937Food 4 Thought - British Heart FoundationFood4Thought; healthy eating; recipes; chicken nuggets; bad foods14/11/2005
Hi, welcome to Food4Thought!
Extract: In case you haven't worked it out, this site is about YOU making responsible food choices. Healthy eating is not all about living on salads! But you need a balanced diet to look and feel good. Check out the Eat Well and Feel Great areas for top tips! There are also great prizes to win, interactive games and FREE downloads. Enjoy!
http://www.bhf.org.uk/food4thought/index_home.asp?SecID=1742Visit the Food4Thought Website here
1267Bhat et al 2005 - Nutrition and geriatric psychiatry: a neglected fieldNutrition and geriatric psychiatry: a neglected field Nutrition and geriatric psychiatry: a neglected fieldBhat RS, Chiu E, Jeste DV.01/11/2005Curr Opin Psychiatry.18(6)609-14
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nutritional issues have received little attention in geriatric psychiatry research. This review focuses on literature published in 2003 and 2004 on nutritional factors in mental illness in the elderly and proposes directions for future research.
RECENT FINDINGS: There has been more research on the role of micronutrients in psychiatric disorders of older adults but studies examining nutritional state in this population are lacking. The former research suggests associations between low folic acid/vitamin B12 status and depression in older adults whereas evidence for other micronutrients is still tentative. In the latter work, there is only one study that examines malnutrition in psychogeriatric patients despite the availability of well-validated screening tools for assessing nutritional state in the elderly and the known impact of undernutrition in ageing and the development of frailty. The role of obesity in ageing is also relevant especially as more people with schizophrenia live longer, although the current evidence in the non-mentally ill elderly suggests that being overweight may have protective effects in the elderly.
SUMMARY: Malnutrition is likely to have considerable impact on the mental and physical state of the elderly.
nutrition, diet, mental health, mental illness, psychiatry, ageing, age-related cognitive decline, depression, dementia, schizophrenia, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16639083?ordinalpos=2&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1000Fontani et al 2005 - Cognitive and physiological effects of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in healthy subjectsCognitive and physiological effects of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in healthy subjectsCognitive and physiological effects of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in healthy subjectsFontani G, Corradeschi F, Felici A, Alfatti F, Migliorini S, Lodi L. 01/11/2005Eur J Clin Invest. 35(11):691-9
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that Omega-3 fatty acids may play a role in nervous system activity and that they improve cognitive development and reference memory-related learning, increase neuroplasticity of nerve membranes, contribute to synaptogenesis and are involved in synaptic transmission. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Omega-3 supplementation on some cognitive and physiological parameters in healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects were tested at the beginning of the experiment and after 35 days. In this period they were supplemented with Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. A group was supplemented with olive oil (placebo). Tests involving different types of attention were used, i.e. Alert, Go/No-Go, Choice and Sustained Attention. For each test, the reaction time, the event-related potentials by electroencephalogram (EEG) and the electromyography (EMG) of the forefinger flexor muscle were recorded. The Profile of Mood States test (POMS) was also administered. RESULTS: Blood analyses showed that after Omega-3 supplementation the arachidonic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid ratio (AA/EPA) was strongly reduced. The mood profile was improved after Omega-3 with increased vigour and reduced anger, anxiety and depression states. This was associated with an effect on reactivity with a reduction of reaction time in the Go/No-Go and Sustained Attention tests. The latency of EMG activation was concomitantly reduced in the same tests plus Choice. An EEG frequency shift towards the theta and alpha band were recorded in all the tests after Omega-3. CONCLUSIONS: Omega-3 supplementation is associated with an improvement of attentional and physiological functions, particularly those involving complex cortical processing. These findings are discussed in terms of the influence of Omega-3 on the central nervous system.
omega-3, fatty acids, cogition, behaviourhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16269019&query_hl=3&itool=pubmed_docsumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1251Konofal et al 2005 - Effectiveness of iron supplementation in a young child with ADHD.Effectiveness of iron supplementation in a young child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.iron, ADHDKonofal E, Cortese S, Lecendreux M, Arnulf I, Mouren MC.01/11/2005Pediatrics. 116(5)e732-4
A 3-year-old child was referred to consultation for hyperactivity, attention deficit, impulsivity, and sleep problems. He met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. At baseline, the Conners' Parent Rating Scale and the Conners' Teacher Rating Scale raw total scores were 30 and 32, respectively. The child had low a serum ferritin level (13 ng/mL). After 8 months of treatment with Tardyferon (ferrous sulfate, 80 mg/day), his serum ferritin increased to 102 ng/mL. Both parents and teachers reported considerable behavioral improvement. The Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scale raw total scores decreased to 19 and 13, respectively. This is the first report of the effectiveness of iron supplementation in a young child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
iron, ADHD, treatment, case studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16263988?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=1&log$=relatedarticles&logdbfrom=pubmedView this abstract via PubMed here
936Pouwer et al 2005 - Fat food for bad mood - Could we treat and prevent depression in Type 2 diabetes with omega-3 PUFA?Fat food for a bad mood. Could we treat and prevent depression in Type 2 diabetes by means of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids? A review of the evidence.Fat food for a bad mood. Could we treat and prevent depression in Type 2 diabetes by means of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids? A review of the evidence.Pouwer F, Nijpels G, Beekman AT, Dekker JM, Dam RM, Heine RJ, Snoek FJ.01/11/2005Diabet Med.22(11)1465-75.
