1287Johnson et al 2009 - Omega-3/omega-6 fatty acids for ADHD: a randomized placebo-controlled trial in children and adolescents.Omega-3/omega-6 fatty acids for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomized placebo-controlled trial in children and adolescents.Omega-3/omega-6 fatty acids for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomized placebo-controlled trial in children and adolescents.Johnson M, Ostlund S, Fransson G, Kadesjö B, Gillberg C.01/03/2009J Atten Disord. 12(5)394-401. Epub 2008 Apr 30
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess omega 3/6 fatty acids in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: The study included a randomized, 3-month, omega 3/6 placebo-controlled, one-way crossover trial with 75 children and adolescents (8-18 years), followed by 3 months with omega 3/6 for all. Investigator-rated ADHD Rating Scale-IV and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale were outcome measures. RESULTS: A majority did not respond to omega 3/6 treatment. However, a subgroup of 26% responded with more than 25% reduction of ADHD symptoms and a drop of CGI scores to the near-normal range. After 6 months, 47% of all showed such improvement. Responders tended to have ADHD inattentive subtype and comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders. CONCLUSION: A subgroup of children and adolescents with ADHD, characterized by inattention and associated neurodevelopmental disorders, treated with omega 3/6 fatty acids for 6 months responded with meaningful reduction of ADHD symptoms.
ADHD, omega-3, omega-6, fatty acids, dietary supplementation, RCT http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18448859?ordinalpos=8&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1621Pelchat 2009 - Food addiction in humansFood addiction in humansFood addiction in humans Pelchat, M.L.01/03/2009J Nutr. 139(3)620-2. Epub 2009 Jan 28.
Most of the evidence for or against food addiction in humans focuses on similarities between food craving and drug craving. There are numerous parallels in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and learning. Indeed, brain mechanisms for craving probably evolved to promote seeking of natural rewards and are taken over by drugs of abuse.
Healthy, normal weight individuals, by definition, do not suffer from food addiction; however, overweight and obese individuals could meet clinical criteria. Palatable foods are not responsible for the obesity problem, because even nonpalatable foods can come to be desired and potentially overconsumed. It may be the way in which foods are consumed (e.g. alternating access and restriction) rather than their sensory properties that leads to an addictive eating pattern.
food, diet, addiction, substance use, drugs, human studies, animal studies, review, Free Full Texthttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19176747View this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text of this article is available online
1297Ramakrishnan et al 2009 - Role of DHA in maternal and child mental healthRole of docosahexaenoic acid in maternal and child mental healthRole of docosahexaenoic acid in maternal and child mental healthRamakrishnan U, Imhoff-Kunsch B, DiGirolamo AM.01/03/2009Am J Clin Nutr. 89(3)958S-962S. Epub 2009 Jan 28
Mental health problems in women and children represent a significant public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. The role of nutrition as a cost-effective approach in the prevention and management of these conditions has received recent attention, particularly nutrients such as iron, zinc, and n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids, which play a role in brain structure and function. The objective of this article was to review current evidence on the relation between n-3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and maternal and child mental health disorders. Human studies published in English were identified from Medline databases (1966 to June 2008) by using key search terms and review articles. A summary of the role of DHA in the human brain is followed by a review of human studies, both observational and intervention trials, that examine the relation between n-3 fatty acids such as DHA and depression and child mental health disorders. Observational studies support a direct association between poor n-3 fatty acid status and increased risk of maternal depression and childhood behavioral disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, evidence from intervention trials is weak. Most of the studies reviewed had small sample sizes and were conducted in clinically diagnosed samples, with no placebo-controlled groups. Little is known about the benefits of DHA in the prevention of maternal depression and ADHD. Large, well-designed, community-based prevention trials are needed.
