1296Su 2009 - Biological Mechanism of Antidepressant Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids: How Does Fish Oil Act as a 'Mind-Body Interface'?Biological Mechanism of Antidepressant Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids: How Does Fish Oil Act as a 'Mind-Body Interface'?Biological Mechanism of Antidepressant Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids: How Does Fish Oil Act as a 'Mind-Body Interface'?Su KP.04/02/2009Neurosignals. 17(2):144-152.
The unsatisfactory results of monoamine-based antidepressant therapy and the high occurrence of somatic symptoms and physical illness in patients with depression imply that the serotonin hypothesis is insufficient to approach the aetiology of depression.
Depressive disorders with somatic presentation are the most common form of depression. Somatization, the bodily symptoms without organic explanation, is similar to cytokine-induced sickness behaviour. Based on recent evidence, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs, or n-3 fatty acids) are enlightening a promising path to discover the unsolved of depression, sickness behaviour and to link the connection of mind and body.
The PUFAs are classified into n-3 (or omega-3) and n-6 (or omega-6) groups. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, the major bioactive components of n-3 PUFAs, are not efficiently synthesized in humans and should therefore be obtained directly from the diet, particularly by consuming fish.
Docosahexaenoic acid deficiency is associated with dysfunctions of neuronal membrane stability and transmission of serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, which might connect to the aetiology of mood and cognitive dysfunction of depression.
Likewise, eicosapentaenoic acid is important in balancing the immune function and physical health by reducing membrane arachidonic acid (an n-6 PUFA) and prostaglandin E(2) synthesis, which might be linked to the somatic manifestations and physical comorbidity in depression.
The role of n-3 PUFAs in immunity and mood function supports the promising hypothesis of psychoneuroimmunology of depression and provides an excellent interface between 'mind' and 'body'.
This review is to provide an overview of the evidence about the role of n-3 PUFAs in depression and its common comorbid physical conditions and to propose mechanisms by which they may modulate molecular and cellular functions.
omega-3, fatty acids, PUFA, EPA, DHA, depression, treatment, mechanisms, neurotransmitters, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19190401?ordinalpos=11&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1243Colangelo et al 2009 - Higher dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is inversely associated with depressive symptoms in women.Higher dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is inversely associated with depressive symptoms in women.Depression, omega-3, dietColangelo LA, He K, Whooley MA, Daviglus ML, Liu K.03/02/2009NutritionE-pub ahead of print
OBJECTIVE: Experimental and observational data suggest that a higher dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated acids may lead to a decreased risk of depressive disorders. We assessed multivariable-adjusted associations of fish consumption and dietary intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with depressive symptoms in a population-based sample of 3317 African-American and Caucasian men and women from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study. METHODS: Diet was assessed in year 7 (1992-1993) and depressive symptoms were measured in years 10 (1995-1996), 15 (2000-2001), and 20 (2005-2006) by the 20-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale score >/=16 or self-reported use of antidepressant medication. RESULTS: In the entire cohort, the highest quintiles of intakes of EPA (>/=0.03% energy), DHA (>/=0.05% energy), and EPA + DHA (>/=0.08% energy) were associated with a lower risk of depressive symptoms at year 10 (P for trends = 0.16, 0.10, and 0.03, respectively). The observed inverse associations were more pronounced in women. For the total number of occasions with depressive symptoms, the multivariable adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) in women were 0.75 (0.55-1.01) for fish intake, 0.66 (0.50-0.89) for EPA, 0.66 (0.49-0.89) for DHA, and 0.71 (0.52-0.95) for EPA + DHA when comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles. Analyses of continuous Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores revealed inverse associations with fourth-root-transformed omega-3 variables in women. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that dietary intakes of fish and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids may be inversely associated with chronic depressive symptoms in women.