Aims: Evidence strongly suggests that depression is a common complication of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is considerable room to improve the effectiveness of pharmacological antidepressant agents, as in only 50-60% of the depressed subjects with diabetes does pharmacotherapy lead to remission of depression. The aim of the present paper was to review whether polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the omega-3 family could be used for the prevention and treatment of depression in Type 2 diabetes. Methods: MEDLINE database and published reference lists were used to identify studies that examined the associations between omega-3 PUFA and depression. To examine potential side-effects, such as on glycaemic control, studies regarding the use of omega-3 supplements in Type 2 diabetes were also reviewed. Results: Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that a high intake of omega-3 PUFA protects against the development of depression. There is also some evidence that a low intake of omega-3 is associated with an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes, but the results are less conclusive. Results from randomized controlled trials in non-diabetic subjects with major depression show that eicosapentaenoic acid is an effective adjunct treatment of depression in diabetes, while docosahexanoic acid is not. Moreover, consumption of omega-3 PUFA reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and may therefore indirectly decrease depression in Type 2 diabetes, via the reduction of cardiovascular complications. Conclusions: Supplementation with omega-3 PUFA, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid, may be a safe and helpful tool to reduce the incidence of depression and to treat depression in Type 2 diabetes. Further studies are now justified to test these hypotheses in patients with Type 2 diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes, fatty acids, diet, treatment, prevention, omega-3, fatty acids, EFA, PUFA, glucose regulation, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16241908?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
922 14 October 2005 - BBC Website - Food a recipe for school successFood a recipe for school success14/10/2005By Mike Baker, BBC News Education correspondent
There is a tendency in politics, and in the media too, to focus on a big announcement and then to move on without following it through.
There is a real danger that this could happen with school dinners.
After the powerful television campaign by the chef Jamie Oliver, the poor nutritional quality of school meals became an election issue in the spring. In the heat of the election campaign, the government announced £220m over three years and set up a School Meals Review Panel to make recommendations for new nutritional standards.
Two weeks ago, at the Labour Party conference, we had the fanfare: the banning of "junk food" from school canteens and vending machines. Cheap burgers and processed bangers will no longer be served and children will not be able to buy fizzy drinks and chocolate bars.
So far, so good - yet no one should think that is the end of the matter. This week a national conference on healthy eating in schools highlighted just how much remains to be done and how precarious are the gains so far.
Two major problems were highlighted: a lack of money to implement change and a need to educate pupils, parents, and school kitchen staff.
Food and behaviour
There was also a positive note. Research evidence suggests that if we really can crack the problem of poor nutrition amongst children, we may simultaneously solve many of the problems of anti-social behaviour, exclusions and poor literacy standards that beset schools.
That might seem a big claim but it came from an authoritative, and scientific, source. Bernard Gesch, a senior research scientist in the Department of Physiology at Oxford University, riveted the conference with his presentation linking food to behaviour.
His evidence is based on research he carried out, not in schools, but in prisons. This involved giving one group of prisoners food supplements containing vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids. Another group were given placebos. Neither prisoners nor staff knew who was on the supplements and who was receiving the placebo.
The supplements did no more than ensure that the prisoners taking them would meet the government standard for prison diets (as in schools, while nutritious food was available, the inmates did not always choose it).
The results were quite stark: the anti-social behaviours of those on the food supplements fell by over 35%. The most serious violent acts fell by even more. There was no change for those on the placebo.
Another experiment, conducted by Dr Alex Richardson of Oxford University, involved young children, aged from six to 11, in Durham. All these children had specific difficulties in motor coordination, over 30% had Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD), and 40% had specific learning difficulties and were more than two years behind in reading and spelling.
The experiment provided the children with supplements containing Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids and vitamin E. Again, the results were very clear. Compared with the expected progress for normal children, the recipients of the supplements improved their reading ability at more than three times the normal rate, and more than twice the rate in spelling, over three months of treatment. There were also significant improvements in their ADHD symptoms.
Mr Gesch also referred to research in schools in the US, where a new regime of banning vending machines, providing nutritional education, better food and low dose vitamin-mineral tablets had improved both behaviour and academic standards. In this experiment with five to 10 year olds, after one year, exclusions had fallen by 80%, violent acts were down by 97%, and the school's test scores in maths and English had shot up, taking it from being the lowest in the school district to first and second in maths and English respectively.
So, compared with the hundreds of millions being spent on reducing exclusions and truancy, and raising standards, the government might do better to channel more funds into school children's diets.
By 2020 it is estimated that one in five boys, and one in three girls, will be obese
Which brings us back to the problem of money. The chair of the School Meals Review Panel, Suzi Leather, told the conference that the cost of implementing nutrition standards in schools in England would be £168m a year.
Her estimate would amount to around £500m over three years. So far, the government has given only £220m for that period. The Education Secretary, Ruth Kelly, had acknowledged the need for more. Will it be forthcoming, especially as the school meals issue falls out of the headlines? On top of that, Ms Leather says an additional £289m is needed, as a one-off, to refurbish school kitchens and dining rooms.
