1951Politi et al 2011 - Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Psychiatric Disorders: a Review of Current LiteratureRandomized Placebo-Controlled Trials of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Psychiatric Disorders: a Review of Current LiteratureRandomized Placebo-Controlled Trials of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Psychiatric Disorders: a Review of Current LiteraturePoliti P, Rocchetti M, Emanuele E, Rondanelli M, Barale F15/08/2011Curr Drug Discov Technol. 2011 Aug 15
Growing evidence suggests the clinical usefulness of omega (ω)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in patients with psychiatric disorders.
In the present review, we summarize the findings of randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials focusing on the potential therapeutic utility of omega-3 PUFA in mental illnesses. We searched the Pubmed databese for placebo-controlled clinical trials utilizing the keywords PUFA, omega 3, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid in combination with the following terms: anxiety disorders, autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), personality disorders, and schizophrenia.
The literature review indicated that personality disorders, autism, and anxiety disorders have been less investigated than mood disorder, schizophrenia, and ADHD. While no definite conclusions can be drawn on the therapeutic efficacy of ω-3 PUFA in the majority of psychiatric illnesses examined herein, evidence suggests the potential preventive role of this molecules in subjects at ultra-high risk for developing psychosis. Hopefully, future studies in the field should examine the turnover of ω-PUFA in the neural membranes. Moreover, special attention should be paid to potential confounders such as dietary or smoking habits.
Back in 2006, the American Psychiatric Association reviewed the evidence from randomised controlled clinical trials (RCT) of omega-3 for psychiatric disorders, and found that there was already sufficient evidence to make treatment recommendations, especially for clinical depression, but also for other psychiatric disorders. (See Freeman et al 2006.)
Since then, evidence from many more RCTs has confirmed the benefits of long-chain omega-3 for depression (see Martins 2009, Davis et al 2010).
Similarly, results from trials of omega-3 for ADHD also show an overall benefit from dietary supplementation (see Bloch & Quawasmi, 2011)
And as highlighted by the authors of the current review, there is also extremely promising evidence for omega-3 in the prevention of schizophrenia (see Amminger et al 2010)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21838664View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1952Milte et al 2011 - Polyunsaturated fatty acids, cognition and literacy in children with ADHD with and without learning difficultiesPolyunsaturated fatty acids, cognition and literacy in children with ADHD with and without learning difficultiesPolyunsaturated fatty acids, cognition and literacy in children with ADHD with and without learning difficultiesMilte CM, Sinn N, Buckley JD, Coates AM, Young RM, Howe PR09/08/2011J Child Health Care. 2011 Aug 9
Suboptimal omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) levels may contribute to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and related developmental problems.
Associations between n-3 and omega-6 (n-6) PUFA levels in red blood cells (erythrocytes) and learning and behaviour were investigated in 75 children aged 7-12 with ADHD. Children provided blood samples and underwent cognitive assessments. Parents completed questionnaires and Conners' Rating Scales.
Controlling for covariates, higher n-3 PUFA predicted lower anxiety/shyness (β = -.27), higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) better word reading (β = .22), and higher n-6 PUFA poorer reading (β = -.34), vocabulary (β = .-.26), spelling (β = -.30) and attention (β = -.30). Thirty-six per cent of the sample with learning difficulties had lower DHA than those without (M = 3.26 ± 0.54 vs M = 3.68 ± 0.76, p = .02).
This study is the first to compare erythrocyte PUFAs (a measure of PUFA status) in children who have ADHD with and without learning difficulties, and supports emerging indications that the former may be more likely responders to n-3 PUFAs.
adhd; omega 3; omega 6http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21828168View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
19302 Aug 2011 - Wall Street Journal - Progress, Not Perfection, on Reducing Kids' Exposure to Ads for Unhealthful Foodsfood advertising, fast food, tv advertising, tv ads, food marketingKids are seeing fewer ads for foods and drinks high in saturated fat, sugar and sodium, a new study shows.08/08/2011by Katherine Hobson
Researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago crunched Nielsen Media Research ratings data and found that exposure to ads for less healthful foods and drinks fell 38% for kids aged 2 to 5 and 28% for kids 6 to 11 between 2003 and 2009. Overall exposure to food-related ads in general fell, too, as kids saw fewer ads for cereals, sweets, beverages and snacks.
