626Luostarinen et al 2003 - Neuromuscular and sensory disturbances in patients with well treated coeliac disease.Neuromuscular and sensory disturbances in patients with well treated coeliac disease.Neuromuscular and sensory disturbances in patients with well treated coeliac disease.Luostarinen, L., Himanen, S.L., Luostarinen, M., Collin, P., Pirttila, T.01/04/2003J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry74(4):490-4.490-4.
OBJECTIVES: A body of evidence shows that coeliac disease is associated with protean manifestations outside the intestine, and neurological disorders are well recognised. However, it remains obscure whether there are signs of clinical or subclinical nervous system involvement even in patients adopting an adequate gluten free diet. The aim of this study was to assess in a controlled study whether patients with treated coeliac disease carry an increased risk for neuropathy and characterise the type of possible neuropathy. METHODS: Electroneuromyographic findings and vibration, thermal, and tactile thresholds of 26 patients with coeliac disease and 23 patients with reflux disease were analysed. RESULTS: Six (23.1 %) coeliac disease patients and one (4.3 %) reflux disease patient showed findings of chronic axonal neuropathy in quantitative needle EMG. In addition, two coeliac disease patients showed findings suggestive for myopathy. There were no significant differences in warm, cold, or vibration thresholds between the groups but means of heat pain thresholds and tactile thresholds were significantly higher in coeliac patients than in controls. CONCLUSION: An increased occurrence of axonal neuropathy was observed in well treated coeliac disease. This further indicates that neurological manifestations occur even in patients without overt malabsorption.
neurological, sensory, neuromuscular, axonal neuropathy, gluten, coeliac diseasehttp://www.blackwell-synergy.com/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=1351-5101&date=2000&volume=7&issue=6&spage=707Licensed users of J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry can view the full text of this paper here
750Morris et al 2003 - Depression and folate status in the US Population.Depression and folate status in the US Population. Depression and folate status in the US Population.Morris, M.S., Fava, M., Jacques, P.F., Selhub, J., Rosenberg, I.H.01/04/2003Psychother Psychosom. 72(2)80-7.
BACKGROUND: Folate deficiency and low folate status have been linked in clinic studies to depression, persistent depressive symptoms, and poor antidepressant response. These relationships have not been demonstrated in general populations. This study examined associations between depression and folate status indicators in an ethnically diverse general US population sample aged 15-39 years.
METHODS: Healthy subjects whose red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations had been measured were determined to have no depression (n = 2,526), major depression (n = 301), or dysthymia (n = 121) using a diagnostic interview schedule. Serum concentrations of folate and total homocysteine (tHcy) were also measured.
RESULTS: After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, serum vitamin B(12) concentration, alcohol consumption over the past year and current status as to overweight and use of vitamin/mineral supplements, cigarettes and illegal drugs, subjects who met criteria for a lifetime diagnosis of major depression had folate concentrations in serum and RBCs that were lower than those of subjects who had never been depressed. Subjects who met criteria for dysthymia alone had lower RBC folate concentrations than never-depressed subjects, but the serum folate concentrations of the two groups were comparable. Serum tHcy concentration was not related to lifetime depression diagnoses. Low folate status was found to be most characteristic of recently recovered subjects, and a large proportion of such subjects were folate deficient.
CONCLUSIONS: Low folate status was detectable in depressed members of the general US population. Folate supplementation may be indicated during the year following a depressive episode. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel
folate, folic acid, serum, depression, dysthymia, depressive symptoms, biochemical measureshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12601225?ordinalpos=23&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
384Osborn et al - 2003 - Formulas containing hydrolysed protein for prevention of allergy and food intolerance in infantsFormulas containing hydrolysed protein for prevention of allergy and food intolerance in infantsFormulas containing hydrolysed protein for prevention of allergy and food intolerance in infantsOsborn D, Sinn J.01/04/2003Cochrane Database Syst Rev.(4):CD003664.