While the ban on junk food, which has legal backing from 2006, got plenty of media attention, less notice was given to the timetable for introducing nutrition standards. The School Meals Review Panel, recognising the obstacles to be overcome, set this at 2008 for primary schools and 2009 for secondary schools.
While that may have been realistic, it means that many school dinners may continue to lack the nutritional content required for healthy living. This is serious, as we have not yet seen the full impact of poor diet on children's health. As Ms Leather pointed out, the health problems of today's young children will start to show in the teenagers and young adults of the future.
By 2020 it is estimated that one in five boys, and one in three girls, will be obese. That is not just overweight, but clinically obese.
In view of the evidence of the link between nutrition and behaviour and literacy levels, surely it is time for government to fund some bigger studies to see what can be achieved by a programme of vitamin supplements for pupils, particularly during these next few years before the full nutritional standards come into effect.
Or will we need another Jamie Oliver programme to stimulate further action?
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/4342636.stmRead this article on the BBC website hereSchool meal preparation.jpg
92314 October 2005 - Mercury Levels in SeafoodMercury in fish; mercury facts14/10/2005Source: Center for Food, Nutrition, and Agriculture Policy
New Consumer Research Finds Confusion Over Mercury Levels in Seafood and Perceived Risk to Public Health
Academic Center Launches “Mercury Facts”
Washington, DC; October 14, 2005
With mounting evidence that concerns about mercury in fish may be causing some consumers to disregard important health messages about seafood consumption, a leading academic center today announced the first comprehensive resource directory on the World Wide Web to help the public understand the science-based facts upon which to make their seafood purchasing decisions.
Developed and hosted by the University of Maryland’s newly formed Center for Food, Nutrition, and Agriculture Policy (CFNAP), www.mercuryfacts.org is the outgrowth of a national survey, documenting extensive public confusion about mercury levels in seafood and a growing knowledge gap about which species of fish are high or low in mercury. Conducted for the University of Maryland by Opinion Research Corporation, the poll finds that almost one-third of the public (31 percent) reports being concerned about the amount of mercury in fish and shellfish and as a result, many consumers are cutting back on the amount of seafood they eat.
Coming at a time when there is widespread scientific agreement that seafood is an important part of a healthy diet, the poll finds few Americans eat the amount of fish and shellfish recommended for optimal health. While almost nine in ten adult Americans (89 percent) report eating fish and shellfish at least occasionally, a little over one-third (36 percent) say they eat fish/shellfish once a week or more. This is in direct contrast with the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, which encourages two servings of fish a week. Behind this recommendation is scientific evidence that the omega-3 fatty acids in fish may reduce the risk of heart disease and are associated with optimal brain function and cognition, improved eye and skin health, protection against certain cancers. Research is being conducted to examine a possible therapeutic effect on depression and specific autoimmune diseases including lupus, psoriasis and arthritis.
At the same time, the survey finds that about one third of Americans responsible for the meals of young children say the amount of seafood they are feeding them has changed from one year ago, with 11 percent feeding young children less seafood. According to the survey, half of Americans (47 percent) say they are giving their young children the same amount of seafood versus one year ago while another 23 percent of children under the age of four do not eat seafood. These findings are disturbing in light of the American Heart Association’s 2005 nutrition guidelines for children, which also recommend two servings of fish a week. According to the AHA findings, the omega-3 fatty acids found in fish may be important for child growth and development.
“While the health benefits of fish are well known, almost all ocean fish and seafood naturally contain minute amounts of methylmercury. That is why it is so important to reduce public confusion from conflicting messages from various sources -- family, friends, professional colleagues, the media, and the Internet, among others,” said Maureen Storey, Ph.D., Director of the new Center for Food, Nutrition and Agriculture Policy. “Only when the public understands the state of the science and the messages are clear will consumers be able to separate fact from fiction regarding the real versus perceived risks of consuming seafood as part of a healthy diet.”
Of equal concern to the public health community is eliminating the confusion over the 2004 seafood consumption advice issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Intended for pregnant and nursing women, women who might become pregnant and young children, the advisory tells these individuals they can safely consume up to 12 ounces a week of fish low in mercury, such as shrimp, salmon, pollock, catfish and canned light tuna, and up to 6 ounces a week of canned albacore tuna. The advisory also identifies those types of fish that should be avoided by pregnant and nursing women, women who might become pregnant and young children. These fish are shark, swordfish, tilefish and king mackerel.
But despite these targeted messages, the poll finds most Americans do not understand the FDA/EPA advisory. When asked to whom the advisory applies, a large number of individuals identified the elderly (45 percent), pre-teens and teenagers (35 percent), and men (29 percent), while nearly one-third (30 percent) believe this information applies to all Americans. The poll also finds that the public is very confused about the amount of mercury in commonly consumed types of fish and shellfish. According to the survey, about a third (32 percent) of the public incorrectly said light canned tuna, salmon and shrimp contain higher levels of mercury, while only 4 percent correctly identified swordfish. Even less than1 percent named king mackerel and shark as fish containing higher mercury levels.