“Things are moving in the right direction,” says Lisa Powell, lead author of the study and a senior research scientist at UIC’s Institute for Health Research and Policy. But she notes that in 2009, 86% of the food and drink ads seen by kids were for foods high in saturated fats, sugar or sodium — still an awfully large proportion, though it’s down from 94% in 2003.
The study, published online in Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, notes that given that last stat, the food industry’s self-regulation efforts still need beefing up, including greater participation by fast-food companies in the Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative, a project of the Council of Better Business Bureaus. CFBAI’s food and beverage company members pledge to eliminate or restrict their ads directed at kids.
In contrast to the trend seen for other types of foods, younger kids saw 21% more fast food ads between 2003 and 2009 and older kids saw 31% more. In a statement, National Restaurant Association Director of Nutrition and Healthy Living Joy Dubost said the study “did not address the nutritional content of the advertisements and failed to establish whether the ads met the nutritional standards set by the authors.” Many fast-food ads are also for the restaurant itself rather than a specific product, Dubost said.
Changing the way companies market food to kids is a hot topic, and the landscape has shifted since the end of the study.
Last September, CFBAI members said they had harmonized their definition of child-directed programming, and now no participant will advertise on shows where 35% or more of the audience consists of kids aged 2 to 11, according to Elaine Kolish, director of CFBAI. She takes issue with the study’s focus on all ads kids are exposed to rather than just those directed at them.
Meantime, on the question of what constitutes a healthful or unhealthful food, the Obama administration in April proposed voluntary nutritional standards for foods marketed at kids and teens, both in terms of what to avoid (the usual baddies: saturated fat, added sugar and too much sodium) and what to include (fruits, vegetables, whole grains and lean protein).
CFBAI members responded with their own uniform food-specific guidelines for food marketing, replacing criteria from individual companies. The new standards include caps on calories, saturated fat, sugar and sodium, depending on the food item — though the New York Times noted that only one-third of the companies’ advertised products would have to be reformulated to meet the standards.
All of these changes might lead to further improvements, says Powell.
http://blogs.wsj.com/health/2011/08/02/progress-not-perfection-on-reducing-kids-exposure-to-ads-for-unhealthful-foods/?KEYWORDS=Progress+Not+Perfection+on+Reducing+Kids%E2%80%99+Exposure+to+Ads+for+Unhealthful+FoodsRead this article in The Wall Street Journal here
192921 July 2011 - BBC News - Teens 'not getting enough fruit and vegetables'teen diet; 5-a-day; fruit and veg portions; Just one in 13 teenage girls is getting their recommended five portions of fruit and vegetables a day, official government data shows.08/08/2011by Nick Triggle - Health Correspondent
But boys in the 11 to 18 age group did little better, with just one in eight eating the right amount, the National Diet and Nutrition Survey found.
Adults ate more on average, with a third getting their five-a-day.
The poll of more than 2,000 adults and children also raised concerns about other areas of diet.
Consumption of saturated fats for adults aged 19 to 64 was a tenth above recommended levels, while the majority of participants were found to be not getting enough oily fish.
But it was the diet of teenagers that raised the most concern.
The average consumption of fruit and vegetables for girls aged 11 to 18 was 2.7 portions with just 7% getting five-a-day. Nearly half of them are not getting enough iron in their diet either.
For boys, the average was 3.1 portions with just 13% getting five-a-day.
Long way to go
Chief Medical Officer Professor Dame Sally Davies said she was concerned about the figures for teenagers.
"Eating and being active can help prevent serious illnesses such as cancer and heart disease later in life," she added
The survey drew on findings from interviews, diaries and blood and urine samples taken during 2008 and 2010. It marks the start of an ongoing programme of research which will inform government policy..