BACKGROUND: Allergies and food reactions are common and may be associated with foods including adapted cow's milk formulas. Formulas containing hydrolysed proteins have been used to treat infants with allergy or food intolerance, and have been advocated for prevention of allergy and food intolerance in infants. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether use of hydrolysed formulas for infant feeding prevents allergy and food intolerance. If hydrolysed formulas are effective, to determine what type of hydrolysed formula is most effective including extensively and partially hydrolysed formulas. To determine which infants benefit including infants at low or high risk of allergy and infants receiving early, short term or prolonged formula feeding. SEARCH STRATEGY: The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used including searches of the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (2003, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1966 - January 2003), EMBASE (1980 - January 2003) and CINAHL (1982 - January 2003) and previous reviews including cross references. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compare the use of a hydrolysed infant formula to human milk or cow's milk formula. Trials with >80% follow up of participants were eligible for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Eligibility of studies for inclusion, methodological quality and data extraction were assessed independently by each reviewer. Primary outcomes included clinical allergy, specific allergies and food intolerance. Meta-analysis was conducted using a fixed effects model. MAIN RESULTS: Eighteen trials met criteria for inclusion. No eligible trials compared prolonged hydrolysed formula to human milk feeding. Two trials compared early, short term hydrolysed formula to human milk feeding and reported no significant difference in infant allergy or childhood cow's milk allergy (CMA). Two trials compared early, short term hydrolysed formula to cow's milk formula feeding with no significant benefits reported. One large quasi-random study reported a reduction in infant CMA of borderline significance in low risk infants (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.38, 1.00).Seven studies compared prolonged feeding of hydrolysed formula to cow's milk formula without using co-interventions for allergy prevention. Meta-analysis of 4 studies (386 infants) found a significant reduction in allergy incidence in infancy (typical RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.47, 0.85; RD -0.15, 95% CI -0.25, -0.06). One study reported a significant reduction in allergy incidence in childhood (RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.36, 0.81). Significant reductions were found in asthma prevalence in childhood, eczema incidence in infancy and prevalence in childhood, food allergy prevalence in childhood, and CMA incidence in infancy. All studies enrolled infants at high risk of allergy. Only three trials comparing prolonged hydrolysed formula feeding to cow's milk formula feeding were considered of good methodology. Only one of these trials demonstrated a benefit into childhood (5 years of age). No eligible trials examined the effects of prolonged hydrolysed formula feeding on allergy beyond early childhood. Costs were not reported. Three trials compared prolonged feeding with an extensive to a partially hydrolysed formula and reported no significant difference in allergy incidence in infancy. REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence to support feeding with a hydrolysed formula for the prevention of allergy in preference to exclusive breast feeding. In high risk infants who are unable to be completely breast fed, there is evidence that prolonged feeding with a hydrolysed compared to a cow's milk formula reduces infant and childhood allergy and infant CMA. Further trials are required to determine if significant clinical benefits persist beyond 5 years of age and if there is any additional benefit from use of an extensive compared to a partially hydrolysed formula. Incremental costs of formula and the effect on compliance should be measured.
food allergy, food intolerance, infant nutrition, diet, breastfeeding, infant formula, cows' milk, hydrolysed protein, RCT, systematic reviewhttp://www.cochrane.org/cochrane/revabstr/ab003664.htmView this abstract (or full text for subscribers) via the Cochrane Library here
643Tully et al 2003 - Low DHA levels in Alzheimer's diseaseLow serum cholesteryl ester-docosahexaenoic acid levels in Alzheimer's disease: a case-control studyTully et al 2003 - Low serum cholesteryl ester-docosahexaenoic acid levels in Alzheimer's disease: a case-control study.Tully, A.M., Roche, H.M., Doyle, R., Fallon, C., Bruce, I., Lawlor, B., Coakley, D., Gibney, M.J.01/04/2003Br J Nutr.89(4)483-9.
Low n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status may be associated with neuro-degenerative disorders, in particular Alzheimer's disease, which has been associated with poor dietary fish or n-3 PUFA intake, and low docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status. The present case-control study used an established biomarker of n-3 PUFA intake (serum cholesteryl ester-fatty acid composition) to determine n-3 PUFA status in patients with Alzheimer's disease, who were free-living in the community. All cases fulfilled the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria for Alzheimer's disease. Detailed neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging established the diagnosis in all cases. The subjects (119 females and twenty-nine males) aged 76.5 (SD 6.6) years had a clinical dementia rating (CDR) of 1 (SD 0.62) and a mini mental state examination (MMSE) score of 19.5 (SD 4.8). The control subjects (thirty-six females and nine males) aged 70 (SD 6.0) years were not cognitively impaired (defined as MMSE score <24): they had a mean MMSE score of 28.9 (SD 1.1). Serum cholesteryl ester-eicosapentaenoic acid and DHA levels were significantly lower (P<0.05 and P<0.001 respectively) in all MMSE score quartiles of patients with Alzheimer's disease compared with control values. Serum cholesteryl ester-DHA levels were progressively reduced with severity of clinical dementia. DHA levels did not differ in patients with Alzheimer's disease across age quartiles: all were consistently lower than in control subjects. Step-wise multiple regression analysis showed that cholesteryl ester-DHA and total saturated fatty acid levels were the important determinants of MMSE score and CDR. It remains to be determined whether low DHA status in Alzheimer's disease is a causal factor in the pathogenesis and progression of Alzheimer's disease.