omega-3, DHA, mental health, depression, ADHD, pregnancy, children, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19176728?ordinalpos=12&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts here
1294Sarris et al 2009 - Major depressive disorder and nutritional medicine: a review of monotherapies and adjuvant treatments.Major depressive disorder and nutritional medicine: a review of monotherapies and adjuvant treatments.Major depressive disorder and nutritional medicine: a review of monotherapies and adjuvant treatments.Sarris J, Schoendorfer N, Kavanagh DJ.01/03/2009Nutr Rev. 2009 67(3)125-31
A literature review was conducted to examine the evidence for nutritional interventions in depression. It revealed a number of significant conclusions. Interestingly, more positive clinical trials were found to support adjuvant, rather than monotherapeutic, use of nutrients to treat depression. Much evidence exists in the area of adjuvant application of folic acid, S-adenosyl-methionine, omega-3, and L-tryptophan with antidepressants. Current evidence does not support omega-3 as an effective monotherapy to treat depression. However, this may be due, at least in part, to olive oil being used as the control intervention, some studies using docosahexaenoic acid alone or a higher docosahexaenoic acid to eicosapentaenoic acid ratio, and significant heterogeneity regarding depressive populations. Nevertheless, adjunctive prescription of omega-3 with antidepressants, or in people with dietary deficiency, may be beneficial. Inositol lacks evidence as an effective antidepressant and cannot be currently recommended. Evidence on the use of L-tryptophan for depression is inconclusive, and additional studies utilizing a more robust methodology are required.
nutrition, depression, treatment, omega-3, L-tryptophan, inositol, review http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19239627?ordinalpos=5&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1780Schnebelen et al 2009 - Dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFA enhance DHA incorporation in retinal phospholipids without affecting PGE(1) and PGE (2) levels.Dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFA enhance DHA incorporation in retinal phospholipids without affecting PGE(1) and PGE (2) levels.Dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFA enhance DHA incorporation in retinal phospholipids without affecting PGE(1) and PGE (2) levels.
Schnebelen C, Grégoire S, Pasquis B, Joffre C, Creuzot-Garcher CP, Bron AM, Bretillon L, Acar N.26/02/2009Lipids.44(5):465-70. Epub 2009 Feb 26.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFA may affect retinal PUFA composition and PGE(1) and PGE(2) production.
Male Wistar rats were fed for 3 months with diets containing: (1) 10% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 7% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or (2) 10% gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), or (3) 10% EPA, 7% DHA and 10% GLA, or (4) a balanced diet deprived of EPA, DHA, and GLA. The fatty acid composition of retinal phospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. Prostaglandin production was measured by enzyme immunoassay.
When compared to rats fed the control diet, the retinal levels of DHA were increased in rats fed both diets enriched with n-3 PUFA (EPA + DHA and EPA + DHA + GLA diets) and decreased in those supplemented with n-6 PUFA only (GLA diet). The diet enriched with both n-6 and n-3 PUFA resulted in the greatest increase in retinal DHA. The levels of PGE(1) and PGE(2) were significantly increased in retinal homogenates of rats fed with the GLA-rich diet when compared with those of animals fed the control diet. These higher PGE(1) and PGE(2) levels were not observed in animals fed with EPA + DHA + GLA.
In summary, GLA added to EPA + DHA resulted in the highest retinal DHA content but without increasing retinal PGE(2) as seen in animals supplemented with GLA only.
omega-3, omega-6, diet, vision, retina, brain development, prostaglandins, animal studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19242743View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1296Su 2009 - Biological Mechanism of Antidepressant Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids: How Does Fish Oil Act as a 'Mind-Body Interface'?Biological Mechanism of Antidepressant Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids: How Does Fish Oil Act as a 'Mind-Body Interface'?Biological Mechanism of Antidepressant Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids: How Does Fish Oil Act as a 'Mind-Body Interface'?Su KP.04/02/2009Neurosignals. 17(2):144-152.
The unsatisfactory results of monoamine-based antidepressant therapy and the high occurrence of somatic symptoms and physical illness in patients with depression imply that the serotonin hypothesis is insufficient to approach the aetiology of depression.