depression, diet, omega-3http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19195841?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=1&log$=relatedarticles&logdbfrom=pubmedView this abstract via PubMed here
1340Carlson 2009 - Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in pregnancy and lactation.Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in pregnancy and lactation.Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in pregnancy and lactation.Carlson SE01/02/2009Am J Clin Nutr. 89(2)678S-84S. Epub 2008 Dec 30
The goal of the Experimental Biology symposium on maternal supplementation was to review all available lines of evidence, delineate unanswered questions, and develop, if it seemed reasonable, a research agenda to determine whether maternal supplementation with specific nutrients might be beneficial. In the case of maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status, the topic addressed in this article, few clinical studies show benefits of maternal DHA supplementation during pregnancy or lactation for the infant or child. However, quite a large number of observational studies link higher intrauterine DHA exposure to a number of positive developmental outcomes. This article reviews the factors known to contribute to DHA status of women and their offspring during the reproductive cycle, relates maternal DHA status to that of the developing fetus and newborn, and reviews the evidence for functional differences in behavior related to DHA status, including the available evidence related to DHA supplementation of women pregnant and lactating and their offspring. Other outcomes for infants and children and for women themselves appear plausible and are also addressed as part of a research agenda for future work.
fatty acids, omega-3, PUFA, DHA, pregnancy, infant feeding, dietary supplementationhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19116324?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=4&log$=relatedreviews&logdbfrom=pubmedView this and related abstracts via PubMed here.
1306Cherniack et al 2009 - Some new food for thought: the role of vitamin D in the mental health of older adults.Some new food for thought: the role of vitamin D in the mental health of older adults.Some new food for thought: the role of vitamin D in the mental health of older adults.Cherniack EP, Troen BR, Florez HJ, Roos BA, Levis S01/02/2009Curr Psychiatry Rep. 11(1)12-9
Vitamin D, a multipurpose steroid hormone vital to health, has been increasingly implicated in the pathology of cognition and mental illness. Hypovitaminosis D is prevalent among older adults, and several studies suggest an association between hypovitaminosis D and basic and executive cognitive functions, depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Vitamin D activates receptors on neurons in regions implicated in the regulation of behavior, stimulates neurotrophin release, and protects the brain by buffering antioxidant and anti-inflammatory defenses against vascular injury and improving metabolic and cardiovascular function. Although additional studies are needed to examine the impact of supplementation on cognition and mood disorders, given the known health benefits of vitamin D, we recommend greater supplementation in older adults.
Vitamin D, Vit-D, depression, mental health, ageing, treatment, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19187703?ordinalpos=7&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1295Gow et al 2009 - Total red blood cell concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids are associated with emotion-elicited neural activity in adolescent boys with ADHD.Total red blood cell concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids are associated with emotion-elicited neural activity in adolescent boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Total red blood cell concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids are associated with emotion-elicited neural activity in adolescent boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.Gow RV, Matsudaira T, Taylor E, Rubia K, Crawford M, Ghebremeskel K, Ibrahimovic A, Vallée-Tourangeau F, Williams LM, Sumich A01/02/2009Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.80(2-3):151-6. Epub 2009 Feb 20
Affective impairment is observed in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Low levels of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), specifically omega-3 (omega-3) fatty acids in blood measures have been linked to a range of behavioural and mood disorders including ADHD. However, nothing is known about the relationship between omega-3 and brain function in children with ADHD.
In the current study, 20 adolescent boys with ADHD were assessed for total lipid fractions in red blood cells and their event-related potential (ERP) response to the presentation of facial expressions of happiness, sadness and fearfulness.
The results supported the hypothesis of a positive association between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and a cognitive bias in orientation to overt expressions of happiness over both sad and fearful faces as indexed by midline frontal P300 amplitude. Additional exploratory analyses revealed a positive association between levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the right temporal N170 amplitude in response to covert expressions of fear. The arachidonic (AA)/DHA ratio was negatively associated with the right temporal N170 amplitude also to covert expressions of fear.
These findings indicate that EPA and DHA may be involved in distinct aspects of affect processing in ADHD and have implications for understanding currently inconsistent findings in the literature on EFA supplementation in ADHD and depression.
omega-3, fatty acids, EPA, DHA, RBCFA, ADHD, experimental study, emotion processinghttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19230637?ordinalpos=6&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
3294Kirkpatrick et al 2009 - Differences in glucose tolerance between deficit and nondeficit schizophreniaDifferences in glucose tolerance between deficit and nondeficit schizophreniaDifferences in glucose tolerance between deficit and nondeficit schizophreniaKirkpatrick B, Fernandez-Egea E, Garcia-Rizo C, Bernardo M.01/02/2009Schizophr Res. 107(2-3)122-7. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2008.09.023. Epub 2008 Nov 28.