Alzhemier's disease, omega-3 fatty acids, EPA, DHA, EFA, HUFA, case-control study, biochemistryhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=12654166View this abstract via PubMed here
386Wardle et al 2003 - Increasing children's acceptance of vegetables; a randomized trial of parent-led exposureIncreasing children's acceptance of vegetables; a randomized trial of parent-led exposureIncreasing children's acceptance of vegetablesWardle, J., Cooke, L.J., Gibson, E.L., Sapochnik, M., Sheiham, A., Lawson, M.01/04/2003Appetite40(2)155-62.
Despite considerable epidemiological evidence of the health benefits of a diet high in fruit and vegetables, consumption in pre-school children remains well below recommended levels.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of an exposure-based intervention, carried out by parents in the home, in increasing children's liking for a previously disliked vegetable.
156 parents of 2-6 year old children were randomly assigned to Exposure, Information or Control groups after a pre-intervention taste test at which a 'target' vegetable was selected. Parents in the Exposure group gave their child a taste of this vegetable daily for 14 days, parents in the Information group were given nutritional advice and a leaflet, and parents in the Control group received no further intervention. All participants took part in a post-intervention taste test.
Greater increases in liking, ranking and consumption of the 'target' vegetable from pre- to post-intervention occurred in the Exposure group than in either of the other two groups. Only the Exposure group showed significant increases across all three outcomes.
It can be concluded that a parent-led, exposure-based intervention involving daily tasting of a vegetable holds promise for improving children's acceptance of vegetables. These findings suggest a parental advice strategy which could be disseminated directly to parents or by health professionals.
nutrition, diet, vegetables, children, appetite,food preferences, randomised controlled trial, RCThttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=12781165&dopt=AbstractView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
362Chiu et al 2003 - Polyunsaturated fatty acid deficit in bipolar mania.Polyunsaturated fatty acid deficit in patients with bipolar mania.Chiu et al 2003 - Polyunsaturated fatty acid deficit in patients with bipolar mania.Chiu, C.C., Huang, S.Y., Su, K.P., Lu, M.L., Huang, M.C., Chen, C.C., Shen, W.W.01/03/2003European Neuropsychopharmacology13(2)99-103.
The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that there is a depletion of polyunsaturated fatty acids of erythrocyte membranes in patients with bipolar disorder and to connect the previous therapeutic and psychoimmunological findings. Fatty acid compositions of erythrocyte membranes in 20 bipolar manic patients and 20 healthy controls were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The major finding was significantly reduced arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) compositions in bipolar patients as compared to normal controls with P values of 0.000 and 0.002, respectively. There were no differences in total omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. This abnormality may be related to the mechanisms of action of mood stabilizers and the previous findings on the abnormal psychoimmunology of patients with bipolar disorder. Larger sample sizes of medicated patients or drug-free manic, well-controlled designs on the diet and smoking, and fatty acid composition measurements during full remission after the index episode are warranted in future studies.
bipolar disorder, mania, fatty acids, EFA, PUFA, HUFA, omega-3, omega-6, RBC membraneshttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T26-47CYB3F-1&_coverDate=03%2F31%2F2003&_alid=124592001&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_qd=1&_cdi=4910&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000010360&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=126524&md5=1448351f8c6b8ccb9bea1a1a43bfbc8bLicensed users of European Neuropsychopharmacology (via Science Direct) can view this paper here
1740Kuloglu et al 2003 - Serum iron levels in schizophrenic patients with or without akathisiaSerum iron levels in schizophrenic patients with or without akathisiaSerum iron levels in schizophrenic patients with or without akathisiaKuloglu M, Atmaca M, Ustündag B, Canatan H, Gecici O, Tezcan E.01/03/2003Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 13(2):67-71.
The pathophysiology of akathisia still remains controversial. Iron deficiency was proposed to be an important factor in the development of akathisia.
In the present study, it was aimed to compare levels of serum iron and linked variables in chronic akathisic (n=30), and non-akathisic patients (n=30) with schizophrenia and healthy controls (n=30) because of the controversy in the association of iron and akathisia. The Barnes Akathisia Scale for akathisia and Simpson-Angus Rating Scale for extrapyramidal side effects were used. Serum iron and linked variables and hematological profile of the patients and control subjects were determined.