Depressive disorders with somatic presentation are the most common form of depression. Somatization, the bodily symptoms without organic explanation, is similar to cytokine-induced sickness behaviour. Based on recent evidence, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs, or n-3 fatty acids) are enlightening a promising path to discover the unsolved of depression, sickness behaviour and to link the connection of mind and body.
The PUFAs are classified into n-3 (or omega-3) and n-6 (or omega-6) groups. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, the major bioactive components of n-3 PUFAs, are not efficiently synthesized in humans and should therefore be obtained directly from the diet, particularly by consuming fish.
Docosahexaenoic acid deficiency is associated with dysfunctions of neuronal membrane stability and transmission of serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, which might connect to the aetiology of mood and cognitive dysfunction of depression.
Likewise, eicosapentaenoic acid is important in balancing the immune function and physical health by reducing membrane arachidonic acid (an n-6 PUFA) and prostaglandin E(2) synthesis, which might be linked to the somatic manifestations and physical comorbidity in depression.
The role of n-3 PUFAs in immunity and mood function supports the promising hypothesis of psychoneuroimmunology of depression and provides an excellent interface between 'mind' and 'body'.
This review is to provide an overview of the evidence about the role of n-3 PUFAs in depression and its common comorbid physical conditions and to propose mechanisms by which they may modulate molecular and cellular functions.
omega-3, fatty acids, PUFA, EPA, DHA, depression, treatment, mechanisms, neurotransmitters, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19190401?ordinalpos=11&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1243Colangelo et al 2009 - Higher dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is inversely associated with depressive symptoms in women.Higher dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is inversely associated with depressive symptoms in women.Depression, omega-3, dietColangelo LA, He K, Whooley MA, Daviglus ML, Liu K.03/02/2009NutritionE-pub ahead of print
OBJECTIVE: Experimental and observational data suggest that a higher dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated acids may lead to a decreased risk of depressive disorders. We assessed multivariable-adjusted associations of fish consumption and dietary intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with depressive symptoms in a population-based sample of 3317 African-American and Caucasian men and women from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study. METHODS: Diet was assessed in year 7 (1992-1993) and depressive symptoms were measured in years 10 (1995-1996), 15 (2000-2001), and 20 (2005-2006) by the 20-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale score >/=16 or self-reported use of antidepressant medication. RESULTS: In the entire cohort, the highest quintiles of intakes of EPA (>/=0.03% energy), DHA (>/=0.05% energy), and EPA + DHA (>/=0.08% energy) were associated with a lower risk of depressive symptoms at year 10 (P for trends = 0.16, 0.10, and 0.03, respectively). The observed inverse associations were more pronounced in women. For the total number of occasions with depressive symptoms, the multivariable adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) in women were 0.75 (0.55-1.01) for fish intake, 0.66 (0.50-0.89) for EPA, 0.66 (0.49-0.89) for DHA, and 0.71 (0.52-0.95) for EPA + DHA when comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles. Analyses of continuous Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores revealed inverse associations with fourth-root-transformed omega-3 variables in women. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that dietary intakes of fish and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids may be inversely associated with chronic depressive symptoms in women.
depression, diet, omega-3http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19195841?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=1&log$=relatedarticles&logdbfrom=pubmedView this abstract via PubMed here
1340Carlson 2009 - Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in pregnancy and lactation.Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in pregnancy and lactation.Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in pregnancy and lactation.Carlson SE01/02/2009Am J Clin Nutr. 89(2)678S-84S. Epub 2008 Dec 30
The goal of the Experimental Biology symposium on maternal supplementation was to review all available lines of evidence, delineate unanswered questions, and develop, if it seemed reasonable, a research agenda to determine whether maternal supplementation with specific nutrients might be beneficial. In the case of maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status, the topic addressed in this article, few clinical studies show benefits of maternal DHA supplementation during pregnancy or lactation for the infant or child. However, quite a large number of observational studies link higher intrauterine DHA exposure to a number of positive developmental outcomes. This article reviews the factors known to contribute to DHA status of women and their offspring during the reproductive cycle, relates maternal DHA status to that of the developing fetus and newborn, and reviews the evidence for functional differences in behavior related to DHA status, including the available evidence related to DHA supplementation of women pregnant and lactating and their offspring. Other outcomes for infants and children and for women themselves appear plausible and are also addressed as part of a research agenda for future work.
