1155May 2007 - The Vitamin D Council - Autism and Vitamin DAutism and Vitamin D28/05/2007John Cannell MD
Vitamin D Theory of Autism
In addition to the current epidemic of vitamin D deficiency, say another epidemic-an epidemic of autism-was upon our children? What if the autism epidemic began at the same time the epidemic of vitamin D deficiency began? What if both epidemics had worsened in unison? What if one theory explained all the unexplained facts about autism? What if both epidemics had the same root cause: sun avoidance? What if both were iatrogenic, that is, medical advice to avoid the sun had caused both epidemics? Be warned, what follows is not light reading-autism is not a light disease.
Does The Vitamin D Theory Best Explain Autism?
The theory that vitamin D deficiency, during pregnancy or childhood, causes autism is just a theory. However, the theory has a plausible mechanism of action, explains all the unexplained facts about autism, subsumes several other theories, implies simple prevention, and is easily disprovable-all components of a useful theory. A genetic lesion (abnormality) in some component of the vitamin D system-a lesion vitamin D's unique pharmacology could overcome-would explain why monozygotic (identical) twins are highly affected while fraternal twins are not. Varying brain levels of activated vitamin D during later life would explain why some identical twins get severe disease while others are barely affected. Falling vitamin D levels over the last 20 years due to sun-avoidance explain autism's rapid increase in incidence during that same time. The very different effects estrogen and testosterone have on vitamin D metabolism may explain why boys are much more likely to get it than girls are. Lower vitamin D levels in blacks may explain their higher rates of autism. The vitamin D theory has tenable explanations for all the epidemiological features of autism.
What is the risk of going in the sun?
The window of opportunity to affect brain development is limited. Time is of the essence if the vitamin D theory of autism is correct. Ask yourself, what is the risk of taking your autistic child outside to play in the sun? What's the risk of pregnant women sunbathing for a few minutes every day? Children always played in the sun before the epidemic of autism; your pregnant grandmother spent time in the sun as well. Physicians considered that sunshine was healthy before the sun scare, that is, before autism became an epidemic.
What Is Autism?
What are the five unexplained features of autism?
Are autism rates increasing?
The Vitamin D Connection
Predisposition-what gene should we be looking for?
Two clues: rare genetic malformations of the vitamin D system
What is the role of the vitamin D receptor in autism?
The Role of Sunlight
Vitamin D intake-are children and pregnant women getting as much as they used to?
When did health authorities recommend sun-avoidance?
Did authorities recommend compensatory vitamin D intakes?
Have vitamin D levels fallen as autism has increased?
About Vitamin D
How is vitamin D unique?
Does human behavior determine vitamin D levels?
Vitamin D and the Brain
Is vitamin D required for normal brain development?
Does maternal vitamin D deficiency injure the developing brain?
Is autism an ongoing destructive inflammatory disease process?
Do brains function better with higher vitamin D?
Does vitamin D explain the role of vaccines, mercury, and heavy metals?
Vitamin D Deficiency's Role In Autism
Do children with common rickets show signs of autism?
Does vitamin D explain autism's frequent infections?
Drugs that interfere with vitamin D metabolism-do they cause autism?
Does vitamin D explain seizures, which are common in autism?
Vitamin D Explains Autism
Why are boys at higher risk?
Does vitamin D-rich fish prevent autism?
Is autism less common at the equator?
Sunscreen-does it increase risk?
Why do children first develop signs around the age of weaning?
Evidence Autism Responds To Sunlight and Vitamin D
Do vitamin D-containing multivitamins help children's brains?
Does autism improve in the summer?
Can autistic children ever get better?
The Black Community: A Tragic Injustice
Is autism more common in dark-skinned people?
Do blacks have a higher risk of pregnancy problems?
Are black, pregnant women more likely to be vitamin D deficient?
Are black children at a disadvantage, right from conception?
What Should We Do Right Now?
I prefer to avoid sunlight, what should I do?
How much vitamin D should I take?
Is Autism Iatrogenic?
This thought-provoking article appeared in the May newsletter of the Vitamin D Council. It can be read in full on their website (or downloaded as a text document with the relevant references) so only the first few sections and the outline structure of the article are provided here.
We already know that 'autism' is not a single disorder, and that the risk factors for autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and related neurodevelopmental conditions are both genetic and environmental.
In this article, John Cannell presents a very strong case that deficiencies of Vitamin D - the 'sunshine vitamin' - in early life may be one of the key environmental factors involved.
Vitamin D deficiency has become widespread in developed countries, and increasing evidence shows that it can affect mental as well as physical health. Although the formal studies needed to test this theory will take years, it deserves to be taken seriously. And as Dr Cannell points out, there are no risks - and many potential benefits - from ensuring that everyone has adequate Vitamin D levels in any case.
What's more, the best form of 'treatment' for Vitamin D deficiency - i.e. exposure to adequate sunlight on the skin - is free. (But could that be why funding for research in this area is not very forthcoming?)
http://www.vitamindcouncil.com/health/autism/Read the full article on the Vitamin D Council website here
112027 May 2007 - The Independent - Caution: Some Drinks May Seriously Harm Your Healthadditives; fizzy drinks; drinks; E211; sodium benzoateExpert links additive to cell damage27/05/2007Martin Hickman
A new health scare erupted over soft drinks last night amid evidence they may cause serious cell damage. Research from a British university suggests a common preservative found in drinks such as Fanta and Pepsi Max has the ability to switch off vital parts of DNA.
The problem - more usually associated with ageing and alcohol abuse - can eventually lead to cirrhosis of the liver and degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's.
The findings could have serious consequences for the hundreds of millions of people worldwide who consume fizzy drinks. They will also intensify the controversy about food additives, which have been linked to hyperactivity in children.
Concerns centre on the safety of E211, known as sodium benzoate, a preservative used for decades by the £74bn global carbonated drinks industry. Sodium benzoate derives from benzoic acid. It occurs naturally in berries, but is used in large quantities to prevent mould in soft drinks such as Sprite, Oasis and Dr Pepper. It is also added to pickles and sauces.
Sodium benzoate has already been the subject of concern about cancer because when mixed with the additive vitamin C in soft drinks, it causes benzene, a carcinogenic substance. A Food Standards Agency survey of benzene in drinks last year found high levels in four brands which were removed from sale.