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-14234454Read the full article and related stories on the BBC News website here
1931Powell et al 2011 - Trends in the Nutritional Content of Television Food Advertisements Seen by Children in the United States: Analyses by Age, Food Categories, and CompaniesTrends in the Nutritional Content of Television Food Advertisements Seen by Children in the United States: Analyses by Age, Food Categories, and CompaniesTrends in the Nutritional Content of Television Food Advertisements Seen by Children in the United States: Analyses by Age, Food Categories, and CompaniesPowell LM, Schermbeck RM, Szczypka G, Chaloupka FJ, Braunschweig CL08/08/2011Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011 Aug 1. [Epub ahead of print]
To examine trends in children's exposure to food-related advertising on television by age, product category, and company.
Nutritional content analysis using television ratings data for 2003, 2005, 2007, and 2009 for children.
Annual age-specific television ratings data captured children's exposure to broadcast network, cable network, syndicated, and spot television food advertising from all (except Spanish-language) programming.
Children aged 2 to 5 and 6 to 11 years. Main Exposure Television ratings.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Children's exposure to food-related advertising on television with nutritional assessments for food and beverage products for grams of saturated fat, sugar, and fiber and milligrams of sodium.
Children aged 2 to 5 and 6 to 11 years saw, respectively, on average, 10.9 and 12.7 food-related television advertisements daily in 2009, down 17.8% and 6.9% from 2003. Exposure to food and beverage products high in saturated fat, sugar, or sodium fell 37.9% and 27.7% but fast-food advertising exposure increased by 21.1% and 30.8% among 2- to 5- and 6- to 11-year-olds, respectively, between 2003 and 2009. In 2009, 86% of ads seen by children were for products high in saturated fat, sugar, or sodium, down from 94% in 2003.
Exposure to unhealthy food and beverage product advertisements has fallen, whereas exposure to fast-food ads increased from 2003 to 2009. By 2009, there was not a substantial improvement in the nutritional content of food and beverage advertisements that continued to be advertised and viewed on television by US children.
food advertising, fast food, tv advertising, tv ads, food marketinghttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Trends%20in%20the%20Nutritional%20Content%20of%20Television%20Food%20Advertisements%20Seen%20by%20Children%20in%20the%20United%20StatesView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1928Swanson et al 2011 - Maternal feeding behaviour and young children's dietary quality: A cross-sectional study of socially disadvantaged mothers of two-year old children using the Theory of Planned BehaviourMaternal feeding behaviour and young children's dietary quality: A cross-sectional study of socially disadvantaged mothers of two-year old children using the Theory of Planned BehaviourMaternal feeding behaviour and young children's dietary quality: A cross-sectional study of socially disadvantaged mothers of two-year old children using the Theory of Planned BehaviourSwanson V, Power KG, Crombie IK, Irvine L, Kiezebrink K, Wrieden W, Slane PW08/08/2011Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011, Jun 238:65.
Having breakfast, eating food 'cooked from scratch' and eating together as a family have health and psychosocial benefits for young children. This study investigates how these parentally determined behaviours relate to children's dietary quality and uses a psychological model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), to investigate socio-cognitive predictors of these behaviours in socially disadvantaged mothers of young children in Scotland.
Three hundred mothers of children aged 2 years (from 372 invited to participate, 81% response rate), recruited via General Practitioners, took part in home-based semi-structured interviews in a cross-sectional survey of maternal psychological factors related to their children's dietary quality. Regression analyses examined statistical predictors of maternal intentions and feeding behaviours.
Mothers of children with poorer quality diets were less likely than others to provide breakfast every day, cook from 'scratch' and provide 'proper sit-down meals'. TPB socio-cognitive factors (intentions, perceived behavioural control) significantly predicted these three behaviours, and attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted mothers' intentions, with medium to large effect sizes.
Interventions to improve young children's dietary health could benefit from a focus on modifying maternal motivations and attitudes in attempts to improve feeding behaviours.
feeding behaviour, diet, eating together, socially disadvantaged, cross-sectional study, theory of planned behaviour, TPBhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21699714View this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text of this paper is available online
2014Ramsden CE et al 2011 - All PUFAs are not created equal: absence of CHD benefit specific to linoleic acid in randomized controlled trials and prospective observational cohortsAll PUFAs are not created equal: absence of CHD benefit specific to linoleic acid in randomized controlled trials and prospective observational cohortsAll PUFAs are not created equal: absence of CHD benefit specific to linoleic acid in randomized controlled trials and prospective observational cohortsRamsden CE, Hibbeln JR, Majchrzak-Hong SF05/08/2011World Rev Nutr Diet. 2011;102:30-43. Epub 2011 Aug 5.