fatty acids, omega-3, PUFA, DHA, pregnancy, infant feeding, dietary supplementationhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19116324?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=4&log$=relatedreviews&logdbfrom=pubmedView this and related abstracts via PubMed here.
1306Cherniack et al 2009 - Some new food for thought: the role of vitamin D in the mental health of older adults.Some new food for thought: the role of vitamin D in the mental health of older adults.Some new food for thought: the role of vitamin D in the mental health of older adults.Cherniack EP, Troen BR, Florez HJ, Roos BA, Levis S01/02/2009Curr Psychiatry Rep. 11(1)12-9
Vitamin D, a multipurpose steroid hormone vital to health, has been increasingly implicated in the pathology of cognition and mental illness. Hypovitaminosis D is prevalent among older adults, and several studies suggest an association between hypovitaminosis D and basic and executive cognitive functions, depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Vitamin D activates receptors on neurons in regions implicated in the regulation of behavior, stimulates neurotrophin release, and protects the brain by buffering antioxidant and anti-inflammatory defenses against vascular injury and improving metabolic and cardiovascular function. Although additional studies are needed to examine the impact of supplementation on cognition and mood disorders, given the known health benefits of vitamin D, we recommend greater supplementation in older adults.
Vitamin D, Vit-D, depression, mental health, ageing, treatment, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19187703?ordinalpos=7&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1295Gow et al 2009 - Total red blood cell concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids are associated with emotion-elicited neural activity in adolescent boys with ADHD.Total red blood cell concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids are associated with emotion-elicited neural activity in adolescent boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Total red blood cell concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids are associated with emotion-elicited neural activity in adolescent boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.Gow RV, Matsudaira T, Taylor E, Rubia K, Crawford M, Ghebremeskel K, Ibrahimovic A, Vallée-Tourangeau F, Williams LM, Sumich A01/02/2009Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.80(2-3):151-6. Epub 2009 Feb 20
Affective impairment is observed in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Low levels of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), specifically omega-3 (omega-3) fatty acids in blood measures have been linked to a range of behavioural and mood disorders including ADHD. However, nothing is known about the relationship between omega-3 and brain function in children with ADHD.
In the current study, 20 adolescent boys with ADHD were assessed for total lipid fractions in red blood cells and their event-related potential (ERP) response to the presentation of facial expressions of happiness, sadness and fearfulness.
The results supported the hypothesis of a positive association between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and a cognitive bias in orientation to overt expressions of happiness over both sad and fearful faces as indexed by midline frontal P300 amplitude. Additional exploratory analyses revealed a positive association between levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the right temporal N170 amplitude in response to covert expressions of fear. The arachidonic (AA)/DHA ratio was negatively associated with the right temporal N170 amplitude also to covert expressions of fear.
These findings indicate that EPA and DHA may be involved in distinct aspects of affect processing in ADHD and have implications for understanding currently inconsistent findings in the literature on EFA supplementation in ADHD and depression.
omega-3, fatty acids, EPA, DHA, RBCFA, ADHD, experimental study, emotion processinghttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19230637?ordinalpos=6&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
3294Kirkpatrick et al 2009 - Differences in glucose tolerance between deficit and nondeficit schizophreniaDifferences in glucose tolerance between deficit and nondeficit schizophreniaDifferences in glucose tolerance between deficit and nondeficit schizophreniaKirkpatrick B, Fernandez-Egea E, Garcia-Rizo C, Bernardo M.01/02/2009Schizophr Res. 107(2-3)122-7. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2008.09.023. Epub 2008 Nov 28.