Because of this knowledge gap, the Center for Food, Nutrition, and Agriculture Policy created www.realmercuryfacts.org where health professionals, educators, policymakers and the media can conduct individualized searches about the science regarding mercury levels in seafood. Based on a thorough review of the scientific literature, the Web site contains a summary in layman’s terms of the most significant studies and policy papers that have been published and reported to date. The Web site also provides unbiased background information regarding how mercury in seafood is regulated as well as understandable definitions to many of the technical scientific and regulatory terms associated with the mercury debate.
The national opinion poll commissioned by the Center for Food, Nutrition and Agriculture Policy was conducted by Opinion Research Corporation to assess public attitudes and beliefs about eating fish. The survey was based on telephone interviews with 1,040 adult Americans (522 men, 518 women) using a national probability sample of individuals 18 years of age and older, living in private households in the continental United States. Interviewing was completed during the period June 23-26, 2005. To ensure a reliable and accurate representation of the total national adult population, complete interviews were weighted to known proportions for age, gender, geographic region, and race. The margin of error for the total sample is plus or minus 3.1 percent.
Affiliated with the University of Maryland-College Park, the Center for Food, Nutrition and Agriculture Policy (CFNAP) is a non-partisan, not-for-profit research and education organization dedicated to advancing rational, science-based food, nutrition, and agriculture policy. Through its research, outreach, and educational programs, CFNAP examines complex, and oftentimes contentious, issues facing government policymakers, regulators, agribusinesses, food manufacturers, the media, and consumers. Funding to develop the new Web site was provided through an educational grant from the U.S. Tuna Foundation
http://www.realmercuryfacts.org/about_us/press_release_2005.htmRead the press release from Real Mercury Facts here
924Real Mercury FACTS real mercury facts; mercury in fish14/10/2005
Putting the Science of Mercury in Seafood Into Perspective
This Web site is a project of the Program on Agriculture and Animal Health Policy (PAAHP) of the Center for Food, Nutrition, and Agriculture Policy (CFNAP) at the University of Maryland. The project is intended to help scientists, the public, the media and policy makers understand the range of published studies and analyses on the important issue of mercury and seafood. As such, PAAHP will provide synopses of the reports, papers, and other publications regarding the ongoing mercury controversy. The synopses will help the public understand the science-based facts upon which to make their seafood purchasing decisions.
9199 October 2005 - The Sunday Times - Open letter to the prime ministerBurger King; top chefs; food writers; letter to tony blair; advertising of junk food; Children's Food Bill09/10/2005Jonathan Leake
More than 20 of Britain's top chefs and food writers, including Gary Rhodes and Sophie Grigson, have sent an open letter to Tony Blair this week demanding ministers do more to prevent advertising of junk food to children.
This has come about as a result of BURGER KING, Britain's second-biggest fast food chain, having snubbed the government's attempts to reduce levels of salt, fat and sugar in food to make it healthier. It has pulled out of a joint initiative between the food industry and the Food Standards Agency (FSA) to reformulate fast foods to make them less unhealthy. The chain will instead concentrate on making its burgers and other products as "tasty" as it can - a decision that will mean no further cuts in salt, fat or sugar.
Rather than promoting healthy foods, the company is considering selling the "Enormous Omelette Sandwich", a product recently launched in America. It offers 740 calories and 4.9 grams of salt comprising two slices of cheese, two eggs, three strips of bacon and a sausage patty on a bun.
The decision is a serious threat to the consensus that has emerged after two years of talks between the food industry, the FSA and the Department of Health. Those talks recently led to 50 retailers and manufacturers, excluding Burger King, agreeing to phased cuts in the amounts of salt added to a range of processed foods including bread, ready meals, breakfast cereals and cured meats.
The talks on salt were intended to pave the way towards similar voluntary reductions in levels of fat and sugar. From this weekend, however, that consensus could break down because Burger King's competitors will fear the 700-restaurant chain could gain a competitive advantage if its products get a reputation for being tastier.
Such a rift has long been predicted by groups campaigning for healthier food who say that legislation is required because the food industry will never voluntarily do anything that puts sales and profits at risk.
Rt Hon Tony Blair MP 10 Downing Street London SW1A 2AA
12 October 2005
An open letter to the Prime Minister seeking support for the Children's Food Bill
We are writing to ask you to support the Children's Food Bill in its passage through Parliament. As food writers and broadcasters, chefs and promoters of good food, we believe that this Bill can turn around the decline in children's diets over the last 20 years. We stand alongside 150 national organisations, over 200 cross-party MPs and many thousands of concerned parents who already support the Bill.
Jamie's School Dinners highlighted the dire state of school food and we welcome recent Government announcements to introduce minimum nutritional standards and remove junk food from school vending machines. But there is still much more to do. Providing healthy, freshly cooked food on children's plates will require a kitchen in every school, training for catering staff, as well as funding for wholesome ingredients and the time for their preparation.
If we are to change children's attitudes to food, the Government must now act to end junk food advertising and promotions which influence children's food choices and undermine their health. And to stop the scandal of children leaving school knowing only how to open a packet or a tin, cooking and other practical food skills must become part of the school curriculum for every child.