Advice to maintain or increase consumption of the omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n–6 PUFA) linoleic acid (LA) should be derived from interventional and observational trials evaluating the specific effects of dietary LA, rather than effects of n–3 PUFAs or total PUFAs. Failure to make a clear distinction among PUFA species may result in inadvertently attributing health effects of n–3 PUFAs to linoleic acid. Pooled analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of clinical CHD events
and intermediate risk factors
and pooled analyses of nonrandomized prospective observational trials of clinical CHD events
are often cited as providing strong concordant evidence
that LA is cardioprotective. These pooled analyses
form the primary basis for recent population-wide advice to maintain or increase n–6 PUFA
. However, total PUFA rather than n–6 LA, was defined as the independent variable for statistical calculations in all three pooled analyses
(table 1), then interpreted as attributable to LA
. In this paper we: (1) establish that a clear distinction was not made between n–3 and n–6 PUFAs in pooled analyses of randomized and nonrandomized trials (tables 2, ?,3),3), (2) report whether a clear distinction was made between n–3 and n–6 PUFAs in each individual trial before pooling, (3) assess strengths and limitations of randomized and nonrandomized study designs for disentangling respective intakes of n–6 and n–3 PUFA species, and (4) highlight the necessity of making a clear distinction between PUFA species for interpreting the results of clinical trials and formulating dietary guidelines.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21865817Available as a free PMC Article - access from PubMed here
2074Gomez-Pinilla F 2011 - Collaborative effects of diet and exercise on cognitive enhancementCollaborative effects of diet and exercise on cognitive enhancement.Collaborative effects of diet and exercise on cognitive enhancement.Gomez-Pinilla F31/07/2011Nutr Health. 2011;20(3-4):165-9.
Certain dietary factors, such as omega-3 fatty acids and curcumin, are reviewed in their context of stimulating molecular systems that serve synaptic function, while diets rich in saturated fats do the opposite. In turn, exercise, using similar mechanisms as healthy diets, displays healing effects on the brain such as counteracting the mental decline associated with age and facilitating functional recovery resulting from brain injury and disease. Diet and exercise are two noninvasive approaches that used together may enhance neural repair. Omega 3 fatty acids and curcumin elevate levels of molecules important for synaptic plasticity such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), thus benefiting normal brain function and recovery events following brain insults.
fatty acids; curcuminhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22141190View this and related abstracts on PubMed here. Free full text available online
2122Roseboom et al 2011 - Hungry in the womb: what are the consequences?Hungry in the womb: what are the consequences? Lessons from the Dutch famineHungry in the womb: what are the consequences? Lessons from the Dutch famineRoseboom TJ, Painter RC, van Abeelen AF, Veenendaal MV, de Rooij SR.28/07/2011Maturitas. 70(2)141-5. Epub 2011 Jul 28.
An increasing body of evidence suggests that poor nutrition at the very beginning of life - even before birth - leads to large and long term negative consequences for both mental and physical health.
This paper reviews the evidence from studies on the Dutch famine, which investigated the effects of prenatal undernutrition on later health. The effects of famine appeared to depend on its timing during gestation, and the organs and tissues undergoing critical periods of development at that time.
Early gestation appeared to be the most vulnerable period. People who were conceived during the famine were at increased risk of schizophrenia and depression, they had a more atherogenic plasma lipid profile, were more responsive to stress and had a doubled rate of coronary heart disease. Also, they performed worse on cognitive tasks which may be a sign of accelerated ageing. People exposed during any period of gestation had more type 2 diabetes.
Future investigation will expand on the finding that the effects of prenatal famine exposure may reach down across generations, possibly through epigenetic mechanisms.
Recent evidence suggests that similar effects of prenatal undernutrition are found in Africa, where many are undernourished. Hunger is a major problem worldwide with one in seven inhabitants of this planet suffering from lack of food. Adequately feeding women before and during pregnancy may be a promising strategy in preventing chronic diseases worldwide.