Some studies suggest that schizophrenia is associated with an increased risk of diabetes independently of antipsychotic use.
People with deficit schizophrenia, which is characterized by primary (or idiopathic), enduring negative symptoms, differ from those with nondeficit schizophrenia on course of illness, treatment response, risk factors, and biological correlates. We hypothesized that deficit and nondeficit subjects would also differ with regard to glucose tolerance.
Newly diagnosed, antipsychotic-naïve subjects with nonaffective psychosis and matched control subjects were administered a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (GTT). Two-hour glucose concentrations were significantly higher in the nondeficit patients (N=23; mean (SD) of 121.6 (42.0)) than in deficit (N=23; 100.2 (23.1)) and control subjects (N=59; 83.8 (21.9)); the deficit subjects also had significantly higher two-hour glucose concentrations than did the control subjects.
These results provide further support that the deficit group has a distinctive etiopathophysiology.
schizophrenia, glucose tolerance, positive and negative symptoms, human study, experimental study, case-control studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19046857View this and related articles via PubMed here. Free full text of this article is available online.
1627Kraft & Westman 2009 - Schizophrenia, gluten, and low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diets: a case report and review of the literatureSchizophrenia, gluten, and low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diets: a case report and review of the literatureSchizophrenia, gluten, and low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diets: a case report and review of the literature Kraft BD, Westman EC.01/02/2009Nutr Metab (Lond).6:10
We report the unexpected resolution of longstanding schizophrenic symptoms after starting a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet. After a review of the literature, possible reasons for this include the metabolic consequences from the elimination of gluten from the diet, and the modulation of the disease of schizophrenia at the cellular level.
schizophrenia, gluten, diet, treatment, case-study, review, Free Full texthttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19245705View this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text of this paper is available online
1867Lands 2009 - False profits and silent partners in health careFalse profits and silent partners in health careomega-3 and omega-6 balanceB Lands01/02/2009Nutr Health.20(2):79-89.
Traditional health care services have focused more on treatment of signs and symptoms of cardiovascular disease rather than on prevention of primary causal factors. This bias created a nation with increasing numbers of older people paying for increasing treatment costs. Treatment-oriented clinicians, drug companies and hospitals take a major proportion of ever-increasing health care dollars. Without prevention, American families gain little long-term relief from the highest health care treatment costs in the world. A lack of public accountability for valid surrogate endpoints continues to drain funds for treatments that do not remove underlying primary causes.
It seems unethical and uneconomical to withhold community-wide primary prevention advice and only attend to people with clinical signs of disease. Also, treatments that remove a sign or symptom without removing the primary cause unethically set a sense of improved health while leaving unchanged the cause to continue harming future generations. A good alternative would be long-term primary prevention that removes primary causal factors and prevents the onset of signs and symptoms of disease. Health insurance companies could be effective partners with corporate and individual subscribers by diverting resources toward preventing proved primary causes of disease.
A chain of molecular events that causally connects modifiable food choices to many health disorders has a measurable mediator: the proportions of omega-3 and omega-6 in tissue highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA). Health risk assessment can monitor the diet-based proportions of tissue HUFA which influence hundreds of vital physiologic events. Many financial losses will likely be decreased by primary prevention advice to choose foods that increase intakes of omega-3 fats, decrease intakes of omega-6 fats and include fewer calories per meal.
primary prevention, healthcare costs, omega-3, omega-6, omega36 balancehttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19835105View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1843O'Sullivan et al 2009 - A good-quality breakfast is associated with better mental health in adolescenceA good-quality breakfast is associated with better mental health in adolescenceA good-quality breakfast is associated with better mental health in adolescenceO'Sullivan TA, Robinson M, Kendall GE, Miller M, Jacoby P, Silburn SR, Oddy WH.01/02/2009Public Health Nutr.12(2):249-58. Epub 2008 Nov 25.
OBJECTIVE: Breakfast consumption has been associated with better mental health in adulthood, but the relationship between breakfast and mental health in adolescence is less well known. The aims of the present study were to evaluate breakfast quality in a cohort of adolescents and to investigate associations with mental health.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based study. Breakfast quality was assessed by intake of core food groups at breakfast, as determined from 3 d food diaries. Mental health was assessed using the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), with higher scores representing poorer behaviour.
SETTING: The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, Perth, Western Australia.