Some studies suggest that schizophrenia is associated with an increased risk of diabetes independently of antipsychotic use.
People with deficit schizophrenia, which is characterized by primary (or idiopathic), enduring negative symptoms, differ from those with nondeficit schizophrenia on course of illness, treatment response, risk factors, and biological correlates. We hypothesized that deficit and nondeficit subjects would also differ with regard to glucose tolerance.
Newly diagnosed, antipsychotic-naïve subjects with nonaffective psychosis and matched control subjects were administered a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (GTT). Two-hour glucose concentrations were significantly higher in the nondeficit patients (N=23; mean (SD) of 121.6 (42.0)) than in deficit (N=23; 100.2 (23.1)) and control subjects (N=59; 83.8 (21.9)); the deficit subjects also had significantly higher two-hour glucose concentrations than did the control subjects.
These results provide further support that the deficit group has a distinctive etiopathophysiology.
schizophrenia, glucose tolerance, positive and negative symptoms, human study, experimental study, case-control studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19046857View this and related articles via PubMed here. Free full text of this article is available online.
1627Kraft & Westman 2009 - Schizophrenia, gluten, and low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diets: a case report and review of the literatureSchizophrenia, gluten, and low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diets: a case report and review of the literatureSchizophrenia, gluten, and low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diets: a case report and review of the literature Kraft BD, Westman EC.01/02/2009Nutr Metab (Lond).6:10
We report the unexpected resolution of longstanding schizophrenic symptoms after starting a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet. After a review of the literature, possible reasons for this include the metabolic consequences from the elimination of gluten from the diet, and the modulation of the disease of schizophrenia at the cellular level.
schizophrenia, gluten, diet, treatment, case-study, review, Free Full texthttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19245705View this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text of this paper is available online
1867Lands 2009 - False profits and silent partners in health careFalse profits and silent partners in health careomega-3 and omega-6 balanceB Lands01/02/2009Nutr Health.20(2):79-89.
Traditional health care services have focused more on treatment of signs and symptoms of cardiovascular disease rather than on prevention of primary causal factors. This bias created a nation with increasing numbers of older people paying for increasing treatment costs. Treatment-oriented clinicians, drug companies and hospitals take a major proportion of ever-increasing health care dollars. Without prevention, American families gain little long-term relief from the highest health care treatment costs in the world. A lack of public accountability for valid surrogate endpoints continues to drain funds for treatments that do not remove underlying primary causes.
It seems unethical and uneconomical to withhold community-wide primary prevention advice and only attend to people with clinical signs of disease. Also, treatments that remove a sign or symptom without removing the primary cause unethically set a sense of improved health while leaving unchanged the cause to continue harming future generations. A good alternative would be long-term primary prevention that removes primary causal factors and prevents the onset of signs and symptoms of disease. Health insurance companies could be effective partners with corporate and individual subscribers by diverting resources toward preventing proved primary causes of disease.
A chain of molecular events that causally connects modifiable food choices to many health disorders has a measurable mediator: the proportions of omega-3 and omega-6 in tissue highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA). Health risk assessment can monitor the diet-based proportions of tissue HUFA which influence hundreds of vital physiologic events. Many financial losses will likely be decreased by primary prevention advice to choose foods that increase intakes of omega-3 fats, decrease intakes of omega-6 fats and include fewer calories per meal.
primary prevention, healthcare costs, omega-3, omega-6, omega36 balancehttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19835105View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1843O'Sullivan et al 2009 - A good-quality breakfast is associated with better mental health in adolescenceA good-quality breakfast is associated with better mental health in adolescenceA good-quality breakfast is associated with better mental health in adolescenceO'Sullivan TA, Robinson M, Kendall GE, Miller M, Jacoby P, Silburn SR, Oddy WH.01/02/2009Public Health Nutr.12(2):249-58. Epub 2008 Nov 25.