As a father, you know how important healthy, good and enjoyable food is to the development of children. Making the Children's Food Bill law will ensure that all children - wherever they live and whatever their backgrounds - benefit from better food. They deserve nothing less.
Patrick Anthony, Food writer and broadcaster Annie Bell, Food writer, Country Living, Mail on Sunday Raymond Blanc, Chef and restaurateur Richard, Earl of Bradford, Food writer and restaurateur Jill Dupleix, Food writer, The Times Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Food writer and broadcaster Peter Gordon, Chef and food writer Felicity Green, Food writer Henrietta Green, Food writer and organiser of Food Lovers Fairs Sophie Grigson, Food writer and broadcaster Fiona Hamilton-Fairley, Food writer and Principal of Kids' Cookery School Richard Johnson, Food writer and broadcaster Sue Lawrence, Food writer and President of the Guild of Food Writers Jeanette Orrey, Author and award-winning dinner lady Marguerite Patten OBE, Food writer and presenter Gary Rhodes, Chef, restaurateur, food writer and broadcaster Nigel Slater, Food writer Rick Stein, Chef, restaurateur, food writer and broadcaster Jane Suthering, Food writer and Vice-President of the Guild of Food Writers Mitchell Tonks, Food writer and restaurateur Mitzie Wilson, Editor, Delicious magazine Elisabeth Winkler, Writer and editor, Living Earth, Soil Association magazine Antony Worrall Thompson, Chef, restaurateur, food writer and broadcaster
http://www.timesonline.co.uk/newspaper/0,,176-1817439,00.htmlRead the full Sunday Times article online here
91507 October 2005 - BBC Website - Horizon - Could Fish Make My Child Smart?BBC - Horizon - Could fish make my child smart?Scientists once got sacked for suggesting oily fish was good for you. Now all and sundry are hailing it as a panacea.07/10/2005
Omega-3 is a fatty acid, which is essential to our well being. One of the first people to realise its importance was Oxford University scientist Hugh Sinclair. Back in the 1940s he realised that the Inuit ate vast amounts of fat yet hardly ever suffered from heart disease. He believed this was due to the protective effect of one fat, omega-3, found in oily fish.
However, at the time the idea that a fat could be good for us was so controversial that he was ridiculed and lost his post at the university. Undeterred, he continued to study omega-3 and put himself on an 'Eskimo diet'. For 100 days he ate nothing but seal blubber and fish. He found that he not only lost weight in spite of eating half a kilo of fat per day, but bled for increasingly long times when he cut himself. His blood had become very thin. He thought that this might be how omega-3 worked - by preventing red blood cells from being sticky so that they did not clot and cause heart failure.
After two seminal studies, the Seven Countries Study and the GISSI Study, which focused on heart disease, we now know that omega-3 does have a protective effect against cardiovascular disease. People who have had a heart attack and who take a gram of omega-3 a day are less likely to die suddenly of heart disease. Doctors think that omega-3 may have a protective effect against any cardiovascular disease. New research in this area will be published in autumn 2005.
Thirty years ago scientists realised omega-3 is an essential component of the brain, including the visual system. Boosting levels of omega-3 in the brain may help alleviate depression. Studies from America have correlated rates of depression with the amount of fish eaten - countries that eat less fish have higher rates of depression.
A huge amount of research has now been carried out on omega-3 ranging from its effect on Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, autism, dyslexia, multiple sclerosis and even IQ. However, more research is needed before we can prove what omega-3 can or cannot do. In spite of this, we know that our diet used to be higher in omega-3 than it is now so many think we should try to elevate levels of omega-3 through eating vegetarian sources, such as flaxseeds and walnuts, or by eating more oily fish.
91603 October 2005 - Harvard Medical School - Fish Consumption by Pregnant Women May Increase Cognitive Ability in Infants03 October 2005 - Harvard Medical School - Fish Consumption by Pregnant Women May Increase Cognitive Ability in InfantsReport in Environmental Health Perspectives finds health benefits, but concerns remain about mercury levels03/10/2005
Recent recommendations by the FDA advising pregnant women to limit mercury-containing fish in their diets may have the unintended consequence of depriving fetuses of essential nutrients, according to a study published today in the October issue of the peer-reviewed journal Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP). Although excessive mercury intake during pregnancy can harm the neurological development of fetuses, today's study found that nutrients in fish, such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, may play a critical role in an infant's neurocognitive development.
Researchers tested six-month-old infants' cognitive ability and compared it to both the amount of fish consumed by the mother during pregnancy and the amount of mercury found in the mother's hair. As had been found in previous studies, elevated maternal mercury levels were associated with a deficit in infant cognition. However, higher fish intake was associated with higher infant cognition, especially after adjusting for mercury levels.
While these results may seem contradictory, researchers found that the infants who scored highest on cognitive tests were those whose mothers ate more fish and had lower levels of hair mercury.
"The most likely explanation is that the benefit is conferred by consuming fish types with the combination of relatively little mercury and high amounts of beneficial nutrients," wrote the authors of the study. Fish that tend to be higher in n-3 fatty acids but lower in mercury include salmon, canned light tuna, and sardines.
