19 cm; 0.01, 0.36) and short-term memory at 6 mo (0.11 SD; 0.01, 0.20) and was less beneficial on fluid reasoning at 6 (-0.10 SD; -0.17, -0.03) and 12 (-0.12 SD; -0.20, -0.04) mo than was the low micronutrient treatment, whereas no differences were observed on weight, retrieval ability, cognitive speediness, and overall cognitive performance. No significant differences were found between the n-3 treatments.
CONCLUSIONS: The high micronutrient treatment was more beneficial for linear growth than was the low micronutrient treatment. However, with some small differential effects, higher micronutrient concentrations were as effective as lower concentrations on cognitive performance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00467909.
dietary supplementation, micronutrients, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, children, cognitive function, growth, clinical trial, human study, RCThttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19369376?ordinalpos=3&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free Full Text of thisw paper is available online.
1322Lockrow et al 2009 - Cholinergic degeneration and memory loss delayed by vitamin E in a Down syndrome mouse model.Cholinergic degeneration and memory loss delayed by vitamin E in a Down syndrome mouse model.Cholinergic degeneration and memory loss delayed by vitamin E in a Down syndrome mouse model.Lockrow J, Prakasam A, Huang P, Bimonte-Nelson H, Sambamurti K, Granholm AC.13/04/2009Exp Neurol. 216(2):278-89. Epub 2008 Dec 10
Down syndrome (DS) individuals develop several neuropathological hallmarks seen in Alzheimer's disease, including cognitive decline and the early loss of cholinergic markers in the basal forebrain. These deficits are replicated in the Ts65Dn mouse, which contains a partial trisomy of murine chromosome 16, the orthologous genetic segment to human chromosome 21. Oxidative stress levels are elevated early in DS, and may contribute to the neurodegeneration seen in these individuals. We evaluated oxidative stress in Ts65Dn mice, and assessed the efficacy of long-term antioxidant supplementation on memory and basal forebrain pathology. We report that oxidative stress was elevated in the adult Ts65Dn brain, and that supplementation with the antioxidant vitamin E effectively reduced these markers. Also, Ts65Dn mice receiving vitamin E exhibited improved performance on a spatial working memory task and showed an attenuation of cholinergic neuron pathology in the basal forebrain. This study provides evidence that vitamin E delays onset of cognitive and morphological abnormalities in a mouse model of DS, and may represent a safe and effective treatment early in the progression of DS neuropathology.
Vitamin E, Down's syndrome, memory, acetylcholine, cognitive decline, ARCD, animal modelshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19135442?ordinalpos=12&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1307Shahar et al 2009 - Nutritional status in relation to balance and falls in the elderly: a preliminary look at serum folate.Nutritional status in relation to balance and falls in the elderly: a preliminary look at serum folate.Nutritional status in relation to balance and falls in the elderly: a preliminary look at serum folate.Shahar D, Levi M, Kurtz I, Shany S, Zvili I, Mualleme E, Shahar A, Sarid O, Melzer I.12/04/2009Ann Nutr Metab. 54(1)59-66. Epub 2009 Mar 6
BACKGROUND/AIM: In elderly persons, fall-related injury is a serious public health problem. We investigated the impact of essential nutritional elements on falls in the elderly.
METHODS: Clinical function, balance, gait and disability tests and health and nutritional status assessments were performed. All subjects were interviewed regarding the occurrence of falls in the last year. Blood tests for serum vitamin D, folate and B(12) were conducted among a randomly selected subsample of 54 participants in the same month.
RESULTS: One hundred 65- to 91-year-old volunteers participated in the study, and 29 of them fell at least once during the past year. The depression score was higher (indicating more depressive symptoms) among fallers compared with non-fallers (4.0 +/- 3.2 vs. 2.5 +/- 2.3, respectively). The overall function score (indicating better function) was marginally higher in non-fallers. Subsequent comparisons between fallers and non-fallers were adjusted for overall function and depression scores. Serum folate was significantly lower in fallers (9.5 +/- 7.1 vs. 16.2 +/- 6.7 ng/ml, p = 0.02). Dietary intake was equal in both groups. Correlation analyses indicate a significant association between vitamin D and the functional measurements: timed get up and go (negative), Berg balance test, overall functional score, lower extremity score and limitation score (positive correlation coefficients). Serum folate was highly and negatively associated with the number of falls and with prescribed medications and was the only protective factor against falls in a multivariate analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D was related to most functional and balance measurements. Serum folate was protective against falls. For every 1 ng/ml increase in serum folate the occurrence of falls decreased by 19%.