OBJECTIVE: Breakfast consumption has been associated with better mental health in adulthood, but the relationship between breakfast and mental health in adolescence is less well known. The aims of the present study were to evaluate breakfast quality in a cohort of adolescents and to investigate associations with mental health.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based study. Breakfast quality was assessed by intake of core food groups at breakfast, as determined from 3 d food diaries. Mental health was assessed using the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), with higher scores representing poorer behaviour.
SETTING: The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, Perth, Western Australia.
SUBJECTS: Eight hundred and thirty-six males and females aged between 13 and 15 years.
RESULTS: Mean mental health score as assessed by the CBCL was 45.24 (sd 11.29). A high-quality breakfast consisting of at least three food groups was consumed by 11 % of adolescents, while 7 % of adolescents did not consume any items from core food groups on average over the 3 d period. The two most common core food groups consumed at breakfast in this population were dairy products followed by breads and cereals. For every additional food group eaten at breakfast, the associated total mental health score decreased by 1.66 (95 % CI -2.74, -0.59) after adjustment for potential confounding factors, representing an improvement in mental health score.
CONCLUSION: These findings support the concept that breakfast quality is an important component in the complex interaction between lifestyle factors and mental health in early adolescence.
diet, breakfast, mental health, adolescents, human study, observational studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19026092View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1300Pan et al 2009 - Association between depressive symptoms and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in middle-aged and elderly Chinese.Association between depressive symptoms and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Association between depressive symptoms and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in middle-aged and elderly Chinese.Pan A, Lu L, Franco OH, Yu Z, Li H, Lin X01/02/2009J Affect Disord.Feb 25. [Epub ahead of print]
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is recently speculated to play a role in the development of depression. Nevertheless, few studies have explored the association between blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and depression in the general population. Therefore, we aimed to determine this association in middle-aged and elderly Chinese.
METHODS: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in 2005 in Beijing and Shanghai, China. Participants included 3262 community residents aged 50-70. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D) score of 16 or higher. Circulating 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay.
RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was lower in the top tertile of 25(OH)D concentrations compared to the lowest tertile (7.2% vs. 11.1%) in the study population (odds ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.46-0.83; P for trend=0.002). This association was substantially attenuated after controlling for various confounding factors, and disappeared after including geographic location in the model. Stratified analysis by location did not find any association between depressive symptoms and 25(OH)D levels among participants from either Beijing or Shanghai.
LIMITATIONS: Due to the cross-sectional study design, causal relation remains unknown.
CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms are not associated with 25(OH)D concentrations in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Further prospective studies are required to determine whether they are correlated.
depression, Vitamin D, Vit-D, population studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19249103?ordinalpos=3&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1342Zeisel 2009 - Is maternal diet supplementation beneficial? Optimal development of infant depends on mother's diet.Is maternal diet supplementation beneficial? Optimal development of infant depends on mother's diet.Is maternal diet supplementation beneficial? Optimal development of infant depends on mother's diet.Zeisel SH.01/02/2009 Am J Clin Nutr. 89(2)685S-7S. Epub 2008 Dec 30
There are periods during perinatal development in which specific nutrients are required for optimal development, and there is growing evidence that optimal dietary intake of these nutrients, which include iodine, docosahexaenoic acid, choline, and folate, is important. Lessons in how these nutrient effects were identified can help us to broaden our approaches for finding other critical nutrients: we are looking for nutrients for which there is a wide range of dietary intake, that have no or marginal pathways for biosynthesis, and that are needed by dividing progenitor cells. For some of the nutrients discussed, such as iodine and folate, the effects in humans are abundantly clear; for others, animal data are the most convincing. More human studies need to be conducted. We need a better understanding of diet and diet supplement intake during pregnancy and lactation and of whether diets are particularly low in some nutrients. Also, we need to understand how common genetic variations influence nutrient requirements during these periods. If we are going to supplement maternal and infant diets, first we must understand much more about the risks of having too much of a critical nutrient. Whatever the limitations of our current state of knowledge, it is apparent that pregnancy and lactation are periods during which good nutrition is exceptionally important. The infant is not protected from the inadequate diet of the mother.