SUBJECTS: Eight hundred and thirty-six males and females aged between 13 and 15 years.
RESULTS: Mean mental health score as assessed by the CBCL was 45.24 (sd 11.29). A high-quality breakfast consisting of at least three food groups was consumed by 11 % of adolescents, while 7 % of adolescents did not consume any items from core food groups on average over the 3 d period. The two most common core food groups consumed at breakfast in this population were dairy products followed by breads and cereals. For every additional food group eaten at breakfast, the associated total mental health score decreased by 1.66 (95 % CI -2.74, -0.59) after adjustment for potential confounding factors, representing an improvement in mental health score.
CONCLUSION: These findings support the concept that breakfast quality is an important component in the complex interaction between lifestyle factors and mental health in early adolescence.
diet, breakfast, mental health, adolescents, human study, observational studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19026092View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1300Pan et al 2009 - Association between depressive symptoms and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in middle-aged and elderly Chinese.Association between depressive symptoms and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Association between depressive symptoms and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in middle-aged and elderly Chinese.Pan A, Lu L, Franco OH, Yu Z, Li H, Lin X01/02/2009J Affect Disord.Feb 25. [Epub ahead of print]
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is recently speculated to play a role in the development of depression. Nevertheless, few studies have explored the association between blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and depression in the general population. Therefore, we aimed to determine this association in middle-aged and elderly Chinese.
METHODS: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in 2005 in Beijing and Shanghai, China. Participants included 3262 community residents aged 50-70. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D) score of 16 or higher. Circulating 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay.
RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was lower in the top tertile of 25(OH)D concentrations compared to the lowest tertile (7.2% vs. 11.1%) in the study population (odds ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.46-0.83; P for trend=0.002). This association was substantially attenuated after controlling for various confounding factors, and disappeared after including geographic location in the model. Stratified analysis by location did not find any association between depressive symptoms and 25(OH)D levels among participants from either Beijing or Shanghai.
LIMITATIONS: Due to the cross-sectional study design, causal relation remains unknown.
CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms are not associated with 25(OH)D concentrations in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Further prospective studies are required to determine whether they are correlated.
depression, Vitamin D, Vit-D, population studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19249103?ordinalpos=3&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1342Zeisel 2009 - Is maternal diet supplementation beneficial? Optimal development of infant depends on mother's diet.Is maternal diet supplementation beneficial? Optimal development of infant depends on mother's diet.Is maternal diet supplementation beneficial? Optimal development of infant depends on mother's diet.Zeisel SH.01/02/2009 Am J Clin Nutr. 89(2)685S-7S. Epub 2008 Dec 30
There are periods during perinatal development in which specific nutrients are required for optimal development, and there is growing evidence that optimal dietary intake of these nutrients, which include iodine, docosahexaenoic acid, choline, and folate, is important. Lessons in how these nutrient effects were identified can help us to broaden our approaches for finding other critical nutrients: we are looking for nutrients for which there is a wide range of dietary intake, that have no or marginal pathways for biosynthesis, and that are needed by dividing progenitor cells. For some of the nutrients discussed, such as iodine and folate, the effects in humans are abundantly clear; for others, animal data are the most convincing. More human studies need to be conducted. We need a better understanding of diet and diet supplement intake during pregnancy and lactation and of whether diets are particularly low in some nutrients. Also, we need to understand how common genetic variations influence nutrient requirements during these periods. If we are going to supplement maternal and infant diets, first we must understand much more about the risks of having too much of a critical nutrient. Whatever the limitations of our current state of knowledge, it is apparent that pregnancy and lactation are periods during which good nutrition is exceptionally important. The infant is not protected from the inadequate diet of the mother.
omega-3, iodine, folate, choline, pregnancy, maternal diet, dietary supplementation, adequate dietary intake, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19116319?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=2&log$=relatedreviews&logdbfrom=pubmedView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1230The Top 100 Omega-3 Recipes by Penny Doyle and Audrey DeaneThe Top 100 Omega-3 Recipes by Penny Doyle and Audrey DeaneThe Top 100 Omega-3 Recipes by Penny Doyle and Audrey DeanePenny Doyle and Audrey Deane25/01/2009
Audrey Deane will be exhibiting at the forthcoming FAB Research conference in Brighton on 20th March 2009 - entitled 'Diet, Behaviour and The Junk Food Generation'. Copies of this super new book will be on sale on the day.