Folate, Vit-B, Vitamin D, Vit-D, ageinghttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19270446?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1349Liou & Innis 2009 - Dietary linoleic acid has no effect on arachidonic acid, but increases n-6 eicosadienoic acid, and lowers DGLA and EPA in plasma of adult men.Dietary linoleic acid has no effect on arachidonic acid, but increases n-6 eicosadienoic acid, and lowers dihomo-gamma-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma of adult men.Dietary linoleic acid has no effect on arachidonic acid, but increases n-6 eicosadienoic acid, and lowers dihomo-gamma-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma of adult men.Angela Liou Y, Innis SM.06/04/2009Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2009 Apr 6. [Epub ahead of print]
High intakes of linoleic acid (LA,18:2n-6) have raised concern due to possible increase in arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) synthesis, and inhibition of alpha linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) desaturation to eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3).
In healthy men, 10.5% energy compared to 3.8% energy LA with 1% energy ALA increased plasma phospholipid LA and 20:2n-6, the elongation product of LA, and decreased EPA, with no change in ARA.
However, LA was inversely related to ARA at both 10.5% energy and 3.8% energy LA, (r=-0.761, r=-0.817, p<0 .001, respectively). A two-fold variability in ARA among individuals was not explained by the dietary LA, ARA, ALA, or fish intake.
Our results confirm LA requirements for ARA synthesis is low, <3.8% energy, and they suggest current LA intakes saturate Delta-6 desaturation and adversely affect n-3 fatty acid metabolism. Factors other than n-6 fatty acid intake are important modifiers of plasma ARA.
fatty acids, diet, omega-6, omega-3, EFA-HUFA conversion, linoleic acid, LA, arachidonic acid, AA, alpha-linolenic acid, ALA, eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19356914?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1317Biltagi et al 2009 - Omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin C and Zinc supplementation in asthmatic children: a randomized self-controlled study.Omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin C and Zn supplementation in asthmatic children: a randomized self-controlled study.Omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin C and Zn supplementation in asthmatic children: a randomized self-controlled study.Biltagi MA, Baset AA, Bassiouny M, Kasrawi MA, Attia M.01/04/2009Acta Paediatr. 98(4)737-42. Epub 2008 Jan 11
OBJECTIVES: Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory airways disease. Nutritional intervention is an important tool to decrease the severity of many chronic inflammatory diseases including asthma. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin C and Zn in children with moderately persistent asthma.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Randomly assigned, placebo-self-controlled 60 children with moderate persistent asthma completed the study, were subjected to alternating phases of supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin C and Zn either singly or in combination separated with washout phases. Childhood asthma control test (C-ACT), pulmonary function tests and sputum inflammatory markers were evaluated at the beginning of the study and at the end of each therapeutic phase.
RESULTS: There was a significant improvement of C-ACT, pulmonary function tests and sputum inflammatory markers with diet supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin C and Zn (p < 0.001*). There was also significant improvement with the combined use of the three supplementations than single use of any one of them (p < 0.001*).
CONCLUSION: Diet supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids, Zn and vitamin C significantly improved asthma control test, pulmonary function tests and pulmonary inflammatory markers in children with moderately persistent bronchial asthma either singly or in combination.
omega-3, Vitamin C, Vit-C, Zinc, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, asthma, atopy, allergies, treatment, RCT, human study, randomised controlled trial http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19154523?ordinalpos=2&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1902Devore et al 2009 - Dietary fat intake and cognitive decline in women with type 2 diabetesDietary fat intake and cognitive decline in women with type 2 diabetesDietary fat intake and cognitive decline in women with type 2 diabetesDevore EE, Stampfer MJ, Breteler MM, Rosner B, Hee Kang J, Okereke O, Hu FB, Grodstein F.01/04/2009Diabetes Care. 32(4):635-40.