omega-3, iodine, folate, choline, pregnancy, maternal diet, dietary supplementation, adequate dietary intake, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19116319?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=2&log$=relatedreviews&logdbfrom=pubmedView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1818Buydens-Branchey et al 2009 - Low plasma levels of docosahexaenoic acid are associated with an increased relapse vulnerability in substance abusersLow plasma levels of docosahexaenoic acid are associated with an increased relapse vulnerability in substance abusersLow plasma levels of docosahexaenoic acid are associated with an increased relapse vulnerability in substance abusersBuydens-Branchey L, Branchey M, Hibbeln JR31/01/2009Am J Addict. 2009 Jan-Feb;18(1):73-80
Low levels of some polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) could influence behaviors leading to the abuse of substances through their actions on serotonergic and dopaminergic mechanisms. Because substance abusers tend to have poor dietary habits, the possibility that a deficient intake of n-3 PUFAs, available from dietary sources only, and subsequent low n-3 plasma levels would predict their relapse rates was explored. Thirty-five patients admitted to substance abuse clinics were enrolled and followed for one year. Dietary questionnaires and blood samples were collected at baseline and on a quarterly basis, and relapse rates monitored on a monthly basis. Six patients dropped out shortly after study entry, 11 relapsed in the course of the study and dropped out, 7 relapsed but completed the study, and 11 did not relapse and completed the study. Non-relapsers were found to have significantly higher levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) calculated as microg/ml and % TFA, when compared to relapsers (p = .031 and p = .010, respectively) and to relapsers and non-completers combined (p = .014 and p = .009, respectively). These pilot data suggest, but do not prove, the existence of a relationship between low levels of DHA and relapse vulnerability in some individuals who abuse substances. The study of the efficacy of n-3 supplements or of dietary modifications on relapse appears warranted.
low level pufas; substance abusehttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19219668View this research paper on PubMed here
1663Leung & Kaplan 2009 - Perinatal depression: prevalence, risks, and the nutrition link - a review of the literature.Perinatal depression: prevalence, risks, and the nutrition link--a review of the literature. Perinatal depression: prevalence, risks, and the nutrition link--a review of the literature.
Leung BM, Kaplan BJ23/01/2009J Am Diet Assoc. 109(9):1566-75.
The purpose of this review is to examine the role of nutrition in perinatal depression. Perinatal (maternal) depression refers to major and minor episodes during pregnancy (termed antenatal) and/or within the first 12 months after delivery (termed postpartum or postnatal).
Prevalence of antenatal depression can be as high as 20%, while approximately 12% to 16% of women experience postpartum depression. These are probably conservative estimates, as cases of maternal depression are underreported or underdiagnosed. Risk factors for depression include genetic predisposition and environmental factors, as well as a number of social, psychological, and biological factors.
One biological factor given increasing consideration is inadequate nutrition. Credible links between nutrient deficiency and mood have been reported for folate, vitamin B-12, calcium, iron, selenium, zinc, and n-3 fatty acids. For maternal depression, the nutrient that has received the most attention from nutrition researchers has been the n-3 essential fatty acids. Numerous studies, such as randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, and ecological studies, have found a positive association between low n-3 levels and a higher incidence of maternal depression.