Now, an expert in ageing at Sheffield University, who has been working on sodium benzoate since publishing a research paper in 1999, has decided to speak out about another danger. Professor Peter Piper, a professor of molecular biology and biotechnology, tested the impact of sodium benzoate on living yeast cells in his laboratory. What he found alarmed him: the benzoate was damaging an important area of DNA in the "power station" of cells known as the mitochondria.
He told The Independent on Sunday: "These chemicals have the ability to cause severe damage to DNA in the mitochondria to the point that they totally inactivate it: they knock it out altogether.
"The mitochondria consumes the oxygen to give you energy and if you damage it - as happens in a number if diseased states - then the cell starts to malfunction very seriously. And there is a whole array of diseases that are now being tied to damage to this DNA - Parkinson's and quite a lot of neuro-degenerative diseases, but above all the whole process of ageing."
The Food Standards Agency (FSA) backs the use of sodium benzoate in the UK and it has been approved by the European Union but last night, MPs called for it to investigate urgently.
Norman Baker, the Liberal Democrat chair of Parliament's all-party environment group said: "Many additives are relatively new and their long-term impact cannot be certain. This preservative clearly needs to be investigated further by the FSA."
A review of sodium benzoate by the World Health Organisation in 2000 concluded that it was safe, but it noted that the available science supporting its safety was "limited".
Professor Piper, whose work has been funded by a government research council, said tests conducted by the US Food and Drug Administration were out of date.
"The food industry will say these compounds have been tested and they are complete safe," he said. "By the criteria of modern safety testing, the safety tests were inadequate. Like all things, safety testing moves forward and you can conduct a much more rigorous safety test than you could 50 years ago."
He advised parents to think carefully about buying drinks with preservatives until the quantities in products were proved safe by new tests. "My concern is for children who are drinking large amounts," he said.
Coca-Cola and Britvic's Pepsi Max and Diet Pepsi all contain sodium benzoate. Their makers and the British Soft Drinks Association said they entrusted the safety of additives to the Government.
http://news.independent.co.uk/health/article2586652.eceRead the article in The Independent herecokeDM2705_228x337.jpg
1911Okie 2007 - New York to trans fats: you're out!New York to trans fats: you're out!New York to trans fats: you're out!
Okie S.17/05/2007N Engl J Med. 356(20):2017-21.
This article has no abstract, but the introductory paragraph is reproduced here. Free full text of this article is available from the New England Journal of Medicine website here.
Ferrara Café in Manhattan's Little Italy is a century-old bakery steeped in tradition, but executive pastry chef Dennis Canciello has recently been tinkering with the recipes of two of the café's signature pastries: cheesecake and cannoli. Like other cooks in the city's restaurants, bakeries, and fast-food outlets, Canciello faces an impending deadline for conforming to an unusual mandate from the New York City Board of Health. Beginning July 1, 2007, most foods prepared in the city's 22,000 restaurants will no longer be permitted to contain more than half a gram per serving of artificial trans fats — a type of fat, found chiefly in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils used for frying and baking, in shortenings, and in margarines, that has more unhealthy effects on blood lipids than any other kind.
Bakers, as well as purveyors of deep-fried cake or dough products such as doughnuts, for whom finding a suitable alternative is particularly challenging, have until July 1, 2008, to stop using such ingredients. Faced with predictions that banishing artificial trans fats from restaurant foods would reduce the rate of heart attacks and save the lives of several hundred New Yorkers annually, the powerful board of health voted unanimously last December to eliminate what health commissioner Thomas Frieden calls a “hazardous substance” from the city's cuisine.
“The sweet spot of public health,” Frieden told me, “is when you do something that makes the default setting a healthy choice.”
trans fats, dietary fat, fatty acids, diet, regulation, free full texthttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17507699View this and related articles via PubMed here. Free full text of this article is available online.
112416 May 2007 - FSAI - Irish authorities recommend Vitamin D supplementation for all infantsFSAI Advises on National Policy for Vitamin D Supplementation for Infants, Vit-DFSAI Advises on National Policy for Vitamin D Supplementation for Infants16/05/2007
The Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) today published a report recommending the implementation of a national policy of vitamin D supplementation in all infants aged 0-12 months in Ireland. This recommendation follows a review undertaken by the FSAI's Scientific Committee which highlights the re-emergence of rickets in infants in Ireland, a medical condition caused by severe vitamin D deficiency. The report, entitled Recommendations for a National Policy of Vitamin D Supplementation for Infants in Ireland, identifies poor vitamin D status amongst infants, adults, adolescent girls and pregnant women living in Ireland. It recommends a Government policy of vitamin D supplementation for infants aged 0-12 months living in Ireland.
Infancy is a crucial period for the prevention of rickets, as it is the most rapid period of growth and development experienced by humans. The report recommends vitamin D supplementation during infancy to ensure healthy bone development and to prevent rickets. This is particularly important for dark skinned infants who are at the highest risk of vitamin D deficiency. According to the FSAI's report, as many as 23 cases of rickets were reported in recent years at two Dublin-based paediatric hospitals. As rickets is the most extreme consequence of vitamin D deficiency, the FSAI expects the incidence of deficiency in Ireland is underestimated.
Vitamin D is involved in calcium metabolism and is necessary for good bone health. Sunlight is the primary source of vitamin D, with the body producing this vitamin as a result of the action of sunlight on the skin. However, Ireland's northerly latitude means that vitamin D production from sunlight is severely compromised particularly during the winter months of October to March. Other countries at a similar latitude to Ireland, for example Canada and the UK, have identified this problem and have long since adopted a policy of vitamin D supplementation and/or fortification policies to tackle vitamin D inadequacy.
Vitamin D is found only in a limited number of foods such as oily fish, egg yolk and liver and as such, dietary intakes have had little impact on overall vitamin D status. This has a significant impact on infants as they must not be exposed to the sun and their diets do not contain foods rich in vitamin D. In addition, infants depend on their mothers vitamin D stores (typically inadequate in Ireland) of which they inherit 50-60% at birth. Regardless of whether a baby is breastfed, partially breastfed or fed infant formula during the first year of life, infants are at risk of having insufficient vitamin D stores. The FSAI reiterated its advocacy of breastfeeding, as human milk uniquely protects infant health through many constituents that cannot be replicated in infant formula. Breast milk with a supplement of vitamin D provides the optimal level of nutrients required by infants in the early stages of life and is known to bestow lifelong health benefits.