The study, conducted by researchers at Harvard Medical School, examined data from 135 woman-infant pairs who participated in Project Viva, a prospective pregnancy and child health cohort study.
The women completed a food frequency questionnaire that recorded how often during the second trimester of pregnancy they ate four different fish types (canned tuna, shellfish, dark meat fish such as salmon, and all other fish). Maternal hair samples collected at delivery provided a separate measure of mercury intake during the second trimester.
The final stage of research called for infant cognitive testing conducted at approximately 6 months of age. Infants took the visual recognition memory test, which analyzes the child's ability to recognize an initial stimulus and record into memory a novel stimulus. This test has been shown to correlate to IQ later in life.
The researchers sought to better understand the sometimes opposing opinions regarding the consumption of fish by pregnant women. "The net effect of the beneficial nutrients and harmful contaminants contained within fish has not been well studied and remains unclear," they wrote. The study authors suggest that future research include more detailed dietary information to help pregnant women make informed decisions about which fish species may be better or worse for their child's cognition.
The lead author of the study was Emily Oken of the Department of Ambulatory Care and Prevention at Harvard Medical School. Other authors included Robert O. Wright, Ken P. Kleinman, David Bellinger, Chitra J. Amarasiriwardena, Howard Hu, Janet W. Rich-Edwards, and Matthew W. Gillman. Funding for the research was provided by the National Institutes of Health, Harvard Medical School, and the Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Foundation. The article is available free of charge at http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/members/2005/8041/8041.html.
http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/members/2005/8041/8041.htmlRead the full research article in Environmental Health Perspectives heremackerel.jpg
918Oken et al 2005 - Maternal Fish Consumption, Hair Mercury, and Infant Cognition in a U.S. CohortMaternal Fish Consumption, Hair Mercury, and Infant Cognition in a U.S. CohortMaternal Fish Consumption, Hair Mercury, and Infant Cognition in a U.S. CohortOken E, Wright RO, Kleinman KP, Bellinger D, Amarasiriwardena CJ, Hu H, Rich-Edwards JW, Gillman MW.03/10/2005Environmental Health Perspectives113, 101376-80
Fish and other seafood may contain organic mercury but also beneficial nutrients such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. We endeavored to study whether maternal fish consumption during pregnancy harms or benefits fetal brain development. We examined associations of maternal fish intake during pregnancy and maternal hair mercury at delivery with infant cognition among 135 mother-infant pairs in Project Viva, a prospective U.S. pregnancy and child cohort study. We assessed infant cognition by the percent novelty preference on visual recognition memory (VRM) testing at 6 months of age. Mothers consumed an average of 1.2 fish servings per week during the second trimester. Mean maternal hair mercury was 0.55 ppm, with 10% of samples > 1.2 ppm. Mean VRM score was 59.8 (range, 10.9-92.5). After adjusting for participant characteristics using linear regression, higher fish intake was associated with higher infant cognition. This association strengthened after adjustment for hair mercury level: For each additional weekly fish serving, offspring VRM score was 4.0 points higher
95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3 to 6.7
. However, an increase of 1 ppm in mercury was associated with a decrement in VRM score of 7.5 (95% CI, -13.7 to -1.2) points. VRM scores were highest among infants of women who consumed > 2 weekly fish servings but had mercury levels = 1.2 ppm. Higher fish consumption in pregnancy was associated with better infant cognition, but higher mercury levels were associated with lower cognition. Women should continue to eat fish during pregnancy but choose varieties with lower mercury contamination.
Much publicity has been given to the possible risks from mercury in fish and seafood, leading to dietary advice in both the US and UK that women should restrict their intake during pregancy. No consideration was given to the potential benefits of seafood consumption when this advice was formulated.
Fish and seafood are the main natural dietary sources of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids required for normal brain development, so it makes sense to consider the overall balance of benefits to possible risks, as this study set out to do.
Here, it was found that higher maternal intakes of fish and seafood during pregnancy are associated with better outcomes for children's cognitive development. The same finding emerged from a much larger study subsequently carried out using data from a large UK birth cohort study. See:
child development, cognition, environmental health, fish, mercury, n-3 fatty acids, neurotoxins, seafood.http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/members/2005/8041/8041.htmlRead or download the full text of this paper at Environmental Health Perspectives here
921Fish Online - by the Marine Conservation SocietyFish stocks - conservation01/10/2005
If you are concerned about declining fish stocks and the welfare of our seas the Marine Conservation Society FISHONLINE website can help you identify which fish are from well managed sources and/or caught using methods that minimise damage to marine wildlife and habitats.
The website provides both simple and advanced search facilities so that you can obtain a simple overview of a species, or a highly detailed response that includes information on the area of capture, and more specifically, the stock from which the fish is derived (currently applicable to North-East Atlantic stocks only) as well as its method of capture.
In addition to background information on the state of the world's fish stocks you will also find maps of the world's fishing areas (UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) fishing areas, and North East Atlantic stocks (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) fishing areas), to help you identify the areas in which the fish is caught.
There is also a glossary explaining terms associated with fish biology and their management as well as descriptions of the various fishing methods.
For quick reference within the site you will also find 'Lists' of Species to Avoid and Species to Eat.