The Top 100 Omega-3 Recipes: Reduce Your Risk of Heart Disease, Keep Your Brain Active and Agile
This book has been written with the general public in mind and is the perfect combination of the benefits of omega-3 fats, along with 100 easy-to-follow recipes that will help everyone boost their intake. Penny Doyle is a Registered Dietitian and Audrey Deane is an experienced Food Professional.
122723 January 2009 - BBC News - Vitamin D 'is mental health aid'Vitamin D23/01/2009
Vitamin D, found in fish and produced by sun exposure, can help stave off the mental decline that can affect people in old age, a study has suggested.
UK and US researchers looked at 2,000 people aged 65 and over. They found that compared to those with the highest vitamin D levels, those with the lowest were more than twice as likely to have impaired understanding.
Alzheimer's charities said the research was interesting, but more work was needed to understand vitamin D's role. Vitamin D is important in maintaining bone health, in the absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in helping the immune system.
The body makes vitamin D when it is exposed to the sun, or it can be obtained from foods such as oily fish, and those fortified with vitamin D, such as milk, cereals, and soya drinks. But older people's skin is less able to absorb vitamin D from sunlight so they are more reliant on obtaining it from other sources.
Animal and lab studies have previously suggested that the vitamin can have a beneficial effect on cognitive function.
The team from the Peninsula Medical School in Exeter, the University of Cambridge and the University of Michigan, assessed people's cognition, or comprehension skills. People who have impaired cognitive function are more likely to develop dementia.
The researchers looked at people who had taken part in the Health Survey for England in 2000. Just over 200 had significant cognitive impairment, assessed by looking at people's attention, orientation in time and space and memory.
The study found that as levels of vitamin D went down, levels of cognitive impairment went up. The paper will appear in a forthcoming issue of the Journal of Geriatric Psychology and Neurology.
Dr Iain Lang from the Peninsula Medical School, who worked on the study, said: "For those of us who live in countries where there are dark winters without much sunlight, like the UK, getting enough vitamin D can be a real problem - particularly for older people, who absorb less vitamin D from sunlight.
"One way to address this might be to provide older adults with vitamin D supplements. This has been proposed in the past as a way of improving bone health in older people, but our results suggest it might also have other benefits.
"We need to investigate whether vitamin D supplementation is a cost-effective and low-risk way of reducing older people's risks of developing cognitive impairment and dementia."
Rebecca Wood, chief executive of the Alzheimer's Research Trust, said: "Many foods that contain vitamin D, such as oily fish, eggs and breakfast cereals, are also good sources of vitamin B12, which, as previous studies have shown, can help protect the brain.
"Diet is known to influence dementia risk. The best way of reducing your risk of developing dementia is to maintain a balanced diet with regular exercise and frequent social interactions."
She added: "These findings may be significant, but much more research is needed."
Dr Susanne Sorensen, head of research at the Alzheimer's Society, added: "One in three people over 65 will die with dementia so research into how we can reduce risk is to be encouraged.
"There was some previous evidence to suggest that people with dementia may have a lower level of vitamin D in their blood but it was not clear if this happened after the onset of disease. It would be interesting if a low level of vitamin D was found to be a risk factor for cognitive problems as it is cheap and easy to remedy.
"We look forward to seeing the published results of this new research to help us better understand the potential role of vitamin D in reducing risk."
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/7845703.stmView the BBC News item here_45405304_eldsun226.jpg
1663Leung & Kaplan 2009 - Perinatal depression: prevalence, risks, and the nutrition link - a review of the literature.Perinatal depression: prevalence, risks, and the nutrition link--a review of the literature. Perinatal depression: prevalence, risks, and the nutrition link--a review of the literature.
Leung BM, Kaplan BJ23/01/2009J Am Diet Assoc. 109(9):1566-75.
The purpose of this review is to examine the role of nutrition in perinatal depression. Perinatal (maternal) depression refers to major and minor episodes during pregnancy (termed antenatal) and/or within the first 12 months after delivery (termed postpartum or postnatal).
Prevalence of antenatal depression can be as high as 20%, while approximately 12% to 16% of women experience postpartum depression. These are probably conservative estimates, as cases of maternal depression are underreported or underdiagnosed. Risk factors for depression include genetic predisposition and environmental factors, as well as a number of social, psychological, and biological factors.