Nutritional programming, Dutch Famine, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21802226View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
196125 July 2011 - BBC Radio 4 - The Food Programme: School Foodschool foodSheila Dillon follows two schools as they attempt to transform the way their pupils eat.25/07/2011
Summer term comes to an end. Time off for the dinner staff and caterers who’ve been dishing out 3 million meals a day for the last year. Food in schools is a story that hit the headlines in 2004 and it hasn’t gone away.
(Jamie Oliver): "You know, we’ve got 5 and half million kids in this country; 24,000 schools, we have to be philosophical; we have to keep supporting it; we have to know and do what’s best for our kids. What’s exciting is that it will come up again, and it will come up again with good Heads and good dinner ladies that are being supported properly".
(Sheila Dillon): "Jamie Oliver’s faith that our disastrous experiment with fast, cheap food in schools could be turned around, is now grounded in reality. His charisma and truth telling on tv, along with the government cash and support that followed, brought about dramatic changes in the importance given to food in school. Thousands of dinner ladies were trained to cook real food. The multi-national catering companies lost contracts; schools set up their own kitchen operations and nearly 4000 schools bought into the idea that food could at the heart of the curriculum.
This year, there are a quarter of a million more children eating school dinners than the year before. But will all this survive the drastic cuts in public spending."
In this programme, Sheila Dillon talks to staff and children in two schools who have been part of the big change, and the programme plan's to follow their progress over the next year.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b012qn51Listen to this programme on the BBC iPlayer here
193922 July 2011 - Medscape - Omega-3 Supplements May Lower AnxietyOmega-3 and anxiety, immune system functioning22/07/2011by Deborah Brauser
Increasing omega-3 intake may lower both anxiety symptoms and proinflammatory cytokines in healthy young adults, new research suggests.
In a small randomized controlled trial of medical students, those who received omega-3 supplements for 3 months showed a 20% reduction in anxiety scores and a 14% reduction in stimulated interleukin 6 (IL-6) production.
According to the investigators, the study "provides the first evidence that omega-3 may have potential anxiolytic benefits for individuals without an anxiety disorder diagnosis."
"We were impressed by the magnitude of the anxiety effect and the evidence for its anti-inflammatory effects, suggesting that it might have broader benefits," lead study author Janice Kiecolt-Glaser, PhD, professor of psychiatry and psychology and S. Robert David Chair of Medicine at the Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research at Ohio State University College of Medicine (OSUMC) in Columbus, told Medscape Medical News.
She noted that the significant reduction in IL-6 is especially important because the young study population had low rates to begin with.
"So our findings could possibly be much more significant in a group that was older and had more health problems."
The study was published online July 19 in Brain, Behavior and Immunity.
Fish Oil Benefits the Body
"Chronic inflammation has been linked to a broad spectrum of health problems, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, and rheumatoid arthritis," write the researchers.
"Large population studies suggest that greater fish consumption may help control or protect against the onset of these and other inflammatory conditions," they add.
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are 2 key omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) found in fish oil, which may also benefit mood.
In fact, previous research, including a study reported on last year by Medscape Medical News, has suggested that omega-3 can lower depressive symptoms in patients diagnosed as having clinical depression.
Because both depression and anxiety have been found to increase the production of proinflammatory cytokines, the current investigators hypothesized that giving omega-3 PUFA supplementation to healthy subjects would lead to a decrease in this production.
Secondary outcome measures were lowered anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as lowered negative mood symptoms associated with taking stressful exams.
A total of 68 first- and second-year medical students (56% male; mean age, 23.65 years) were enrolled and randomized to receive 3 times daily either omega-3 supplement capsules (consisting of 2085 mg of EPA and 348 mg of DHA, n = 34) or fish-flavored placebo capsules (n = 34) for 12 weeks.
"We chose the 7:1 EPA/DHA balance because of evidence that EPA has relatively stronger anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effects than DHA," explain the investigators.
"The supplement was probably about 4 or 5 times the amount of fish oil you'd get from a daily serving of salmon," added coauthor Martha Belury, PhD, RD, professor of human nutrition at Ohio State University, in a release.