For easy reference when you are out shopping or at a restaurant MCS has also produced a Good Fish Pocket Guide. This wallet-sized list of the Fish to Eat and the Fish to Avoid is available FREE from MCS on receipt of a SAE to Marine Conservation Society, Unit 3 Wolf Business Park, Alton Road, Ross-on-Wye, HR9 5NB.
1784Lim et al 2005 - N-3 fatty acid deficiency induced by a modified artificial rearing method leads to poorer performance in spatial learning tasksN-3 fatty acid deficiency induced by a modified artificial rearing method leads to poorer performance in spatial learning tasksN-3 fatty acid deficiency induced by a modified artificial rearing method leads to poorer performance in spatial learning tasksLim SY, Hoshiba J, Moriguchi T, Salem N Jr.01/10/2005Pediatr Res. 58(4):741-8.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a major structural component of the nervous system, and depletion may lead to losses in neural function. Our objective was to demonstrate a deficit in spatial task performance in rats with low brain DHA due to a low n-3 fatty acid intake using a first-generational artificial rearing technique.
Newborn rat pups were separated on d 2 and assigned to two artificial rearing groups or a dam-reared control group. Pups were hand fed artificial milk via custom-designed nursing bottles containing either 0.02% (n-3 Def) or 3.1% (n-3 Adq) of total fatty acids as LNA. At d 21, rats were weaned to either n-3 Def or n-3 Adq pelleted diets and several behavioral tasks were evaluated at 9 wk of age.
Brain DHA was lower (58% and 61%, p < 0.001) in n-3 Def in comparison to n-3 Adq and dam-reared rats, respectively. At adulthood, the n-3 fatty acid-deficient rats had a significantly greater moving time than the dam-reared group (p < 0.05), but there were no differences among the three groups in the elevated plus maze test. The n-3 fatty acid deficient rats exhibited a longer escape latency (p < 0.05) and poorer memory retention in the Morris water maze compared with n-3 fatty acid adequate and dam-reared rats.
We concluded that artificial rearing can be used to produce n-3 fatty acid deficiency in the first generation. This deficiency was associated with significantly reduced spatial learning. Adequate brain DHA levels are required for optimal spatial learning.
omega-3, fatty acids, DHA, infant feeding, vision, cognition spatial memoryhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16189203View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1024Paraccho et al 2005 - Gut microflora of children with autistic spectrum disorders and healthy children.Differences between the gut microflora of children with autistic spectrum disorders and that of healthy children.Differences between the gut microflora of children with autistic spectrum disorders and that of healthy children.Parracho HM, Bingham MO, Gibson GR, McCartney AL. 01/10/2005J Med Microbiol. 54(Pt 10)987-91
Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) tend to suffer from severe gastrointestinal problems. Such symptoms may be due to a disruption of the indigenous gut flora promoting the overgrowth of potentially pathogenic micro-organisms.
The faecal flora of patients with ASDs was studied and compared with those of two control groups (healthy siblings and unrelated healthy children). Faecal bacterial populations were assessed through the use of a culture-independent technique, fluorescence in situ hybridization, using oligonucleotide probes targeting predominant components of the gut flora.
The faecal flora of ASD patients contained a higher incidence of the Clostridium histolyticum group (Clostridium clusters I and II) of bacteria than that of healthy children. However, the non-autistic sibling group had an intermediate level of the C. histolyticum group, which was not significantly different from either of the other subject groups. Members of the C. histolyticum group are recognized toxin-producers and may contribute towards gut dysfunction, with their metabolic products also exerting systemic effects.
Strategies to reduce clostridial population levels harboured by ASD patients or to improve their gut microflora profile through dietary modulation may help to alleviate gut disorders common in such patients.
autism, gut flora, probioticshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16157555&query_hl=1&itool=pubmed_docsumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
964Serhan 2005 - Novel eicosanoid and docosanoid mediators: resolvins, docosatrienes, and neuroprotectins.Novel eicosanoid and docosanoid mediators: resolvins, docosatrienes, and neuroprotectins.Novel eicosanoid and docosanoid mediators: resolvins, docosatrienes, and neuroprotectins.Serhan, C.N.01/10/2005Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care.8(2)115-21
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is well known that arachidonic acid is the precursor to potent mediators. Many clinical studies suggest that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid have beneficial actions in human diseases. The molecular basis of these actions remains of interest. RECENT FINDINGS: These demonstrate that eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid are precursors to potent (nM range) bioactive mediators that possess both anti-inflammatory and protective properties. These mediators were coined resolvins, docosatrienes, and protectins as general classes, since each possesses unique chemical structures that are features of the new chemical classes and are biosynthesized by new pathways. Resolvins, discovered first, were identified during the resolution phase of acute inflammation; hence the term resolution interaction products, because they are also biosynthesized by human cells via cell-cell interactions. Docosatrienes contain conjugated triene structures generated from docosahexaenoic acid as a defining feature. The protectins comprise docosatrienes and resolvins of the D series that are both neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory. Aspirin impacts on these new pathways by triggering formation of their epimers (i.e. R isomers). SUMMARY: In view of the many beneficial actions attributed to omega-3 dietary supplementation, identification of novel potent mediators from omega-3 that are both anti-inflammatory and protective may have wide implications.
omega-3, EPA, DHA, eicosanoid, docosanoid, resolvin, neuroprotectin, inflammation, anti-inflammatoryhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=15716788&query_hl=1&itool=pubmed_docsumView this abstract via PubMed here
935Sustain - The Alliance for Better Food and Farming Sustain - The Alliance for Better Food and Farming01/10/2005
Sustain: The alliance for better food and farming advocates food and agriculture policies and practices that enhance the health and welfare of people and animals, improve the working and living environment, enrich society and culture and promote equity.