One biological factor given increasing consideration is inadequate nutrition. Credible links between nutrient deficiency and mood have been reported for folate, vitamin B-12, calcium, iron, selenium, zinc, and n-3 fatty acids. For maternal depression, the nutrient that has received the most attention from nutrition researchers has been the n-3 essential fatty acids. Numerous studies, such as randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, and ecological studies, have found a positive association between low n-3 levels and a higher incidence of maternal depression.
In addition, nutrient inadequacies in pregnant women who consume a typical western diet might be much more common than researchers and clinicians realize. A number of studies have reported inadequate intakes of n-3, folate, B vitamins, iron, and calcium in pregnant women. Depletion of nutrient reserves throughout pregnancy can increase a woman's risk for maternal depression.
depression, pregnancy, perinatal depression, post-natal depression, nutrition, diet, micronutrients, human study, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19699836View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1314Clayton et al 2009 - Reduced mania and depression in juvenile bipolar disorder associated with long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementationReduced mania and depression in juvenile bipolar disorder associated with long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementationReduced mania and depression in juvenile bipolar disorder associated with long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementationClayton EH, Hanstock TL, Hirneth SJ, Kable CJ, Garg ML, Hazell PL21/01/2009Eur J Clin Nutr.Jan 21. [Epub ahead of print]
Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCn-3PUFA) supplementation may improve symptoms of depression in children and bipolar disorder (BD) in adults. No studies have examined the effectiveness of LCn-3PUFA supplementation in the treatment of mania and depression in juvenile BD (JBD) when given as an adjunct to standard pharmacological treatment. Eighteen children and adolescents with JBD received supplements containing 360 mg per day eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 1560 mg per day docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for 6 weeks in an open-label study. Intake and fasting red blood cell (RBC) LCn-3PUFA, mania, depression and global function were assessed before and after supplementation. RBC EPA and DHA were significantly higher following supplementation. Clinician ratings of mania and depression were significantly lower and global functioning significantly higher after supplementation. Parent ratings of internalizing and externalizing behaviours were also significantly lower following supplementation. A larger randomized controlled trial appears warranted in this participant population.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 21 January 2009; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2008.81.
fatty acids, omega-3, PUFA, bipolar disorder, treatment, open-label studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19156158?ordinalpos=3&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1772Turner et al 2009 - Omega 3 fatty acids (fish oil) for maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease.Omega 3 fatty acids (fish oil) for maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease.Omega 3 fatty acids (fish oil) for maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease.Turner D, Zlotkin SH, Shah PS, Griffiths AM.21/01/2009Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Jan 21;(1):CD006320.
BACKGROUND: The anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 (omega-3 fatty acids, fish oil) have been suggested to be beneficial in chronic inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease.
OBJECTIVES:To systematically review the efficacy and safety of n-3 for maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease (CD).
SEARCH STRATEGY: The following databases were searched from their inception without language restriction: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Healthstar, PubMed, and ACP journal club. Experts were contacted for unpublished data.
SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCT) of n-3 for maintenance of remission in CD were included. Studies must have enrolled patients of any age group, who were in remission at the time of recruitment, and were followed for at least six months. The intervention must have been fish oil or n-3 given in pre-defined dosage. Co-interventions were allowed only if they were balanced between the study groups. The primary outcome was the relapse rate and secondary outcomes included change in disease activity scores, time to first relapse and adverse events.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two independent investigators reviewed studies for eligibility, extracted the data and assessed study quality using Jadad's criteria. Meta-analyses were performed using RevMan 4.2 software weighted by the Mantel-Haenszel method. Random or fixed effect models were used according to degree of heterogeneity and subgroup analyses were performed in an attempt to explore possible sources of heterogeneity.