Serum iron levels were significantly lower both in akathisic and non-akathisic groups compared to the control group (P<0.001). Moreover, akathisic patients had significantly lower iron levels than non-akathisic patients (P<0.05). Total iron binding capacity was significantly higher in patients with akathisia compared to the control group (P<0.01). Although non-akathisic patients had a mild increase in total iron binding capacity, it was not statistically significant compared to the control group (P>0.05). Ferritin levels were determined to be significantly lower in both groups compared to the control group (P<0.01). In addition, there was a significant difference in ferritin levels between the patients with and without akathisia (P<0.05).
In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that an association between akathisia and iron metabolism exists.
schizophrenia, akathisia, drug side-effects, iron, ferritin, iron metabolism, nutrition, human study, biochemical measureshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12650948View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
411Schnoll et al 2003 - Nutrition in the treatment of ADHDNutrition in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a neglected but important aspectNutrition in the treatment of ADHDSchnoll R, Burshteyn D, Cea-Aravena J01/03/2003Applied Psychophysiological Biofeedback28 (1)63 - 75
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is multidetermined and complex, requiring a multifaceted treatment approach. Nutritional management is one aspect that has been relatively neglected to date. Nutritional factors such as food additives, refined sugars, food sensitivities/allergies, and fatty acid deficiencies have all been linked to ADHD. There is increasing evidence that many children with behavioral problems are sensitive to one or more food components that can negatively impact their behavior. Individual response is an important factor for determining the proper approach in treating children with ADHD. In general, diet modification plays a major role in the management of ADHD and should be considered as part of the treatment protocol.
ADHD, nutritional management, food additives, refined sugars, allergies, fatty acid, behaviour, diet http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=12737097&dopt=Abstractthis takes you to the abstract in Pub Med
344Vaddadi et al 2003 - Low blood selenium concentrations in schizophrenic patients on clozapineLow blood selenium concentrations in schizophrenic patients on clozapine Low blood selenium concentrations in schizophrenic patients on clozapineVaddadi, K.S., Soosai, E., Vaddadi, G.01/03/2003Br J Clin Pharmacol55(3)307-9.
AIMS: To compare plasma and red-cell selenium concentrations of schizophrenic patients treated with clozapine, with healthy controls and patients with mood disorders.
METHODS: Plasma and red-cell selenium concentrations were measured in random venous blood samples from four groups: mood disorder (n = 36), schizophrenics treated with clozapine (n = 54), schizophrenics not treated with clozapine (n = 41) and a healthy control group (n = 56). Assays were performed by an independent laboratory that was blinded to the patient groups and specializes in estimating trace metal concentrations.
RESULTS: Selenium concentrations in plasma and red cells were found to be significantly lower in schizophrenic patients treated with clozapine as compared with all other groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Selenium is an essential antioxidant. Its deficiency has been implicated in myocarditis and cardiomyopathy. Low selenium concentrations in clozapine-treated patients may be important in the pathogenesis of life threatening cardiac side-effects associated with clozapine. Further clinical studies are being conducted to explore this important clinical observation and its therapeutic implications.
Selenium deficiency has long been implicated in both myocarditis(inflammation of the heart muscle) and cardiomyopathy (other forms of heart disease). These are among the life-threatening cardiac side-effects associated with the atypical neuroleptic clozapine.
In this careful case-control study, blood selenium concentrations were found to be significantly lower in schizophrenia patients treated with clozapine when compared with schizophrenia patients receiving other medications, patients with mood disorder, or healthy controls.
Low selenium status might therefore help to explain the elevated risk of cardiac deaths in clozapine-treated patients, although this still requires investigation via randomised controlled trials.
schizophrenia, nutrition, selenium, antioxidant, clozapine, atypical neuroleptics, drug side-effects, human study, case-control study, biochemical studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12630982View this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text of this paper is available online
586Taylor et al 2003 - Folate for depressive disordersFolate for depressive disorders. Taylor et al 2003 - Folate for depressive disordersTaylor, M.J., Carney, S., Geddes, J., Goodwin, G.22/02/2003Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (2):CD003390.
BACKGROUND: There are a number of effective interventions for the treatment of depression. It is possible that the efficacy of these treatments will be improved further by the use of adjunctive therapies such as folate.