The report also notes that before a policy of supplementing all infants with vitamin D can commence in Ireland, a new supplement containing only vitamin D needs to be made available. The only currently available supplement for infants in Ireland, Abidec*, also contains vitamin A, which when combined with infant formula, exceeds the safe upper limit of vitamin A. Once available, this new vitamin D supplement should be accessible to all infants aged 0-12 months.
According to Dr Mary Flynn, Chief Specialist in Public Health Nutrition, FSAI, recent studies show that most people in Ireland are not eating enough of the foods naturally rich in vitamin D or of foods fortified with the vitamin.
"It is evident that low intakes of vitamin D are prevalent among all age groups throughout Ireland and that the recommended daily intake of 5µg of vitamin D per day is not being met. Babies are most susceptible to developing the bone deformities associated with rickets because of the rapid growth and development that occurs during the first year of life and the likelihood of having insufficient stores of vitamin D to meet their needs. It is therefore necessary to adopt a clear, simple and safe recommendation. We conclude that all infants aged 0-12 months living in Ireland would benefit from vitamin D supplementation."
Dr Flynn added the Scientific Committee suggests that strategies should also be put in place to increase vitamin D intake in different age groups of the population in Ireland.
11118 May 2007 - The Guardian - New fears over additives in children's foodArtificial food colourings, food additives and behaviour, ADHDPotential link to behaviour problems prompts advice to parents over diet08/05/2007Felicity Lawrence
The Guardian - New fears over additives in children's food by Felicity Lawrence.
Potential link to behaviour problems prompts advice to parents over diet
Food safety experts have advised parents to eliminate a series of additives from their children's diet while they await the publication of a new study that is understood to link these ingredients to behaviour problems in youngsters.
The latest scientific research into the effect of food additives on children's behaviour is thought to raise fresh doubts about the safety of controversial food colourings and a preservative widely used in sweets, drinks and processed foods in the UK. But the Guardian has learned that it will be several months before the results are published, despite the importance of the findings for children's health.
Researchers at Southampton University have tested combinations of synthetic colourings and preservative that an average child might consume in a day to measure what effect they had on behaviour. A source at the university told the food industry's magazine the Grocer last week that their results supported findings first made seven years ago that linked the additives to behavioural problems, such as temper tantrums, poor concentration and hyperactivity, and to allergic reactions.
Both studies were conducted for the Food Standards Agency.
The latest results were considered by the FSA's Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food (CoT) in a closed meeting on March 20. The CoT, whose meetings are usually open, noted "the public health importance of the findings", but the results will not be released to the public or acted on until they have been published in a scientific journal, a process that will take several months.
The FSA and Professor Jim Stevenson, who led the project, said they could not discuss the results before then. It took the CoT more than two years to release its views on the earlier research because it was waiting for publication in a scientific journal. Independent experts say that consumers should consider removing these additives from their children's diets now. The colours, tested on both three-year-olds and eight-to-nine year olds in the new study, were tartrazine (E102), ponceau 4R (E124), sunset yellow (E110), carmoisine (E122), quinoline yellow (E104) and allura red AC (E129). The preservative tested was sodium benzoate (E211).
Although these additives are widely used in the UK and are approved as safe and legal by the EU, some of the colours are banned in Scandinavian countries and the US. Campaign groups such as the Hyperactive Children's Support Group have argued for years that children's behaviour is improved by removing artifical colourings and other additives from their diets.
Vyvyan Howard, professor of bio-imaging at Ulster University and one of the experts on FSA's additives and behaviour working group, said it was important that the new research was published in a scientific journal but that consumers had a choice. "It is biologically plausible that there could be an effect from these additives. While you are waiting for the results to come out you can choose not to expose your children to these substances. These compounds have no nutritonal value and I personally do not feed these sorts of foods to my 15-month-old daughter."
Another member of the working group, Dr Alex Richardson, the director of Food and Behaviour Research and senior research scientist at Oxford University, said: "There are well-documented potential risks from these additives. In my view the researchers had done an excellent piece of work first time round and there was enough evidence to act. If this new study essentially replicates that, what more evidence do they need to remove these additives from children's food and drink?"
The FSA has been considering the safety of these additives since 2000, when it received the results of the first trial known as the Isle of Wight study. That research concluded that "significant changes in children's behaviour could be produced by the removal of colourings and additives from their diet (and) benefit would accrue for all children from such a change and not just for those already showing hyperactive behaviour or who are at risk of allergic reactions."
The CoT, however, decided in 2002 that this study was inconclusive - although parents, who did not know whether their children were on a placebo or not, observed significant behavioural changes in those given the additives, other observers did not find the same changes when children were assessed in a clinic using computer games to measure inattention. So the FSA set up the new study to provide conclusive evidence, with a working group of independent experts giving advice on how best to design it.
If the findings of the new research do confirm the Isle of Wight work, "the implications would be enormous", said Tim Lang, professor of food policy at City University, in London. "The stakes are very high; these are additives that children have been exposed to for years. I can understand the FSA wanting to be sure no one can accuse it of breaking scientific protocols but these findings need to come out quickly," he added.
A spokeswoman for the FSA said the agency was "committed to handling science in the proper scientific way" and hoped the findings would be published in a matter of months. She added that all the additives involved "are approved for use in the EU and are safe".
By Dr Alex Richardson
Fears over additives and child behaviour are certainly not new. Nor is any actual new evidence available until the results from this trial are made known!
The FSA is to be applauded for commissioning this latest research (and their earlier study), but officials there are saying nothing until the findings have been endorsed by full publication in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. Under the circumstances, the scientists involved can't be blamed for keeping very quiet too.
But the peer review and publication process can be a lengthy one (it was 2 years for the last such study). Many people understandably want the answers now, on what is widely seen as an important public health issue.
Existing evidence from properly controlled trials already shows that certain artificial food colourings (AFCs) can worsen children's behaviour. See
Concerns have also been raised about the inadequacy of official 'safety testing' of food additives - which (a) doesn't consider mental health and performance, and (b) can't take into account possible 'synergistic' effects from combinations of additives.