MAIN RESULTS:Six studies were eligible for inclusion. There was a marginal significant benefit of n-3 therapy for maintaining remission (RR 0.77 0.; 95%CI 0.61 to 0.98; P = 0.03). However, the studies were both clinically and statistically heterogeneous (P = 0.03, I(2) = 58%). Two large studies showed negative results. When considering the estimated rather than the observed 1-year relapse rate of these two studies, the benefit was no longer statistically significant (RR 0.59; 95% CI 0.34 to 1.03; P=0.06). A funnel plot suggested publication bias. No serious adverse events were recorded in any of the studies but in a pooled analyses there was a significantly higher rate of diarrhea (RR 1.36 95% CI 1.01 to 1.84) and symptoms of the upper gastrointestinal tract (RR 1.98 95% CI 1.38 to 2.85) in the n-3 treatment group.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Omega 3 fatty acids are safe but probably ineffective for maintenance of remission in CD. The existing data do not support routine maintenance treatment of Crohn's disease with omega 3 fatty acids.
Crohn's disease, treatment, omega-3, systematic reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19160277View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1584Makrides et al 2009 - Neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants fed high-dose DHA: a randomized controlled trial.Neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants fed high-dose docosahexaenoic acid: a randomized controlled trial.Neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants fed high-dose docosahexaenoic acid: a randomized controlled trial.
Makrides M, Gibson RA, McPhee AJ, Collins CT, Davis PG, Doyle LW, Simmer K, Colditz PB, Morris S, Smithers LG, Willson K, Ryan P.14/01/2009JAMA301(2)175-82
CONTEXT: Uncertainty exists about the benefit of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the neurodevelopment of preterm infants.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of meeting the estimated DHA requirement of preterm infants on neurodevelopment at 18 months' corrected age.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized, double-blind controlled trial enrolling infants born at less than 33 weeks' gestation from April 2001 to October 2005 at 5 Australian tertiary hospitals, with follow-up to 18 months.
INTERVENTION: High-DHA (approximately 1% total fatty acids) enteral feeds compared with standard DHA (approximately 0.3% total fatty acids) from day 2 to 4 of life until term corrected age.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Bayley Mental Development Index (MDI) at 18 months' corrected age. A priori subgroup analyses were conducted based on randomization strata (sex and birth weight < 1250 g vs > or = 1250 g).
RESULTS: Of the 657 infants enrolled, 93.5% completed the 18-month follow-up. Bayley MDI scores did not differ between the high- and standard-DHA groups (mean difference, 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), -1.0 to 4.7). The MDI among girls fed the high-DHA diet was higher than girls fed standard DHA in unadjusted and adjusted analyses (unadjusted mean difference, 4.7; 95% CI, 0.5-8.8; adjusted mean difference, 4.5; 95% CI, 0.5-8.5). The MDI among boys did not differ between groups. For infants born weighing less than 1250 g, the MDI in the high-DHA group was higher than with standard DHA in the unadjusted comparison (mean difference, 4.7; 95% CI, 0.2-9.2) but did not reach statistical significance following adjustment for gestational age, sex, maternal education, and birth order (mean difference, 3.8; 95% CI, -0.5 to 8.0). The MDI among infants born weighing at least 1250 g did not differ between groups.
CONCLUSION: A DHA dose of approximately 1% total fatty acids in early life did not increase MDI scores of preterm infants overall born earlier than 33 weeks but did improve the MDI scores of girls
1333Berr et al 2009 - Increased selenium intake in elderly high fish consumers may account for health benefits previously ascribed to omega-3 fatty acids.Increased selenium intake in elderly high fish consumers may account for health benefits previously ascribed to omega-3 fatty acids.Increased selenium intake in elderly high fish consumers may account for health benefits previously ascribed to omega-3 fatty acids.Berr C, Akbaraly T, Arnaud J, Hininger I, Roussel AM, Barberger Gateau P01/01/2009J Nutr Health Aging. 13(1)14-8
OBJECTIVE: To examine relationships between fish consumption and plasma selenium (Se) and red blood-cell fatty acid (RBC FA) profile in aged subjects. We hypothesised that the importance of Se has been underestimated when interpreting the beneficial effect of fish consumption on health.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of data from a prospective cohort study.
SETTING: The EVA study in Nantes, France (1991-2002).
SUBJECTS: 200 subjects aged > or = 69 y with information on RBC FAs, plasma Se and completed food frequency questionnaires.
METHODS: We examined correlations between the most abundant FAs, Se and number of fish meals per week. Linear regression models were used.