OBJECTIVES: 1. To determine the effectiveness of folate in the treatment of depression 2. To determine the adverse effects and acceptability of treatment with folate.
SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CCTR), and the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Controlled Trials Register (CCDANCTR) incorporating results of group searches of EMBASE, MEDLINE, LILACS, CINAHL, PSYNDEX and PsycLIT were searched. Reference lists of relevant papers and major textbooks of affective disorder were checked. Experts in the field and pharmaceutical companies were contacted regarding unpublished material.
SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials that compared treatment with folic acid or 5'-methyltetrahydrofolic acid to an alternative treatment, whether another antidepressant medication or placebo, for patients with a diagnosis of depressive disorder (diagnosed according to explicit criteria).
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data were independently extracted from the original reports by two reviewers. Statistical analysis was conducted using Review Manager version 4.1.
MAIN RESULTS: Three trials involving 247 people were included. Two studies involving 151 people assessed the use of folate in addition to other treatment, and found that adding folate reduced Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores on average by a further 2.65 points (95% confidence interval 0.38 to 4.93). Fewer patients treated with folate experienced a reduction in their HDRS score of less than 50% at ten weeks (relative risk (RR) 0.47, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.92) The number needed to treat with folate for one additional person to experience a 50% reduction on this scale was 5 (95% confidence interval 4 to 33). One study involving 96 people assessed the use of folate instead of the antidepressant trazodone and did not find a significant benefit from the use of folate. The trials identified did not find evidence of any problems with the acceptability or safety of folate.
REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS: The limited available evidence suggests folate may have a potential role as a supplement to other treatment for depression. It is currently unclear if this is the case both for people with normal folate levels, and for those with folate deficiency.
depression, treatment, folate, folic acid, RCT, systematic reviewhttp://www.cochrane.org/cochrane/revabstr/ab003390.htmView this abstract (or full text for subscribers) via the Cochrane Library here
993Dump the Junk: Over 300 Tips to Encourage Children to Eat Healthy FoodDump the Junk: Over 300 Tips to Encourage Children to Eat Healthy FoodDump the Junk: Over 300 Tips to Encourage Children to Eat Healthy FoodMary Whiting10/2/2003
A reader's review from Amazon
If you constantly find yourself at war with food manufacturers trying to sabotage your child's health and brainwash them into wanting their overpriced junk, then Mary Whiting has written the book for you.
Dump the Junk is an inspirational and entertaining read stuffed with practical ideas for getting children to eat real, delicious food. It contains chapters on getting children to eat vegetables, fruit, fish (a tricky one I find), and breakfast. Other chapters deal with mealtimes, shopping with children, school and nursery food,other people's food, and an inspiring chapter on making packed lunches. There are also some forty pages of recipes.
The book is peppered throughout with anecdotes and tips from parents - I intend to implement the 'sweet tip' on page 109 as soon as possible.The illustrations by Ben Nash are great too.
Dump the Junk - Mary Whiting.jpgBook coverhttp://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0954432401/fabresearfood-21
410Amore et al 2003 - Can breast-feeding protect against schizophrenia?Can breast-feeding protect against schizophrenia? Case-control Study However, breast milk might postpone the onset of the illness in schizophrenic patients. Amore M, Balista C, McCreadie RG, Cimmino C, Pisani F, Bevilacqua G, Ferrari G.01/02/2003Biology of the Neonate
BACKGROUND: Human milk, unlike formula feeds, contains long-chain polyunsatured fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid which are essential in the development of the central nervous system. If human milk is the optimal food for brain development, and if schizophrenia is a neurodevelopment disorder, might people who become schizophrenic in adult life be less likely to have been breast-fed?
AIMS: To compare the incidence and length of breast-feeding in patients, siblings and normal controls and to examine the relationship between the duration of breast-feeding and age at onset of schizophrenia.
METHOD: 113 schizophrenic patients were recruited, as were 140 siblings of the patients and 113 nonschizophrenic controls. The breast-feeding history of the patients, their siblings and controls was obtained through interviews with the mothers of the patients and controls.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences between groups in the incidence of breast- feeding. The duration of breast-feeding was positively correlated with the age at onset of illness (r = +0.25, p < 0.02).