All participants were interviewed 6 times, and serial blood samples were scheduled to be taken during lower-stress days and on the days before major exams.
In addition, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and Beck Anxiety Inventory were administered at all visits.
Reduced Anxiety, Cytokines
Results showed no significant differences between stress and nonstress days across all outcomes for either group.
"Thus, the ability of omega-3 supplementation to dampen stress response could not be tested," write the researchers.
They note that this was probably due to a sudden change in the medical school's curriculum. Instead of distributing the major tests during a 3-day period, as done in the past, the exams were given throughout the year.
"This group was notably unstressed, which was a severe disappointment and a study limitation. We just didn't get the stress effect we had expected," said Dr. Kiecolt-Glaser.
Still, the treatment group showed a significantly greater reduction in anxiety symptoms at 20% than did the placebo group (P = .04). They also had a greater decrease in their amounts of stimulated IL-6 production (0.15 units lower, P = .04).
"Anything we can do to reduce cytokines is a big plus in dealing with the overall health of people at risk for many diseases," said coauthor Ron Glaser, PhD, professor of molecular virology, immunology, and medical genetics at OSUMC.
There were no significant changes in depressive symptoms for either group."Again, this was not a depressed group, and without more severe depression, you may not see an effect," said Dr. Kiecolt-Glaser.
"Overall, that both anxiety and inflammation were altered is notable, especially in a group that was not clinically anxious," she added.
Even so, the investigators are not yet ready to suggest that everybody should start taking fish oil pills. "It may be too early to recommend a broad use of omega-3 supplements throughout the public, especially considering the cost and the limited supplies of fish needed to supply the oil. Instead, people should just consider increasing their omega-3 through their diet," said Dr. Belury.
Dr. Kiecolt-Glaser reported that the investigators have just finished another trial that examined the effects of increasing omega-3 in a population between the ages of 40 and 85 years who have an average body mass index of 30.
Omega-3 for All Psychiatric Disorders?
"This study reveals 2 remarkable, clinically solid findings," Capt. Joseph R. Hibbeln, MD, acting chief, Section on Nutritional Neurosciences at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, told Medscape Medical News.
The first, "which cannot be understated," is the reduction of anxiety scores in a normative population, said Dr. Hibbeln, who was not involved with this study.
"Many trials of omega-3 fatty acids in depression have confused the field because it's very difficult to reduce depression in people who don't have the disorder. And it's also very difficult to reduce anxiety in those who don't have clinically manifest anxiety," he explained.
"The second was that they probed the question of whether or not omega-3 fatty acids at least work in part through changes in the immune system and neural-immune interactions by measuring the effects of cytokine release in the patients' white blood cells ex vivo."
He noted that the "very marked decrease" in cytokine production in the treatment group was impressive.
"This is absolutely consistent with the hypothesis that one of the mechanisms of action for omega-3 fatty acids is not necessarily central but is through down-regulating the immune system. The study begs the question: is increased anxiety a manifest symptom of omega-3 fatty acid deficiencies? And their answer is yes."
Dr. Hibbeln said that the current 2010 US Department of Agriculture Dietary Guidelines recommend omega-3 PUFAs for the protection of heart disease and for pregnant mothers to prevent deficiencies in their offspring.
In 2006, the treatment committee for the American Psychiatric Association (APA), of which he was a member, issued recommendations that all patients with a psychiatric disorder should take at least 1 gram a day of omega-3 PUFAs to prevent the medical complications that often co-occur for them, such as cardiovascular disease and metabolic problems.
"This paper should be another signal that the practicing psychiatrist should follow the 2006 APA recommendations," concluded Dr. Hibbeln.
The study was funded in part by a grant from the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, which is part of the NIH. The study authors and Dr. Hibbeln have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.
Brain Behav Immun. Published online July 19, 2011. Abstract
This study is important for two reasons.
First - it shows that anxiety can be reduced in healthy young adults by supplementing their diets with the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids found in fish and seafood. These students did not have particularly high levels of anxiety to begin with, so to show a symptom reduction in this group is all the more impressive.