RESULTS: Plasma Se was negatively correlated with RBC omega6 poly-unsaturated FA (PUFAs) and positively with omega3 PUFAs. Plasma Se, RBC omega3 PUFAs, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) increased with fish consumption. Conversely, levels of omega6 PUFAs were lower in the highest fish consumption group. All associations between plasma Se and fish consumption remained significant when adjusting for omega6 PUFAs alone or additionally for age, sex, education, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular diseases, and broad food categories (meat, eggs, dairy products, cereals, fruit and vegetable). Associations between omega3 PUFAs and fish also remained significant in the same model independently of Se. In linear regression models adjusted for demographic indicators, fish consumption explained only 2.6% of the variance in RBC omega3 FAs (6.2% for omega6) but as much as 15% of the variance in plasma selenium.
CONCLUSIONS: The observed health benefits of fish consumption in the elderly could be related not only to the increase in omega3 FA intake but also to other nutrients such as selenium. It is important to consider this observation when interpreting associations between fish consumption and health status in the elderly, particularly with regard to brain function.
fish, diet, selenium, omega-3, ageing, human study, adults, cross-sectional study, blood fatty acids, RBCFA, plasma seleniumhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19151902?ordinalpos=9&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1321Bowman et al 2009 - Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) and rates of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's diseaseAscorbic acid and rates of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease Ascorbic acid and rates of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's diseaseBowman GL, Dodge H, Frei B, Calabrese C, Oken BS, Kaye JA, Quinn JF.01/01/2009J Alzheimers Dis.16(1):.93-8
The brain maintains high levels of ascorbic acid (AscA) despite a concentration gradient favoring diffusion from brain to peripheral tissues. Dietary antioxidants, including AscA, appear to modify the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD).
The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that neurodegeneration in AD is modified by brain levels of AscA. Thirty-two patients with mild to moderate AD participated in a biomarker study involving standardized clinical assessments over one year. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum were collected at baseline for AscA and albumin content. Cognitive measures were collected at baseline and one year.
CSF and plasma AscA failed to predict cognitive decline independently, however, CSF: plasma AscA ratio did. After adding CSF Albumin Index (an established marker of blood-brain barrier integrity) to the regression models the effect of CSF: plasma AscA ratio as a predictor of cognitive decline was weakened.
CSF: plasma AscA ratio predicts rate of decline in AD. This relationship may indicate that the CSF: plasma AscA ratio is an index of AscA availability to the brain or may be an artifact of a relationship between blood-brain barrier impairment and neurodegeneration.
Vitamin C, Vit_C, ascorbic acid, blood-brain barrier, Alzheimer's disease, mechanisms, clinical study, humanhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19158425?ordinalpos=16&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1698Pelsser et al 2009 - A randomised controlled trial into the effects of food on ADHD.A randomised controlled trial into the effects of food on ADHD.A randomised controlled trial into the effects of food on ADHD.
Pelsser LM, Frankena K, Toorman J, Savelkoul HF, Pereira RR, Buitelaar JK.01/01/2009Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 18(1):12-9. Epub 2008 Apr 21.
The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of a restricted elimination diet in reducing symptoms in an unselected group of children with Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Dietary studies have already shown evidence of efficacy in selected subgroups.
Twenty-seven children (mean age 6.2) who all met the DSM-IV criteria for ADHD, were assigned randomly to either an intervention group (15/27) or a waiting-list control group (12/27). Primary endpoint was the clinical response, i.e. a decrease in the symptom scores by 50% or more, at week 9 based on parent and teacher ratings on the abbreviated ten-item Conners Scale and the ADHD-DSM-IV Rating Scale.
The intention-to-treat analysis showed that the number of clinical responders in the intervention group was significantly larger than that in the control group
parent ratings 11/15 (73%) versus 0/12 (0%); teacher ratings, 7/10 (70%) versus 0/7 (0%)
. The Number of ADHD criteria on the ADHD Rating Scale showed an effect size of 2.1 (cohen's d) and a scale reduction of 69.4%. Comorbid symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder also showed a significantly greater decrease in the intervention group than it did in the control group (cohens's d 1.1, scale reduction 45.3%).
A strictly supervised elimination diet may be a valuable instrument in testing young children with ADHD on whether dietary factors may contribute to the manifestation of the disorder and may have a beneficial effect on the children's behaviour.
ADHD, diet, elimination diet, food allergy, food intolerance, intervention, human study, children, randomised controlled trial, RCThttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18431534View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
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