In addition, nutrient inadequacies in pregnant women who consume a typical western diet might be much more common than researchers and clinicians realize. A number of studies have reported inadequate intakes of n-3, folate, B vitamins, iron, and calcium in pregnant women. Depletion of nutrient reserves throughout pregnancy can increase a woman's risk for maternal depression.
depression, pregnancy, perinatal depression, post-natal depression, nutrition, diet, micronutrients, human study, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19699836View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1314Clayton et al 2009 - Reduced mania and depression in juvenile bipolar disorder associated with long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementationReduced mania and depression in juvenile bipolar disorder associated with long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementationReduced mania and depression in juvenile bipolar disorder associated with long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementationClayton EH, Hanstock TL, Hirneth SJ, Kable CJ, Garg ML, Hazell PL21/01/2009Eur J Clin Nutr.Jan 21. [Epub ahead of print]
Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCn-3PUFA) supplementation may improve symptoms of depression in children and bipolar disorder (BD) in adults. No studies have examined the effectiveness of LCn-3PUFA supplementation in the treatment of mania and depression in juvenile BD (JBD) when given as an adjunct to standard pharmacological treatment. Eighteen children and adolescents with JBD received supplements containing 360 mg per day eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 1560 mg per day docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for 6 weeks in an open-label study. Intake and fasting red blood cell (RBC) LCn-3PUFA, mania, depression and global function were assessed before and after supplementation. RBC EPA and DHA were significantly higher following supplementation. Clinician ratings of mania and depression were significantly lower and global functioning significantly higher after supplementation. Parent ratings of internalizing and externalizing behaviours were also significantly lower following supplementation. A larger randomized controlled trial appears warranted in this participant population.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 21 January 2009; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2008.81.
fatty acids, omega-3, PUFA, bipolar disorder, treatment, open-label studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19156158?ordinalpos=3&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1772Turner et al 2009 - Omega 3 fatty acids (fish oil) for maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease.Omega 3 fatty acids (fish oil) for maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease.Omega 3 fatty acids (fish oil) for maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease.Turner D, Zlotkin SH, Shah PS, Griffiths AM.21/01/2009Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Jan 21;(1):CD006320.
BACKGROUND: The anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 (omega-3 fatty acids, fish oil) have been suggested to be beneficial in chronic inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease.
OBJECTIVES:To systematically review the efficacy and safety of n-3 for maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease (CD).
SEARCH STRATEGY: The following databases were searched from their inception without language restriction: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Healthstar, PubMed, and ACP journal club. Experts were contacted for unpublished data.
SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCT) of n-3 for maintenance of remission in CD were included. Studies must have enrolled patients of any age group, who were in remission at the time of recruitment, and were followed for at least six months. The intervention must have been fish oil or n-3 given in pre-defined dosage. Co-interventions were allowed only if they were balanced between the study groups. The primary outcome was the relapse rate and secondary outcomes included change in disease activity scores, time to first relapse and adverse events.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two independent investigators reviewed studies for eligibility, extracted the data and assessed study quality using Jadad's criteria. Meta-analyses were performed using RevMan 4.2 software weighted by the Mantel-Haenszel method. Random or fixed effect models were used according to degree of heterogeneity and subgroup analyses were performed in an attempt to explore possible sources of heterogeneity.
MAIN RESULTS:Six studies were eligible for inclusion. There was a marginal significant benefit of n-3 therapy for maintaining remission (RR 0.77 0.; 95%CI 0.61 to 0.98; P = 0.03). However, the studies were both clinically and statistically heterogeneous (P = 0.03, I(2) = 58%). Two large studies showed negative results. When considering the estimated rather than the observed 1-year relapse rate of these two studies, the benefit was no longer statistically significant (RR 0.59; 95% CI 0.34 to 1.03; P=0.06). A funnel plot suggested publication bias. No serious adverse events were recorded in any of the studies but in a pooled analyses there was a significantly higher rate of diarrhea (RR 1.36 95% CI 1.01 to 1.84) and symptoms of the upper gastrointestinal tract (RR 1.98 95% CI 1.38 to 2.85) in the n-3 treatment group.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Omega 3 fatty acids are safe but probably ineffective for maintenance of remission in CD. The existing data do not support routine maintenance treatment of Crohn's disease with omega 3 fatty acids.
Crohn's disease, treatment, omega-3, systematic reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19160277View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
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