These and many other issues - with the scientific evidence as well as practical information for parents and professionals - are discussed in detail in They Are What You Feed Them (all author royalties dedicated to FAB Research). Please read this first if you have enquiries.
My personal view is in line with the one attributed below to Professor Vyvyan Howard, a developmental toxicopathologist with extensive experience in this area. For me, any ingredients with absolutely no known benefits to consumers, and some demonstrated risks, are obvious ones to avoid. In this, fears about artificial food colourings differ completely from many other fears about food that the media loves to report on - such as possible pesticide residues on some fruits and vegetables, or possible contaminants in some fish and seafood.
In both these cases, evidence indicates that the clear nutritional benefits of those foods far outweigh any potential (and largely theoretical) risks from contamination.
For artificial food colourings - there really are no positives. So if any risks have been demonstrated in well-conducted studies, it surely makes sense to avoid them as far as possible, particularly if you already suspect that your child reacts badly to these additives.
For more information on the additives themselves and how to avoid them, visit the website of the Food Commission
http://www.guardian.co.uk/food/Story/0,,2074346,00.htmlRead the article in The Guardian herea pile of crisps.jpg
1791Aggarwal et al 2007 - Curcumin: the Indian solid gold.Curcumin: the Indian solid gold.Curcumin: the Indian solid gold.Aggarwal BB, Sundaram C, Malani N, Ichikawa H.01/05/2007Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;595:1-75.
Turmeric, derived from the plant Curcuma longa, is a gold-colored spice commonly used in the Indian subcontinent, not only for health care but also for the preservation of food and as a yellow dye for textiles. Curcumin, which gives the yellow color to turmeric, was first isolated almost two centuries ago, and its structure as diferuloylmethane was determined in 1910.
Since the time of Ayurveda (1900 Bc) numerous therapeutic activities have been assigned to turmeric for a wide variety of diseases and conditions, including those of the skin, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal systems, aches, pains, wounds, sprains, and liver disorders. Extensive research within the last half century has proven that most of these activities, once associated with turmeric, are due to curcumin.
Curcumin has been shown to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities and thus has a potential against various malignant diseases, diabetes, allergies, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and other chronic illnesses.
These effects are mediated through the regulation of various transcription factors, growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, protein kinases, and other enzymes. Curcumin exhibits activities similar to recently discovered tumor necrosis factor blockers (e.g., HUMIRA, REMICADE, and ENBREL), a vascular endothelial cell growth factor blocker (e.g., AVASTIN), human epidermal growth factor receptor blockers (e.g., ERBITUX, ERLOTINIB, and GEFTINIB), and a HER2 blocker (e.g., HERCEPTIN).
Considering the recent scientific bandwagon that multitargeted therapy is better than monotargeted therapy for most diseases, curcumin can be considered an ideal "Spice for Life".
Herbs and spices, turmeric, curcumin, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, human studies, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17569205View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review assesses the current status of the knowledge of the role of nutrition in age-related macular degeneration - a leading cause of vision loss in the persons with European ancestry. RECENT FINDINGS: We will evaluate the different nutritional factors and both observational and interventional studies used to assess the association of nutrition with age-related macular degeneration. Persons with intermediate risk of age-related macular degeneration or advanced age-related macular degeneration in one eye are recommended to take the formulation proven in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) to be successful in preventing the development of advanced age-related macular degeneration by 25%. The formulation consists of vitamins C, E, beta-carotene and zinc. In addition, observational data suggest that high dietary intake of macular xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin are associated with a lower risk of advanced age-related macular degeneration. Similarly, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from fish consumption are also associated with a decreased risk of advanced age-related macular degeneration. SUMMARY: Persons with intermediate age-related macular degeneration or advanced age-related macular degeneration (neovascular or central geographic atrophy) in one eye should consider taking the AREDS-type supplements. Further evaluation of nutritional factors, specifically, lutein/zeaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acids will be tested in a multicenter controlled, randomized trial - the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2).
Vision, age-related macular degeneration, AMD, ageing, diet, nutrition, supplementationhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17435429?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=5&log$=relatedreviews&logdbfrom=pubmedView this abstract via PubMed here
1738Cotter & O'Keeffe 2007 - Improvement in neuroleptic-induced akathisia with intravenous iron treatment in a patient with iron deficiencyImprovement in neuroleptic-induced akathisia with intravenous iron treatment in a patient with iron deficiencyImprovement in neuroleptic-induced akathisia with intravenous iron treatment in a patient with iron deficiencyCotter PE, O'Keeffe ST.01/05/2007J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 78(5):548.
This article has no abstract, but free full text is available online. The first paragraph only is provided here.
Iron deficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of drug-induced akathisia, but the evidence is conflicting.1,2,3 There have been no reports of the effect of iron treatment in this condition. We report the case of a patient with iron deficiency whose akathisia had not responded to standard interventions but did respond dramatically to intravenous iron treatment.
schizophrenia, iron deficiency, akathisia, drug side-effects, treatment, supplementation, case study, free full texthttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17435196View this citation and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free Full Text of this article is available online
JustParents is a community site for mums and dads to meet, share tips and advice on parenting and pregnancy, and socialise within a fun, friendly and safe environment.
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Our friendly community of mums and dads offers help and support in looking after your baby or child, parenting and pregnancy advice. We have the friendliest parenting forums around, and you can start your own parenting blog to share your experiences as a parent!
http://www.justparents.co.uk/Visit the JustParents website herejustparents.jpgJustParents
104820-21 April, 2007 - Budapest, Hungary. Early Nutrition Programming and Health Outcomes in Later Life: Obesity and Beyond. EARNEST Budapest, Hungary. Early Nutrition Programming and Health Outcomes in Later Life: Obesity and Beyond. Early Nutrition Programming Project (EARNEST) and the European Academy of Nutritional Sciences20/04/200721/04/2007
A satellite meeting of the 15th European Congress on Obesity, organised by the Early Nutrition Programming Project (EARNEST) and the European Academy of Nutritional Sciences, will discuss the origins in early life of obesity and related disorders.
Aimed at scientists, clinicians, policy makers and industry, the conference will explore the potential of changes in early life nutrition for influencing long term risk of adverse metabolic consequences.