CONCLUSION: Breast-feeding is no less common in those who develop schizophrenia in later life. However, breast milk might postpone the onset of the illness in schizophrenic patients.
schizophrenia, neurodevelopment, breast-feeding, nutritionhttp://content.karger.com/produktedb/produkte.asp?typ=fulltext&file=bon83097Licensed users of Biol Neonate (via Karger) can view this article here
1747Buydens-Branchey & Branchey 2003 - Association between low plasma levels of cholesterol and relapse in cocaine addictsAssociation between low plasma levels of cholesterol and relapse in cocaine addictsAssociation between low plasma levels of cholesterol and relapse in cocaine addictsBuydens-Branchey L, Branchey M.01/02/2003Psychosom Med. 65(1):86-91.
OBJECTIVE:In light of recent studies suggesting the existence of associations between low concentrations of cholesterol and various psychiatric disorders, we decided to explore relationships between cholesterol levels and relapse rates in a group of cocaine addicts who had undergone inpatient detoxification.
METHODS: The total cholesterol levels of 38 non-opiate-dependent and non-alcohol-dependent cocaine addicts were determined while they were hospitalized. Drug use was subsequently assessed 3, 6, and 12 months after patients were discharged from the hospital.
RESULTS:Comparisons of the cholesterol levels (obtained during hospitalization) of relapsers and nonrelapsers by analyses of covariance with age and weight as covariates revealed significantly lower cholesterol values in patients who relapsed at 3 months (p =.046), 6 months (p =.030), and 12 months (p =.019) after discharge.
CONCLUSIONS: This study showed an association between a low total cholesterol level and relapse rates in detoxified cocaine addicts. Reasons for the predictive value of low cholesterol levels for relapse for up to 1 year after cholesterol measurements were made are unclear. These data are preliminary and in need of replication.
aggression, psychiatric disorders, cholesterol, human study, substance use disorders, addiction, cocainehttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12554819View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
218Children with Starving Brains: A Medical Treatment Guide for Autism Spectrum DisorderChildren with Starving Brains: A Medical Treatment Guide for Autism Spectrum DisorderMedical Treatment Guide for Autism Spectrum DisorderJacquelyn McCandless01/02/2003
This book received the following 5-star Customer Review from Amazon:
Children with Starving Brains is a guidebook in the maze of treatment options for children within the Autism Spectrum. The author Dr. Candless is a medical doctor, and also the grandmother of an autistic child. This provides for a guidebook that takes an honest scientific look at the different therapies available at this time while keeping the child in mind. An excellent book to give you in layman's terms the biological processes that affect ASD children and why the different treatments work. Excellent reference to take to your doctor when discussing treatment. Having read over 30 books on autism, this one is the first one I write a review over. It's clear, concise, and factual. Like a lighthouse, it guides you and provides a proposed sequence of treatments to help children get the "brain food" they need.
Children with starving brains.jpgBook coverhttp://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/188364710X/fabresearfood-21http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/188364710X/fabresearch-20
514Chiu et al 2003 - Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Depression in PregnancyOmega-3 Fatty Acids for Depression in PregnancyChiu et al 2003 - Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Depression in PregnancyChiu, C.C., Huang, S.Y., Shen, W.W., Su, K.P.01/02/2003Am J Psychiatry.160(2)385.
Letter - no abstract available
Excerpt from the introduction to this case report
Depression during pregnancy affects both the mother and the child. Most drugs pass from mother to baby through the placenta in different degrees. Medicating depressed pregnant patients is a clinical dilemma. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, with a possible antidepressant effect and a lack of teratogenicity for the fetus, seem to be a favorable treatment alternative. We report here what is to our knowledge the first case of successful treatment with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid monotherapy of a pregnant patient with major depressive disorder.
depression, mood disorder, omega-3, HUFA, PUFA, EFA, fatty acids, pregnancy, treatmenthttp://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/160/2/385Licensed users of Am J Psychiat online can view this paper here
930Hudson & Tabet 2003 - Acetyl-L-carnitine for dementia.Acetyl-L-carnitine for dementia. Acetyl-L-carnitine for dementia.Hudson S, Tabet N.01/02/2003Cochrane Database Syst Rev. CD003158
BACKGROUND: Dementia is a common mental health problem affecting 5% of those over 65. Various pathological processes are linked to memory impairment in dementia, particularly those affecting the cholinergic neurotransmitter system. Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) is derived from carnitine and is described as having several properties which may be beneficial in dementia. This includes activity at cholinergic neurons, membrane stabilization and enhancing mitochondrial function. Work on the effects of ALC has been ongoing since the 1980s yet the efficacy of ALC in cognitive decline remains unclear. Early studies suggested a beneficial effect of ALC on cognition and behaviour in aging subjects. However, later, larger studies have not supported these findings. Some of the difficulties lie in the early and later studies differing widely in methodology and assessment tools used, and are therefore difficult to compare. ALC is not currently in routine clinical use.