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with type 2 diabetes have high risk of late-life cognitive impairment, yet little is known about strategies to modify risk. Targeting insulin resistance and vascular complications-both associated with cognitive decline-may be a productive approach. We investigated whether dietary fat, which modulates glucose and lipid metabolism, might influence cognitive decline in older adults with diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Beginning in 1995-1999, we evaluated cognitive function in 1,486 Nurses' Health Study participants, aged >or=70 years, with type 2 diabetes; second evaluations were conducted 2 years later. Dietary fat intake was assessed regularly beginning in 1980; we considered average intake from 1980 (at midlife) through initial cognitive interview and also after diabetes diagnosis. We used multivariate-adjusted linear regression models to obtain mean differences in cognitive decline across tertiles of fat intake.
RESULTS: Higher intakes of saturated and trans fat since midlife, and lower polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio, were each highly associated with worse cognitive decline in these women. On a global score averaging all six cognitive tests, mean decline among women in the highest trans fat tertile was 0.15 standard units worse than that among women in the lowest tertile (95% CI -0.24 to -0.06, P = 0.002); this mean difference was comparable with the difference we find in women 7 years apart in age. Results were similar when we analyzed diet after diabetes diagnosis.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that lower intakes of saturated and trans fat and higher intake of polyunsaturated fat relative to saturated fat may reduce cognitive decline in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
trans fats, diabetes, cognitive decline, human study, observational studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19336640View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1439Engström et al 2009 - Effect of fish oils containing different amounts of EPA, DHA, and antioxidants on plasma and brain fatty acids and brain nitric oxide synthase activity in rats.Effect of fish oils containing different amounts of EPA, DHA, and antioxidants on plasma and brain fatty acids and brain nitric oxide synthase activity in rats.Effect of fish oils containing different amounts of EPA, DHA, and antioxidants on plasma and brain fatty acids and brain nitric oxide synthase activity in rats.
Engström K, Saldeen AS, Yang B, Mehta JL, Saldeen T.01/04/2009Ups J Med Sci. 2009;114(4)206-13.
BACKGROUND: The interest in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has expanded significantly in the last few years, due to their many positive effects described. Consequently, the interest in fish oil supplementation has also increased, and many different types of fish oil supplements can be found on the market. Also, it is well known that these types of fatty acids are very easily oxidized, and that stability among supplements varies greatly. AIMS OF THE STUDY: In this pilot study we investigated the effects of two different types of natural fish oils containing different amounts of the n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and antioxidants on plasma and brain fatty acids, blood lipids, vitamin E, and in vivo lipid peroxidation, as well as brain nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, an enzyme which has been shown to be important for memory and learning ability. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and fed regular rat chow pellets enriched with 5% (w/w) of butter (control group), a natural fish oil (17.4% EPA and 11.7% DHA, referred to as EPA-rich), and a natural fish oil rich in DHA (7.7% EPA and 28.0% DHA, referred to as DHA-rich). Both of the fish oils were stabilized by a commercial antioxidant protection system (Pufanox) at production. The fourth group received the same DHA-rich oil, but without Pufanox stabilization (referred to as unstable). As an index of stability of the oils, their peroxide values were repeatedly measured during 9 weeks. The dietary treatments continued until sacrifice, after 10 days. RESULTS: Stability of the oils varied greatly. It took the two stabilized oils 9 weeks to reach the same peroxide value as the unstable oil reached after only a few days. Both the stabilized EPA- and DHA-rich diets lowered the triacylglycerols and total cholesterol compared to control (-45%, P < 0.05 and -54%, P < 0.001; -31%, P < 0.05 and -25%, P < 0.01) and so did the unstable oil, but less efficiently. Only the unstable oil increased in vivo lipid peroxidation significantly compared to control (+40%, P < 0.001). Most of the fatty acids in the plasma phospholipids were significantly affected by both the EPA- and DHA-rich diets compared to control, reflecting their specific fatty acid pattern. The unstable oil diet resulted in smaller changes, especially in n-3 PUFAs. In the brain phospholipids the changes were less pronounced, and only the diet enriched with the stabilized DHA-rich oil resulted in a significantly greater incorporation of DHA (+13%, P < 0.01), as well as total n-3 PUFAs (+13%, P < 0.01) compared to control. Only the stabilized DHA-rich oil increased the brain NOS activity (+33%, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Both the EPA- and DHA-rich diets affected the blood lipids in a similarly positive manner, and they both had a large impact on plasma phospholipid fatty acids. It was only the unstable oil that increased in vivo lipid peroxidation. However, the intake of DHA was more important than that of EPA for brain phospholipid DHA enrichment and brain NOS activity, and the stability of the fish oil was also important for these effects.