Sustain represents over 100 national public interest organisations working at international, national, regional and local level.
990Yehuda et al 2005 - Mediation of cognitive function by high fat diet following stress and inflammationMediation of cognitive function by high fat diet following stress and inflammationMediation of cognitive function by high fat diet following stress and inflammationYehuda S, Rabinovitz S, Mostofsky DI. 01/10/2005Nutr Neurosci. 8(5-6)309-15
In addition to commonly advertised hazards of obesity contributed by excess dietary fat, evidence of alterations in brain chemistry and structure are well documented. This brief review examines the role of nutrients, minerals and certain lipids, primarily the essential fatty acids (FA), that are beneficial to the maintenance of good health and that may offer therapeutic options by dietary supplementation. The review also considers the damaging effects of stress, especially in pre-existing conditions of obesity and diabetes, as studied in both animals and humans. The main focus of this brief review is to examine the effects of a high fat diet on stress and the immune system with particular emphasis on brain and cognitive function.
diet, fat, omega-3, omega-6, saturated fat, obesity, stress, inflammation, cognition, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16669601&query_hl=1&itool=pubmed_docsumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
87830 September 2005 - Swansea - SNAP Cymru Annual ConferenceDisengagement; school exclusion; learning difficulties; 30/09/200530/09/2005
SNAP CYMRU ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2005
SNAP Cymru is the Special Needs Advisory Project for Wales. They are a charity that offers information and support to families of children with learning difficulties or people who have special educational needs.
This conference aims to tackle the issues which lead to disengagement or school exclusion, explore practical solutions and share good practice. Social exclusion is everybody's business.
The Role of Nutrition in Children's Behaviour, Learning and Mood. Can Dietary Interventions Help? led by Dr Alex Richardson - Seniour Research Fellow, Mansfield College and University Lab of Physiology, Oxford; Co-Director, Food and Behaviour Research
Building the Capacity of Schools to Manage Challenging Behaviour led by Sharon Davies - Access to Learning Manager - Swansea LEA
Challenges and Opportunities of Workforce Remodelling led by Pauline Lewis - Consortium Co-ordinator South West and Mid Wales Consortium
Emotional Literacy: Implications for Improving Student Behaviour led by Adrian Faupel - Educational Psychologist, University of Southampton
Minimising Explosions led by Nigel Mason - Primary Mental Health Worker, Trehafod Child & Family Clinic - Swansea
The Inspection Process and Behaviour led by Mike Munting - HM Inspector - Estyn
About Me 2 led by Young People - supported by Funky Dragon
One daySwanseaThe Marriott HotelPat Shinner - Area Administratorpat.firstname.lastname@example.org 45730521063 SNAP 4pg Conf.Rpt.pdfClick to download Programme and Booking Form
91430 September 2005 - The Brighton Argus - Fish oil may be on the menu in schoolsThe Argus - Fish oil may be on the menu in schools30/09/2005Jenny Legg
Children could get daily fish oil supplements at school to improve learning and behaviour.
David Hawker, the director of children, families and schools in Brighton and Hove, said he would look into the possibility of supplying supplements to schools after attending a conference on school dinners yesterday.
Dr Alex Richardson, a senior research fellow at Oxford University, told delegates omega-3 and omega-6 fats - found mainly in fish oils - were essential for good health and in particular the brain, which is 60 per cent fat.
She said there was mounting evidence that a lack of these fats could contribute to behaviour and learning problems such as dyslexia, dyspraxia and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and that more research was needed to establish how many school children would benefit from nutritional supplements.
Hilary Reed, who supports dyslexic children as the head of the primary special facility at Brighton and Hove City Council, said she advised parents to give tablet or liquid fish oil supplements to children because she noticed a tangible difference to their learning and behaviour.
She said: "Why can't we dispense fish oils in our schools? Wherever there is a choice for children about their food you cannot control their diet but you can supplement it.
"If we were to supplement in schools it would be a massively cost-effective programme because it prevents problems in the future."
She said 52 per cent of London prisoners were dyslexic. Dr Richardson also highlighted a clinical trial where young offenders given vitamin and fish-oil supplements committed up to 34 per cent less crime than those given a placebo.
Mr Hawker said: "It would be great if we could pay for it. There may be creative ways of doing that. I shall be looking at it as a result of this conference."
The Better Food Conference was organised by the Department of Health South East Regional Public Health Group at Sussex University and was attended by 150 teachers, governors and caterers.
http://www.theargus.co.uk/the_argus/archive/2005/09/30/NEWS50ZM.htmlRead the Argus article here
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