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review is to establish whether Acetyl-l-carnitine is clinically effective in the treatment of people with dementia.
SEARCH STRATEGY: The trials were identified from a search of the Specialized Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group on 8 January 2003 using the terms acetyl-l-carnitine, l-carnitine acetyl ester, acetylcarnitine.
SELECTION CRITERIA: All double-blind, randomized, trials involving people with dementia in which treatment with ALC was compared with a placebo group
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data were extracted by a reviewer (SH) and entered into Revman 4.1 software. Where possible intention-to-treat data were used, but most of the analyses were of completers (people who completed the study). MAIN RESULTS: There are 11 included trials, all of which had restricted the participants to people with Alzheimer's disease. All trials assessed the cognitive effects of ALC and in addition six considered severity of dementia, six considered functional ability and six considered clinical global impression. There were statistically significant treatment effects in favour of ALC at 12 and 24 weeks for the numbers showing improvement as determined by Clinical Global Impression, (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.25 to 4.35, P<0 .01 and OR 3.91, 95% CI 1.32 to 11.54, P=0.01) but not as determined by the CIGIC at 52 weeks. There was no evidence of benefit for ALC in the areas of cognition, severity of dementia, functional ability or Clinical Global Impression as a continuous measure. Various adverse events were reported, but from the meta-analyses there were no statistically significant differences between treated and placebo groups.
REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence for benefit of ALC on clinical global impression, but there was no evidence using objective assessments in any other area of outcome. Given the large number of comparisons made, the statistically significant result may be due to chance. At present there is no evidence to recommend its routine use in clinical practice. Although the intention of the review was to access ALC for the treatment of all dementias, the included trials had confined themselves to participants with Alzheimer's disease. Individual patient data may add to the findings, as would trials including other types of dementia and other outcomes (e.g. mood and caregiver quality of life). However, the evidence does not suggest that ALC is likely to prove an important therapeutic agent. More work on the pharmacokinetics of ALC in humans is also required.
dementia, Alzheimer's disease, carnitine, acyl-L-carnitine, memory, cognitive function, cognitive impairment, systematic review, RCThttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=12804452&query_hl=15View this abstract via Pubmed here
901Miller 2003 - The methionine-homocysteine cycle and its effects on cognitive diseases.The methionine-homocysteine cycle and its effects on cognitive diseases.The methionine-homocysteine cycle and its effects on cognitive diseases.Miller, A.L.01/02/2003Altern Med Rev. 8(1)7-19.
Homocysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, is a metabolite of the essential amino acid methionine, and exists at a critical biochemical intersection in the methionine cycle - between S-adenosylmethionine, the indispensable ubiquitous methyl donor, and vitamins B12 and folic acid. High blood levels of homocysteine signal a breakdown in this vital process, resulting in far-reaching biochemical and life consequences. The link between homocysteine and cardiovascular disease is well established, and decreasing plasma total homocysteine by providing nutritional cofactors for its metabolism has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. Information has been emerging regarding a connection between homocysteine metabolism and cognitive function, from mild cognitive decline (age-related memory loss) to vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Significant deficiencies in the homocysteine re-methylation cofactors cobalamin (B12) and folate, as well as the trans-sulfuration cofactor vitamin B6, are commonly seen in the elderly population, with a resultant increase in homocysteine with advancing age. Hyperhomocysteinemia has been shown to be an independent risk factor for cognitive dysfunction. Indirect and direct vascular damage can be caused by homocysteine, which has been implicated in vascular dementia, with an increased risk of multiple brain infarcts and dementia as homocysteine levels rise. A significant correlation has been found between risk of Alzheimer's disease and high plasma levels of homocysteine, as well as low levels of folic acid, and vitamins B6 and B12. All of these disease associations are thought to be interrelated via increased homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine and subsequent hypomethylation of numerous substances, including DNA and proteins, that render vascular structures and neurons more susceptible to damage and apoptosis. Providing the nutritional cofactors for proper functioning of the methionine cycle may improve methylation and protect the brain from damage. Further studies need to be performed to assess whether this will also reduce the risk of cognitive diseases and/or improve cognitive functioning.
hyperhomocystemia, homocysteine, B6, B12, folate, methionine, methylation, cognition, dementia, Alzheimer's dieases, cardiovascular diseasehttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=12611557&query_hl=4View this abstract via Pubmed here
645Morris et al 2003 - Dietary fats and the risk of incident Alzheimer disease.Dietary fats and the risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Dietary fats and the risk of incident Alzheimer disease.Morris, M.C., Evans, D.A., Bienias, J.L., Tangney, C.C., Bennett, D.A., Aggarwal, N., Schneider, J., Wilson, R.S.01/02/2003Arch Neurol. 60(2)194-200.