2 daysBudapesthttp://www.metabolic-programming.org/budapest2007/Visit the conference website here
110417 April 2007 - Omega-3 for child behaviour and learning - The Facts and the HypeOmega-3, ADHD, behaviour, learning, fatty acids17/04/2007by Alex Richardson
Subject: PRESS CONFERENCE ON OMEGA-3 FISH OIL RESEARCH
NEW PUBLISHED TRIAL BOLSTERS EVIDENCE THAT OMEGA-3 FISH OIL CAN BENEFIT CHILDREN WITH ADHD SYMPTOMS
Results from the largest, clinical-based omega-3 and omega-6 trial of its kind are to be presented today, bolstering a growing body of evidence worthy of review by the Foods Standard Agency on the question of whether all school children should be given omega-3 supplements.
A double blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial conducted by The University of South Australia and the Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation of Human Nutrition, has shown significant improvements amongst 132 children aged 7-12yrs with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms.
You are invited to hear Dr Natalie Sinn, PhD, Lead Researcher from The University of Australia present these fascinating results for the first time and have an opportunity to participate in a questions and answers session.
Tuesday 17th April 2007 10.30 Registration 11.00 Keynote presentation by Dr Natalie Sinn 11.45 Q&A session 12.30 Optional buffet lunch
RSVP to (** company contact details**) Spaces are limited and must be reserved
Now let's look at this more closely
The content seems simple enough. "Come to a free lunch and be given your news story."
And there are some brilliant hook lines:
'whether all school children should be given omega-3 supplements' Wonderfully controversial. Can popping pills really improve behaviour and learning in all school children?
'A double blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial'. Sounds very scientific. Surely the results must be credible?
'The largest, clinical-based omega-3 and omega-6 trial of its kind. Hold on - is this clinics or schools we're talking about?
132 children aged 7-12yrs with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms. Well, not drug-trial numbers, but respectable. The thing is - how many actually made it to the end of the study? Results were given for just 104. Do the drop-outs matter? Read on...
For those without access to the full paper, some important points worth knowing are:
The children in this study were selected for extreme scores on parent ratings of their behaviour and learning problems Their scores fell within the top 3% of the population on ADHD-type symptoms, as rated by their parents. This does NOT allow any generalisations to other groups such as children with less extreme difficulties, or children formally diagnosed with ADHD.
Crucially, The results reported are Not from 'Intention -to-Treat (ITT) analyses. In other words - the many children who dropped out were excluded from the analyses. This does not conform to the CONSORT guidelines for the reporting of randomised controlled trials, as endorsed by all leading scientific and medical journals, and required for the official evaluation of medical treatments such as drugs.
Teacher's ratings of the children's ADHD symptoms showed no significant effects of treatment This makes it rather difficult to see why schools or education authorities (i.e. the taxpayer) should spend money on these supplements, surely? Let alone for ALL schoolchildren?
So what CAN we conclude? As usual, the truth is rather less exciting than the headlines.
This is a worthwhile study, which appears to have been sensibly conducted and reported - at least by the researchers involved.
Crucially, it DID include a placebo control group - unlike most of the hyped-up 'non-studies' that the mass media and some companies (notably this one) are so fond of reporting.
It's a shame that the analyses were not reported on an Intention-To-Treat basis. The large number of dropouts suggests that such analyses would not have shown any benefits - but that wouldn't make the study worthless.
These results partially replicate (albeit less strongly) some of the findings from existing studies of children with behavioural and/or learning difficulties. To show benefits for even a subset of children from nutritional treatments is a useful step forward. (Apparently around 40-50% of children in this study showed marked improvements compared those receiving placebo treatment). It is also possible that by using different nutrient formulations or dosages, and/or outcome measures that may be more sensitive, better results could be obtained.
These were essentially the kind of comments attributed to the lead researcher in this study, Natalie Sinn of Adelaide University. She also emphasised how many important questions still need to be addressed by further research.
That's what we still need - not yet more hype.
A massive amount of media 'hype' surrounds the whole issue of whether fatty acids (mainly the omega-3 from fish oils) can help child behaviour and learning.
As the first person to carry out controlled trials in this area, I am all too well aware how grossly the mass media (fed by press releases from the companies who sell the supplements) can twist the facts to promote their own interests (i.e. to make money).
Sadly, the huge amount of misleading information has made many people very sceptical - particularly those in the medical profession, but also many other professionals, parents and policymakers.
Today's newspapers will be full of more 'miracle stories' following the publication of results from a new trial of 'fatty acids for ADHD symptoms'. These will be scorned by the sceptics as yet more examples of overly-simplistic thinking (i.e. 'Pill solves complex social problems') - and those who rush to buy supplements will be derided as fools easily parted from their money. (For the supplement used in this particular trial, this might be a justifiable claim given its high price compared with many others. But that's how they can afford all the advertising.)
As usual - the real truth is more complicated. But company press releases do drive most mass media stories. So here is the press release that triggered many of today's news stories - followed by some commentary on what the results of the study really indicated, for those who actually care.
And you can read the scientific abstract for yourself - along with some reported comments from the lead author and the Food Standards Agency - at ******
1102Sinn & Bryan 2007 - Supplementation with PUFA and micronutrients on learning and behavior problems associated with child ADHDEffect of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids and micronutrients on learning and behavior problems associated with child ADHDEffect of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids and micronutrients on learning and behavior problems associated with child ADHDSinn N, Bryan J 17/04/2007Journal of Developmental & Behavioural Pediatrics2882-91
Methods: Various developmental problems including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been linked to biological deficiencies in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Additionally, there is evidence that symptoms may be reduced with PUFA supplementation. This study investigated effects of supplementation with PUFAs on symptoms typically associated with ADHD. Because nutrients work synergistically, additional effects of micronutrient supplementation were also investigated. A total of 132 Australian children aged 7 to 12 years with scores >=2 SD above the population average on the Conners ADHD Index participated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind intervention over 15 weeks, taking PUFAs alone, PUFAs + micronutrients, or placebo. Due to unreturned questionnaires, data were only available for 104 children.