Second - it shows a clear link between the observed reductions in anxiety and down-regulation of the immune system. This is consistent with previous work suggesting that the well-known anti-inflammatory effects of long-chain omega-3 may help to explain their benefits for stress, anxiety and depression.
182816 July 2011 - EVENT - London - Autism / Asperger's: Medical, Nutritional and Dietary Challenges and TreatmentsAutism Asperger's EventOrganised by: Autism Conferences of America16/07/201116/07/2011
We'd like to tell you about this one day event for parents, professionals and people on the spectrum, being held in London on Saturday, 16th July. The same event will be repeated in Sunderland on Saturday, 23rd July. (Please see separate event listing).
The event will feature Professor James B Adams of Arizona State University
James B. Adams, Ph.D., is a President’s Professor at Arizona State University, where he directs the Autism/Asperger's Research Program. He has conducted many research studies on the causes of autism and how to treat it, including studies of nutritional status (vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids, amino acids), neurotransmitters, glutathione therapy, toxic metals and chelation, gastrointestinal abnormalities and treatments, immune problems/treatments, sleep disorders, and seizures. He is the author of over 20 scientific research papers on autism, and the "Summary of Biomedical Treatments for Autism” published by the Autism Research Institute, He is the President of the Autism Society of Greater Phoenix, and the Co-Leader of the Science Think Tank for the Autism Research Institute and Defeat Autism Now! (DAN!). He is the proud father of a son and two daughters; one is a teen-age daughter with autism.
8:30 – 9:00am - What is Autism? Diagnosis, symptoms, co-occurring medical problems, genetic and environmental risk factors.
9:00 – 10:30 am - Summary of Biomedical Treatments for Autism Overview of 14 research-based medical treatments for autism, including healthy diets, GFCF and other diets, nutritional supplements, digestive supplements, probiotics, melatonin, glutathione, , immunological treatments, and more.
10:45 – 12:00 pm - Nutritional and Metabolic Status in Autism, and How to Improve It This talk reviews the results of a major study of nutritional and metabolic problems in children with autism compared to controls, including vitamins, minerals, amino acids, neurotransmitters, methylation, sulfation, oxidative stress, and toxic metals. Additionally, it discusses the dramatic effect of a customized vitamin/mineral supplement on nutritional and metabolic status.
12:00pm – 12:30 pm Mitochondrial Problems in Autism, and Treatments Mitochondria are energy-producing “factories” inside every cell. We will share the results of several new studies by our group on 3 new treatments (carnitine, NADH, ribose) for mitochondrial problems in autism.
1:30pm – 3:00 pm - Toxic Metal Exposure in Autism, and How to Treat It This talk will review many studies which demonstrate that children have a decreased ability to excrete toxic metals due to low glutathione, resulting in an increased body burden of toxic metals. It will also discuss the results of a published study on how to safely and effectively remove toxic metals using DMSA, a FDA-approved medication for treating lead poisoning.
3:15pm – 3:45 pm - Seizure Study This talk reviews a new study of 1000 children and adults with autism, to compare the effectiveness of many different medications and alternative treatments for reducing seizures with minimal side-effects. It will discuss which treatments were most effective in treating seizures with the fewest side-effects.
3:45pm – 4:00pm – Summary: Using Research to Create a Personalized Testing and Treatment Plan
4:00pm – 5:00pm Questions and Discussion
Price: £75.00 £60.00 2nd person
One dayLondonCrown Plaza Kensington, 100 Cromwell Road, SW7 4ER Autism Conferences of America and The Autism Research Instituteautismconferences@gmail.com00 1 480 8312047http://regonline.com/englandautismconferenceRegister online hereAutism-Asperger's Conference 16 July 2011.pdfDownload registration form and further information hereadams.jpgProfessor James B Adams
191611 July 2011 - BBC Food Blog - The Trouble with Trans FatsTrans Fats13/07/2011by Sheila Dillon
BBC Food Blog - The Trouble with Trans Fats
by Sheila Dillon
This week’s edition of The Food Programme investigates the issue of trans-fats in our food (artificial fats which are formed during a process called hydrogenation, which turns liquid oil into solid fat). A key part of the government’s public health policies are the Responsibility Deals - voluntary agreements with the food industry on the ‘healthiness’ of their products. Partners include a wide range of big companies, including KFC, Pepsi, Coca Cola, Pret A Manger and McDonalds. One of their aims is to get rid of trans fatty acids in their foods by the end of the year. But is that decision sufficient to get rid of a substance that, according to Professor Simon Capewell on this week’s The Food Programme, kills 35 people in the UK every two days?