omega-3, fish oils, EPA, DHA, peroxidation, triglycerides, cholesterol, brain phospholipids, animal studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19961266View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1925Harris et al 2009 - Towards establishing dietary reference intakes for EPA and DHATowards establishing dietary reference intakes for eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acidsOmega-3 dietary recommended intakesHarris WS, Mozaffarian D, Lefevre M, Toner CD, Colombo J, Cunnane SC, Holden JM, Klurfeld DM, Morris MC, Whelan J.01/04/2009J Nutr. 139(4):804S-19S. Epub 2009 Feb 25.
There is considerable interest in the impact of (n-3) long-chain PUFA in mitigating the morbidity and mortality caused by chronic diseases.
In 2002, the Institute of Medicine concluded that insufficient data were available to define Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), noting only that EPA and DHA could contribute up to 10% toward meeting the Adequate Intake for alpha-linolenic acid.
Since then, substantial new evidence has emerged supporting the need to reassess this recommendation. Therefore, the Technical Committee on Dietary Lipids of the International Life Sciences Institute North America sponsored a workshop on 4-5 June 2008 to consider whether the body of evidence specific to the major chronic diseases in the United States--coronary heart disease (CHD), cancer, and cognitive decline--had evolved sufficiently to justify reconsideration of DRI for EPA+DHA.
The workshop participants arrived at these conclusions:
1) consistent evidence from multiple research paradigms demonstrates a clear, inverse relation between EPA+DHA intake and risk of fatal (and possibly nonfatal) CHD, providing evidence that supports a nutritionally achievable DRI for EPA+DHA between 250 and 500 mg/d;
2) because of the demonstrated low conversion from dietary ALA, protective tissue levels of EPA+DHA can be achieved only through direct consumption of these fatty acids;
3) evidence of beneficial effects of EPA+DHA on cognitive decline are emerging but are not yet sufficient to support an intake level different from that needed to achieve CHD risk reduction;
4) EPA+DHA do not appear to reduce risk for cancer; and
5) there is no evidence that intakes of EPA+DHA in these recommended ranges are harmful.
omega-3, HUFA, EPA, DHA, dietary recommended intakes, human studies, review, Free full texthttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19244379View this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text of this article is available online.
1293Potter et al 2009 - Alternative treatments in pediatric bipolar disorder.Alternative treatments in pediatric bipolar disorder.Alternative treatments in pediatric bipolar disorder.Potter M, Moses A, Wozniak J.01/04/2009Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am.18(2):483-514, xi
There has been growing interest in the use of complementary and alternative treatments in pediatric bipolar disorder (BPD). There are limited data, however, regarding the safety and efficacy of these treatments. This article discusses select complementary and alternative treatments that have been considered for use in pediatric BPD and/or depression, including omega-3-fatty acids, inositol, St. John's wort, SAMe, melatonin, lecithin, and acupuncture. Background information, reference to available adult and pediatric data, proposed mechanisms of action, dosing, side effects, and precautions of these treatments are included. Across the board, more research is necessary and warranted regarding the long-term safety and efficacy of available complementary and alternative treatments for the management of pediatric BPD.