Results: Significant medium to strong positive treatment effects were found on parent ratings of core ADHD symptoms, inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, on the Conners Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) in both PUFA treatment groups compared with the placebo group; no additional effects were found with the micronutrients. After a one-way crossover to active supplements in all groups for a further 15 weeks, these results were replicated in the placebo group, and the treatment groups continued to show significant improvements on CPRS core symptoms. No significant effects were found on Conners Teacher Rating Scales.
Conclusion: These results add to preliminary findings that ADHD-related problems with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity might respond to treatment with PUFAs and that improvements may continue with supplementation extending to 30 weeks.
The lead researcher, Natalie Sinn, wrote:
"The present study is the largest PUFA trial to date with children falling in the clinical ADHD range on Conners Index. The result support those of other studies that have found improvements in developmental problems symptomatic of ADHD with PUFA supplementation. These results have significant implications for children with ADHD-related symptoms, parents, and clinicians."
Dr. Sinn also emphasised that many questions remain unanswered. "This work needs to be replicated in other scientifically controlled trials in populations of children with different constellations of symptoms and other developmental disorders that overlap with ADHD," she was reported as saying by the industry newsletter, Nutraingredients.com
"We need more understanding about biological mechanisms, degree of relative PUFA deficiency and which children are most likely to respond, and also the relative importance of the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, and the inclusion of omega-6 fatty acid GLA"
We couldn't agree more. And the views attributed to Sarah Newman, a spokesperson for the UK FSA, also seemed sensible:
"The agency is aware that there is some evidence of benefits of fish oil supplements for some children with learning difficulties - such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Although the evidence is not clear enough to justify recommending supplements to be taken by children, it does underline the importance of a healthy balanced diet including fish for children and the need for their carers and meal providers to be advised and trained to deliver this," she said.
"The agency will continue to monitor any emerging evidence in this area."
It would be better still, however, if the FSA would fund some research to address the many questions that still need answering.
1661McCann & Ames 2007 - An overview of evidence for a causal relation between iron deficiency during development and deficits in cognitive or behavioral functionAn overview of evidence for a causal relation between iron deficiency during development and deficits in cognitive or behavioral functionAn overview of evidence for a causal relation between iron deficiency during development and deficits in cognitive or behavioral functionMcCann JC, Ames BN.01/04/2007Am J Clin Nutr. 85(4):931-45.
This review, intended for a broad scientific readership, summarizes evidence relevant to whether a causal relation exists between dietary iron deficiency with (ID+A) or without (ID-A) anemia during development and deficits in subsequent cognitive or behavioral performance.
An overview of expert opinion and major evidence in humans and animals is provided. Cognitive and behavioral effects observed in humans with ID-A and in animals with ID+/-A are provided in tables. The degree to which 5 conditions of causality are satisfied and whether deleterious effects of ID-A might be expected to occur are discussed.
On the basis of the existing literature, our major conclusions are as follows. Although most of the 5 conditions of causality (association, plausible biological mechanisms, dose response, ability to manipulate the effect, and specificity of cause and effect) are partially satisfied in humans, animals, or both, a causal connection has not been clearly established. In animals, deficits in motor activity are consistently associated with severe ID+A, but adverse effects on performance in tests that target cognitive function have not been clearly shown.
Resistance to iron treatment was observed in most trials of children <2 y of age with ID+A, but not in older children. Similar observations were made in rodents when ID+A occurred before rather than after weaning. In children >2 y of age and in adolescents with ID-A, evidence suggests cognitive or behavioral deficits; however, the surprisingly small number of studies conducted in either humans or animals prevents a thorough assessment.
iron, iron deficiency, cognition, behaviour, human studies, animal studies, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17413089View this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text of this paper is available online
110128 March 2007 - Associate Parliamentary Inquiry into Food and Behaviour28 March 2007 - Associate Parliamentary Inquiry into Food and BehaviourAssociate Parliamentary Food and Health Forum28/03/200728/03/2007
The first evidence-gathering session of this Inquiry took place on March 28th 2007, with other sessions still to follow (see below), and Dr Alex Richardson of FAB Research was one of the experts invited to give evidence.
The full minutes of this meeting, along with the speakers' presentations - will be published in due course on the FHF website. Meanwhile, Dr Richardson's written statement of evidence (provided to the FHF in advance of the meeting as a basis for questions and discussion) is attached here.
The Associate Parliamentary Food and Health Forum has decided to hold a short inquiry which will consider the links between diet and behaviour (especially mood, memory, ability to concentrate, impulsivity and aggression), with a special focus on the role of essential fatty acids in the diet. A series of meetings are being held from March to June at which distinguished guest speakers will be talking about different aspects of this complex subject.
A "call for evidence" has been circulated to encourage submissions of evidence, although guest speakers are not restricted to commenting on the issues raised in the call for evidence. The programme of meetings (which is subject to change), including the names of speakers at each meeting, is set out below.
Associate Parliamentary Food and Health Forum inquiry into the links between diet and behaviour
NB all the meetings will take place in Parliament on Wednesday afternoons from 3.15-5.15pm.
14 March - House of Commons Committee Room 21
Professor John Stein, University of Oxford
Professor Malcolm Peet , Rotherham Primary Care Trust
Dr Malcolm Garland, Galway University Hospital and the Clinical Sciences Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway
(now rescheduled to a later date - see FHF website for details)
28 March - House of Lords Committee Room 3a
Professor Michael Crawford, London Metropolitan University
Dr Alex Richardson, Oxford University and Director of Food and Behaviour Research.
Commander Joseph Hibbeln, National Institutes of Health, Washington and adviser to the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), also known as "Children of the 90s".
18 April House of Lords Committee Room G
Professor Carolyn Summerbell, Teeside University
Professor David Benton, Swansea University.
25 April House of Lords Committee Room G
Dr Neil Ward, Surrrey University and Director of the Hyperactive Children's Support Group.
Lord Ramsbotham, former Chief Inspector of Prisons and Chairman of Natural Justice.
Mr Bernard Gesch, Oxford University and Director of Natural Justice.