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the effects of dietary fats on the development of Alzheimer disease. We examined the associations between intake of specific types of fat and incident Alzheimer disease in a biracial community study.
METHODS: We performed clinical evaluations on a stratified random sample of 815 community residents aged 65 years and older who were unaffected by Alzheimer disease at baseline and who completed a food-frequency questionnaire a mean of 2.3 years before clinical evaluation.
RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 3.9 years, 131 persons developed Alzheimer disease. Intakes of saturated fat and trans-unsaturated fat were positively associated with risk of Alzheimer disease, whereas intakes of omega-6 polyunsaturated fat and monounsaturated fat were inversely associated. Persons in the upper fifth of saturated-fat intake had 2.2 times the risk of incident Alzheimer disease compared with persons in the lowest fifth in a multivariable model adjusted for age, sex, race, education, and apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele status (95% confidence interval, 1.1-4.7). Risk also increased with consumption of trans-unsaturated fats, beginning with the second fifth of intake (relative risk, 2.4 compared with the lowest fifth; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.3). We observed linear inverse associations between Alzheimer disease and vegetable fat (P =.002), and, after further adjustment for other types of fat, marginally significant associations with intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fat (P =.10 for trend) and monounsaturated fat (P =.10 for trend). Intakes of total fat, animal fat, and dietary cholesterol were not associated with Alzheimer disease.
CONCLUSION: High intake of unsaturated, unhydrogenated fats may be protective against Alzheimer disease, whereas intake of saturated or trans-unsaturated (hydrogenated) fats may increase risk.
Alzheimer's, dietary fat, trans fats, saturated fats polyunsaturated fatshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12580703View this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text of this article is available online
359Reichelt & Knivsberg 2003 - Can the pathophysiology of autism be explained by the nature of the discovered urine peptides?Can the pathophysiology of autism be explained by the nature of the discovered urine peptides?Can the pathophysiology of autism be explained by the nature of the discovered urine peptides?Reichelt KL, Knivsberg AM.01/02/2003Nutritional Neuroscience6 (1)19 - 28
Opioid peptides derived from food proteins (exorphins) have been found in urine of autistic patients. Based on the work of several groups, we try to show that exorphins and serotonin uptake stimulating factors may explain many of the signs and symptoms seen in autistic disorders. The individual symptoms ought to be explainable by the properties and behavioural effects of the found peptides. The data presented form the basis of an autism model, where we suggest that exorphins and serotonin uptake modulators are key mediators for the development of autism. This may be due to a genetically based peptidase deficiency in at least two or more peptidases and, or of peptidase regulating proteins made manifest by a dietary overload of exorphin precursors such as by increased gut uptake.
Autism, Peptides, Exorphins, Urine, Diet http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=12608733&dopt=Abstractthis takes you to abstract in Pub Med
381Spanier et al 2003 - Systematic review of alternative therapies in IBSA systematic review of alternative therapies in the irritable bowel syndromeSystematic review of alternative therapies in IBSSpanier, J.A., Howden, C.W., Jones, M.P.01/02/2003Archives of Internal Medicine.163(3)265-74.
The irritable bowel syndrome is a common disorder associated with a significant burden of illness, poor quality of life, high rates of absenteeism, and high health care utilization. Management can be difficult and treatment unrewarding; these facts have led physicians and patients toward alternative therapies. We explored a variety of treatments that exist beyond the scope of commonly used therapies for irritable bowel syndrome. Guarded optimism exists for traditional Chinese medicine and psychological therapies, but further well-designed trials are needed. Oral cromolyn sodium may be useful in chronic unexplained diarrhea and appears as effective as and safer than elimination diets. The roles of lactose and fructose intolerance remain poorly understood. Alterations of enteric flora may play a role in irritable bowel syndrome, but supporting evidence for bacterial overgrowth or probiotic therapy is lacking.
irritable bowel syndrome, allergy, immunity, nutrition, diet, prebiotics, probiotics, gut flora, psychological therapies, systematic reviewhttp://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/163/3/265Licensed users of the Arch Int Med can view this paper here
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