omega-3, bipolar disorder, children, treatment, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19264275?ordinalpos=4&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1291Riediger et al 2009 - A systemic review of the roles of n-3 fatty acids in health and diseaseA systemic review of the roles of n-3 fatty acids in health and diseaseA systemic review of the roles of n-3 fatty acids in health and diseaseRiediger ND, Othman RA, Suh M, Moghadasian MH.01/04/2009J Am Diet Assoc. 109(4)668-79
Attention to the role of n-3 long-chain fatty acids in human health and disease has been continuously increased during recent decades. Many clinical and epidemiologic studies have shown positive roles for n-3 fatty acids in infant development; cancer; cardiovascular diseases; and more recently, in various mental illnesses, including depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and dementia. These fatty acids are known to have pleiotropic effects, including effects against inflammation, platelet aggregation, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. These beneficial effects may be mediated through several distinct mechanisms, including alterations in cell membrane composition and function, gene expression, or eicosanoid production. A number of authorities have recently recommended increases in intakes of n-3 fatty acids by the general population. To comply with this recommendation a variety of food products, most notably eggs, yogurt, milk, and spreads have been enriched with these fatty acids. Ongoing research will further determine the tissue distribution, biological effects, cost-effectiveness, and consumer acceptability of such enriched products. Furthermore, additional controlled clinical trials are needed to document whether long-term consumption or supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid or the plant-derived counterpart (alpha-linolenic acid) results in better quality of life.
omega-3, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19328262?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1363Robinson-O'Brien et al 2009 - Adolescent and young adult vegetarianism: better dietary intake and weight outcomes but increased risk of disordered eating behaviors.Adolescent and young adult vegetarianism: better dietary intake and weight outcomes but increased risk of disordered eating behaviors. Adolescent and young adult vegetarianism: better dietary intake and weight outcomes but increased risk of disordered eating behaviors.Robinson-O'Brien R, Perry CL, Wall MM, Story M, Neumark-Sztainer D.01/04/2009J Am Diet Assoc. 109(4):648-55
OBJECTIVE: Examine characteristics of current and former adolescent and young adult vegetarians and investigate the relationships between vegetarianism, weight, dietary intake, and weight-control behaviors.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based study in Minnesota (Project EAT-II: Eating Among Teens). SETTING: Participants completed a mailed survey and food frequency questionnaire in 2004.
PARTICIPANTS: Males and females (n=2,516), ages 15-23 years.
ANALYSIS: Multiple regression models controlling for socioeconomic status and sex were used to test for significant differences between current, former, and never vegetarians within the younger and older cohort.
RESULTS: Participants were identified as current (4.3%), former (10.8%), and never (84.9%) vegetarians. Current vegetarians in the younger and older cohorts had healthier dietary intakes than nonvegetarians with regard to fruits, vegetables, and fat. Among young adults, current vegetarians were less likely than never vegetarians to be overweight or obese. Adolescent and young adult current vegetarians were more likely to report binge eating with loss of control when compared to nonvegetarians. Among adolescents, former vegetarians were more likely than never vegetarians to engage in extreme unhealthful weight-control behaviors. Among young adults, former vegetarians were more likely than current and never vegetarians to engage in extreme unhealthful weight-control behaviors.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Adolescent and young adult vegetarians may experience the health benefits associated with increased fruit and vegetable intake and young adults may experience the added benefit of decreased risk for overweight and obesity. However, current vegetarians may be at increased risk for binge eating with loss of control, while former vegetarians may be at increased risk for extreme unhealthful weight-control behaviors. It would be beneficial for clinicians to inquire about current and former vegetarian status when assessing risk for disordered eating behaviors.
vegetarian, dietary intake, cross-sectional study, eating disordershttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19328260?ordinalpos=2&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via Pubmed here
1906Wilkins et al 2009 - Vitamin D deficiency is associated with worse cognitive performance and lower bone density in older African AmericansVitamin D deficiency is associated with worse cognitive performance and lower bone density in older African AmericansVitamin D deficiency is associated with worse cognitive performance and lower bone density in older African AmericansWilkins CH, Birge SJ, Sheline YI, Morris JC.01/04/2009J Natl Med Assoc. 101(4):349-54.