Any non-FHF members wishing to attend any of these sessions as an observer *must* contact the organisers in advance, as places are extremely limited. (See the FHF website for further details)
3:15-5:15LondonHouse of Lords Committee Room 3ahttp://www.fhf.org.ukVisit the Food and Health Forum website here for updates and contact detailsAJ Richardson - Statement of Evidence to the Associate Parliamentary FHF - Spring 2007.pdfView or Download Dr Richardson's statement as a pdf file here
109820 March 2007 - Event: Diet and Behaviour - InvernessFood and Behaviour Research20/03/200720/03/2007
Diet and Behaviour: The impact of nutrition on behaviour, learning and mood
An evening presentation by Dr Alex Richardson, Research Fellow, University of Oxford, leader in research on children's behaviour, learning and mood and Director of the charity Food and Behaviour Research. Author of 'They Are What You Feed Them' published June 2006
and Mr David Rex, Child Health Lead Dietician, NHS Highland
TUESDAY, 20 MARCH, 2007 6.30pm - 9.30pm
An educational and informative evening for Health Professionals, School Staff, Social Workers, Parents, Carers and interested individuals and organisations, with opportunities for questions and answers.
6.30pm to 7pm - Food and Behavour: Introduction and Overview - by Dr Alex Richardson
7pm to 7.20pm - Promotion of Healthy Eating in Schools: Is it likely to improve children's learning and behaviour? - by Mr David Rex
7.20pm to 7.30pm - Questions and Answers
7.30pm to 7.50pm - Refreshment Break
7.50pm to 8.15pm - What is the best diet for children with mood or developmental disorders? - by Mr David Rex
8.15pm to 8.50pm - Essential Fatty Acids: What are they? Why do we need them? The direct evidence of deficiency - by Dr Alex Richardson
8.50pm to 9.10pm - Practical Tips for overcoming selective eating - by Mr David Rex
9.10pm to 9.30pm - Summary followed by Questions and Answers
Professionals (Health / Education / Local Authority / Social Workers) £25 Individuals £10 - Double tickets £16 Students/Concessions £8 Free to FAB Associate Members
To find out more and book a place, please contact Fiona O'Fee on the number below.
4 hoursInvernessInshes Church, Sir Walter Scott Drive, Inverness IV2 3TWFiona O'Feefiona@fabresearch.org01463 667318
109512 March 2007 - The Times - Fat pupils on fish oils....?Fat pupils on fish oils make a mental leap12/03/2007Lewis Smith, Science Reporter:
Fatty acids can help children in exams and improve their behaviour in class and at home, a study suggests.
Overweight children who took fatty acid dietary supplements showed dramatic improvements in concentration, reading, memory and mental agility. The advances that their brains made in three months would normally take three years, researchers found.
One teenage boy who was hooked on watching television and hated books before the experiment became an avid reader after and dismissed programmes as too boring to bother with.
Researchers said that the results, while based on a small sample, supported recent findings that fatty acids boost brain development and suggest that fast food may stunt mental growth, because processed foods do not contain these acids.
Improvement were made in every area of academic activity but the most surprising change, said researchers, was in levels of Nacetylaspartate, or NAA, a biochemical indicator of brain development.
According to brain scans carried out at St George's Hospital, southwest London, the levels of NAA rose far more than expected in the three boys and one girl taking a supplement containing the omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.
"The results were astonishing," said Professor Basant Puri, who led the study. "In three months you might expect to see a small NAA increase. But we saw as much growth as you would normally see in three years. It was as if these were the brains of children three years older. It means you have more connections and greater density of nerve cells, in the same way that a tree grows more branches.
"For all the children there was a marked change, but in the three boys there was a massive, massive increase in NAA. I was quite startled by what I saw."
The children taking part in the research were classified as overweight. Zach, aged 8, weighed 8st (51kg), George and Rachael, both aged 11, weighed 11st, and Gareth, who was 13, weighed 12st.
At the start of the pilot study, the children were given a fatty acid supplement. They took two capsules a day and were encouraged to cut down on fatty snacks and fizzy drinks and be more active.
After three months the children's reading abilities were a year ahead, their handwriting was neater and more accurate and they paid more attention in class.
"Gareth's parents told me how he had suddenly found TV boring, as he wanted to read. Three months earlier he was saying he couldn't understand people who loved books," said Professor Puri, of the Division of Clinical Sciences at Imperial College, London.
"The concentration of all the children improved enormously and they seemed a lot calmer and happier. Even before I started testing them their parents were saying how much better they were."
The children were asked to change their diet but there was no evidence that they did to any great extent and Professor Puri believes that the changes were caused by the supplement, which is derived from oily fish and evening primrose oil. It contains an essential fatty acid called EPA, but significantly, another type of fatty acid, DHA, is absent. Previous studies by Professor Puri have shown this formula can improve brain function in adults.
His study features in a Five TV documentary, Mind the Fat: Does Fast Equal Food Slow Kids?, to be broadcast on Thursday.
Professor Kishore Bhakoo, of the the Clinical Sciences Centre at Imperial, said: "The thing that amazed me was how much change in biochemistry you could see in three months . . . You'd expect some variation, but they were all going in the same direction."
He said that the results had implications for the "junk food" debate: "Processed food doesn't contain these substances."
by Alex Richardson
Yet again - miraculous improvements for children's behaviour and learning (and their brain biochemistry too) are claimed following the use of fatty acid supplements.
Sadly, however - this report does not seem to involve a properly peer-reviewed and published scientific study. Instead - the 'results' claimed are merely the initial observations of a group of scientists studying a few individual children.
Critically - there is no control group reported here. At the very least, we need to know what the same measurements would show in children taking no supplements. But ideally, some children would be given a dummy treatment to control for well-known 'placebo effects' that can follow any intervention - or even the extra attention the children would receive from being part of any 'study'.
A few published, properly controlled trials have shown benefits for some children in just the areas reported here (reading and spelling, attention and behaviour). But these studies have involved children already identified as having problems in these areas. See
Fish oils are in real danger of getting a bad name owing to the number of unsubstantiated 'trials' that the press keep reporting with lurid headlines. See the "Bad Science website - which has devoted much of the last few months to exposing some of these as nothing more than product advertisements, starting with:
This is a real shame - because the omega-3 fatty acids from fish and seafood (EPA and DHA) really are essential nutrients for brain development and function, and yet they are lacking from many children's (and adults') diets - especially if these consist mainly of processed 'fast foods'.
The existing scientific evidence shows that the omega-3 from fish oils (either with or without the omega-6 from evening primrose oil as apparently used here) can help behaviour, learning and mood in at least some children and adults: e.g. see the recent review instigated by the American Psychiatric Association:
Seriously overweight children might be among those who can benefit from an increased intake of essential fatty acids. And the changes in brain biochemistry described here are also of potential interest (although these are very indirect as a measure of 'brain development'). But what we need now are more properly controlled trials - not more media hype. If such trials could include brain imaging measures as reported here, then all the better. But a placebo-control group is simply essential. Without this - and until any such studies have been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals - newspaper headines like this one are completely unjustified.
http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/science/article1499696.eceRead the full article on the Times website here
1685ALSPAC ('Children of the '90s' Study)ALSPAC Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children01/03/2007
The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) - which is also known as Children of the 90s - is a long-term health research project carried out at the University of Bristol, UK.
More than 14,000 mothers enrolled during pregnancy in 1991 and 1992, and the health and development of their children has been followed in great detail ever since.
The ALSPAC families have provided a vast amount of genetic and environmental information over the years. This resource is assisting scientists all over the world with research into a wide range of health problems.
http://www.bristol.ac.uk/alspac/Visit the ALSPAC website here
1123Camargo et al 2007 - Maternal intake of vitamin D and risk of recurrent wheeze in childrenMaternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy and risk of recurrent wheeze in children at 3 y of age. Maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy and risk of recurrent wheeze in children at 3 y of age.Camargo CA, Rifas-Shiman SL, Litonjua AA, Rich-Edwards JW, Weiss ST, Gold DR, Kleinman K, Gillman MW.01/03/2007Am J Clin Nutr.85(3):788-95
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency and asthma are common at higher latitudes. Although vitamin D has important immunologic effects, its relation with asthma is unknown.
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that a higher maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy is associated with a lower risk of recurrent wheeze in children at 3 y of age.
DESIGN: The participants were 1194 mother-child pairs in Project Viva-a prospective prebirth cohort study in Massachusetts. We assessed the maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy from a validated food-frequency questionnaire. The primary outcome was recurrent wheeze, ie, a positive asthma predictive index (>or=2 wheezing attacks among children with a personal diagnosis of eczema or a parental history of asthma).
RESULTS: The mean (+/-SD) total vitamin D intake during pregnancy was 548 +/- 167 IU/d. By age 3 y, 186 children (16%) had recurrent wheeze. Compared with mothers in the lowest quartile of daily intake (median: 356 IU), those in the highest quartile (724 IU) had a lower risk of having a child with recurrent wheeze (odds ratio (OR): 0.39; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.62; P for trend < 0.001). A 100-IU increase in vitamin D intake was associated with lower risk (OR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.89), regardless of whether vitamin D was from the diet (OR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.96) or supplements (OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.92). Adjustment for 12 potential confounders, including maternal intake of other dietary factors, did not change the results.
CONCLUSION: In the northeastern United States, a higher maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy may decrease the risk of recurrent wheeze in early childhood.
Pregancy, maternal diet, Vitamin D, asthma, wheeze, Vit-D, Vit_D http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=17344501&ordinalpos=7&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here.
1578Kaminski et al 2007 - Polymorphism of bovine beta-casein and its potential effect on human healthPolymorphism of bovine beta-casein and its potential effect on human health beta-casein and human health, cows' milk A1 and A2 variants Kaminski S, Cieslinska A, Kostyra E.01/03/2007J Appl Genet.48(3)189-98
Proteins in bovine milk are a common source of bioactive peptides. The peptides are released by the digestion of caseins and whey proteins.
In vitro the bioactive peptide beta-casomorphin 7 (BCM-7) is yielded by the successive gastrointestinal proteolytic digestion of bovine beta-casein variants A1 and B, but this was not seen in variant A2. In hydrolysed milk with variant A1 of beta-casein, BCM-7 level is 4-fold higher than in A2 milk.
Variants A1 and A2 of beta-casein are common among many dairy cattle breeds. A1 is the most frequent in Holstein-Friesian (0.310-0.660), Ayrshire (0.432-0.720) and Red (0.710) cattle. In contrast, a high frequency of A2 is observed in Guernsey (0.880-0.970) and Jersey (0.490-0.721) cattle.
BCM-7 may play a role in the aetiology of human diseases. Epidemiological evidence from New Zealand claims that consumption of beta-casein A1 is associated with higher national mortality rates from ischaemic heart disease. It seems that the populations that consume milk containing high levels of beta-casein A2 have a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 1 diabetes. BCM-7 has also been suggested as a possible cause of sudden infant death syndrome.
In addition, neurological disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia, seem to be associated with milk consumption and a higher level of BCM-7. Therefore, careful attention should be paid to that protein polymorphism, and deeper research is needed to verify the range and nature of its interactions with the human gastrointestinal tract and whole organism.
For an accessible summary of the latest research evidence on the health implications of A1 cows' milk (and the opioid peptide BCM-7 produced during its digestion), see the latest edition of Devil In the Milk, by Professor Keith Woodford.
milk, cows' milk, casein, beta-casein, BCM-7, review http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17666771View this and related abstracts via PubMed here (Free full text of this paper is available online)
1091Super Natural Cooking - Five Ways To Incorporate Whole and Natural Ingredients into Your CookingSuper Natural Cooking - Five Ways To Incorporate Whole and Natural Ingredients into Your CookingSuper Natural Cooking - Five Ways To Incorporate Whole and Natural Ingredients into Your Cooking - Heidi Swanson - 2007Heidi Swanson01/03/2007
Everyone knows that whole foods are much healthier than refined ingredients, but few know how to cook with them in uncomplicated, delicious ways. Using a palette of natural ingredients now widely available in supermarkets, SUPER NATURAL COOKING offers globally inspired, nutritionally packed cuisine that is both gratifying and flavorful. With her weeknight-friendly dishes, real-foodie Heidi Swanson teaches home cooks how to become confident in a whole-foods kitchen by experimenting with alternative flours, fats, grains, sweeteners, and more. Including innovative twists on familiar dishes from polenta to chocolate chip cookies, SUPER NATURAL COOKING is the new wholesome way to eat, using real-world ingredients to get out-of-this-world results.
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