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is common in older adults and is more prevalent among persons with darker pigmented skin. The detrimental effects of vitamin D deficiency on the bone are widely known; however, recent data suggest that vitamin D deficiency may contribute to other disorders, including low mood, cognitive impairment, and impaired mobility.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether nonskeletal diseases such as depression, cognitive impairment, and physical disability, which have been associated with vitamin D deficiency, are more commonly seen in older African Americans.
DESIGN: In a cross-sectional study of 60 older adults (30 African Americans and 30 European Americans), vitamin D status, cognitive performance, physical performance, and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed. Differences between groups and differences between those with vitamin D deficiency and those with normal vitamin D levels were tested.
RESULTS: African Americans had a lower mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D level (17.98 ng/ml; SD, 6.9) compared to European Americans (25.20 ng/ml; SD, 7.0; p < .0001). Participants with vitamin D deficiency performed worse on a measure of cognitive performance, the Short Blessed Test (10.87 vs 6.31; p = .016); the Physical Performance Test (PPT) (27.00 vs 28.96; p = .039); and had lower BMD (0.823 vs 0.914; p = .005) and t scores (-1.29 vs -0.72; p = .008) of the hip. Among African Americans, vitamin D deficiency was associated with worse cognitive performance and lower BMD of the hip.
CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency in older African Americans was associated with worse cognitive performance and lower BMD of the hip.
Vit-D, Vitamin D, cognition, ageing, human studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19397226View this and related abstracts via Pubmed here
1366Bent et al 2009 - Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review.Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review. Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review.Bent S, Bertoglio K, Hendren RL.31/03/2009J Autism Dev Disord.39(8):1145-54. Epub 2009 Mar 31.
We conducted a systematic review to determine the safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database using the terms autism or autistic and omega-3 fatty acids.
The search identified 143 potential articles and six satisfied all inclusion criteria. One small randomized controlled trial (n = 13) noted non-significant improvements in hyperactivity and stereotypy. The remaining five studies were small (n = 30, 22, 19, 9, and 1) with four reporting improvements in a wide range of outcomes including language and learning skills, parental observations of general health and behavior, a clinician-administered symptom scale, and clinical observations of anxiety.
Due to the limitations of evidence from uncontrolled studies and the presence of only one small randomized controlled trial, there is currently insufficient scientific evidence to determine if omega-3 fatty acids are safe or effective for ASD.
autism, fatty acids, omega-3, RCT, systematic reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19333748View this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text of this article is available online
123525 March 2009 - How metals in food impact children's behaviour25/03/2009Lorraine Heller - Decision News Media
The contamination of food with certain metals needs to be urgently addressed in light of growing evidence linking trace elements to negative human behaviour, according to a lead researcher in the field.
Metals and other elements can be present in food either naturally, as a result of human activities (such as farming, industry or car exhausts), from contamination during manufacture/processing and storage, or by direct addition.
It has long been known that excessive amounts of any metal could be potentially dangerous, but there is now also strong evidence that some trace elements can contribute to aggressive or anti-social behaviour, said Neil Ward, professor of chemistry at the UK's University of Surrey.
"Many of the mechanisms are as yet unknown and more case studies are required, but it is clear that elimination produces positive improvements," said Professor Ward at a Food and Behaviour conference held in Brighton, UK, last week.
Some metals and other elements (such as copper, manganese and zinc) can act as nutrients and are essential for health, while others (such as arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury) have no known beneficial health effects.
Those elements that have no nutritional benefits could not only be toxic to the system, but they could impede absorption of essential nutrients in the body, which is particularly problematic in children, explained Ward.
For example, lead has been linked to anti-social behaviour, partly because it contributes to nutrient depletion.
"Lead acts as an anti-nutrient, hindering the utilisation of magnesium, zinc and vitamin B1. High lead levels have been linked to a reduction in IQ, negative classroom behaviour ratings by teachers, juvenile delinquency and increased violent behaviour," he said, citing studies by Needleman et al., which appeared in the New England journal of Medicine, JAMA and Neurotoxic Teratology in 1990, 1996 and 2002 respectively.
Ward, who has studied the relation of trace elements to human disorders for over 25 years, said aluminium has also been linked to anti-social behaviour as it competes for the binding sites of biochemical receptors of other metal ions, such as iron and zinc. For the same reason, suboptimal dietary intake of zinc or iron could explain the uptake of aluminium, he said. References included studies by Moon and Marlow, Wenk and Stemmer, and Birchell and Chappell, which appeared in Biol Trace Elem Res (1986), Brain Res (1983) and the Lancet (1988) respectively.
Ward also highlighted findings from one of his own studies, conducted in 1995, which examined the heavy metal status of incarcerated young offenders compared to control individuals.
The double-blind case control study used scalp hair and blood serum tests to determine the levels of zinc, lead, cadmium and aluminium in the two groups. Levels of lead, cadmium and aluminium were found to be significantly higher in the young offenders group, whereas zinc levels were lower.
Zinc deficiency is also thought to occur as a result of ingestion of certain food colours, and has been linked to hyperactive behaviour or ADHD in children, said Ward.
"The mode of action is not known, but azo dyes have been linked to behavioural changes in children. These colours could be acting as chelating agents, which bind available blood zinc and create a deficiency. The elimination of azo dye beverages and sweets can have a dramatic effect on some HA or ADHD children," he said.
Food and Behaviour
Professor Ward was addressing an audience of medical professionals, teachers, healthcare and social workers, and food industry executives at a conference organised by the charity Food and Behaviour Research.
http://www.nutraingredients.com/Publications/Food-Beverage-Nutrition/FoodNavigator.com/Science-Nutrition/How-metals-in-food-impact-children-s-behaviour/?c=ntB9Yoe71WYVvwwSxljFlw%3D%3D&utm_source=newsletter_daily&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Newsletter%2BDailyRead this article online here
1308Correale et al 2009 - Immunomodulatory effects of Vitamin D in multiple sclerosis.Immunomodulatory effects of Vitamin D in multiple sclerosis. Immunomodulatory effects of Vitamin D in multiple sclerosis.Correale J, Ysrraelit MC, Gaitán MI.24/03/2009BrainMar 24. [Epub ahead of print]
Although Vitamin D is best known as a modulator of calcium homeostasis, it also has immune modulating potential. A protective effect of Vitamin D on multiple sclerosis is supported by the reduced risk associated with sun exposure and use of Vitamin D supplements. Moreover, high circulating levels of Vitamin D have been associated with lower risk of multiple sclerosis.
In this study, we measured 1,25 (OH)(2) Vitamin D and 25 (OH) Vitamin D levels in multiple sclerosis patients separated into different clinical subgroups according to disease status. In addition, direct effects of 1,25 (OH)(2) Vitamin D on ex vivo CD4+ T cells and myelin-peptide specific T cell lines were investigated to gain more insight into putative regulatory mechanisms in the disease pathogenesis. One hundred and thirty-two Hispanic patients with clinically definite multiple sclerosis were studied, 58 with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis during remission, 34 during relapse and 40 primary progressive multiple sclerosis cases. Sixty healthy individuals matched with respect to place of residence, race/ethnicity, age and gender served as controls.
Levels of 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), measured by ELISA were significantly lower in relapsing-remitting patients than in controls. In addition, levels in patients suffering relapse were lower than during remissions. In contrast, primary progressive patients showed similar values to controls. Proliferation of both freshly isolated CD4+ T cells and MBP-specific T cells was significantly inhibited by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). Moreover, activated Vitamin D enhanced the development of IL-10 producing cells, and reduced the number of IL-6 and IL-17 secreting cells. Notably, Vitamin D receptor expression was induced by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in both activated and resting cells. Interestingly, T cells were able to metabolize 25(OH)D(3) into biologically active 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), since T cells express alpha1-hydroxylase constitutively. Finally, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) also increased the expression and biological activity of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, mediating significant increase in the number of CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells.
Collectively, these data suggest that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) plays an important role in T cell homeostasis during the course of multiple sclerosis, thus making correction of its deficiency may be useful during treatment of the disease.
Vitamin D, Vit-D, immunology, multiple sclerosis, MS, mechanismshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19321461?ordinalpos=3&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and rleated abstracts via PubMed here
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