Trans fats have long been known to significantly increase risks for heart disease and diabetes. More recent evidence indicates that they also have damaging effects on human brains and behaviour. This is hardly surprising given that trans fats are artificially warped and twisted versions of the natural omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturates that are absolutely required for normal brain development and function.
Denmark was the first country to ban these poisonous fats in 2006. New York and California have followed suit, and bans are now in force or imminent in several European countries. But despite calls from leading public health experts in the UK and US for the UK to ban them too, our government and its agencies continue to claim that 'voluntary agreements' with big players in the food industry are sufficient to protect UK consumers.
In the latest episode of BBC Radio 4's Food Programme, Sheila Dillon exposed the fatal flaws in this argument. And here, she has followed up with a BBC Foodblog on the subject.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/food/2011/07/the-trouble-with-trans-fats.shtmlRead this full blog by Sheila Dillon on the BBC website here
191310 July 2011 - BBC Radio 4 - The Food Programme: Trans FatsTrans fats11/07/2011
10 July 2011 - BBC Radio 4 - The Food Programme: Trans Fats
Sheila Dillon investigates the issue of trans-fats in our food, and asks whether a voluntary agreement by the food industry to eliminate them by the end of the year is enough to prevent the kind of health problems associated with a diet heavy in industrial cooking fats.
In this episode of the food programme, Sheila Dillon exposes the truth about trans fats, and the huge costs of these toxic fats to public health.
Dangerously high levels of trans fats are still found in many fast foods, commerically baked goods, takeaways and restaurant meals -but without regulation, the consumer has absolutely no way of knowing whether or not they are consuming these toxic substances - and most people have still never even heard of them.
See Stender et al 2006 for the variation in trans fats found in exactly the same meals bought at different outlets. This and other evidence persuaded New York to ban trans fats some years ago (Okie et al 2007) and since then, other countries have been following the lead first set by Denmark.
19088 July 2011 - Update Report on the Healthy Town of Clevedon ChallengeClevedon School09/07/2011
A very inspiring project began in Clevedon earlier this year, following a small idea that was hatched among the pupils and staff of Clevedon School to devise a strategy to improve the health of each individual pupil and member of staff. However, they soon realised that this project had the potential to make a huge impact on their community outside of school, as well as within.
In September 2010, the Clevedon School SNAG (School Nutrition Action Group) group was formed, and included a cohort of pupils and staff who were given the challenge of researching what knowledge individuals had with regard to their own health. Pupils were asked to define what a healthy diet consisted of, and to describe their present dietary intake. In some areas, the results were very pleasing, whilst an analysis in some other areas signalled alarming results. It became strikingly clear that pupils had a very mixed opinion as to what a healthy diet consisted of and what types of food they should be consuming.
“It is vitally important that all children are made aware of the foods they should be eating and the effects on their bodies. This way they can make a choice in the future as to what they consume and in what quantities”.
This became the start of the Healthy Town of Clevedon project in which the aim is purely to see if the school can make a difference throughout the whole town of Clevedon with regard to their health and wellbeing. Meetings were held and staff members from surrounding schools became very interested in the project, and from this a plan was put into action.
The launch took place Wednesday 23rd March 2011 at Clevedon School, with Dr Alex Richardson of Food and Behaviour Research, and Senior Research Fellow, University of Oxford, invited to give several talks throughout the day to organised groups of pupils and staff from the local schools (secondary and primary). Dr Richardson also presented at a special evening session, catering for parents, residents and local businesses.
The evening event sparked much interest within the community, and as a result many businesses, parents and staff have expressed their desire to be a part of the project.
"This is what will make the difference in the town of Clevedon; the more people and organisations that decide they can in some way be a part of the challenge, the bigger and better the long term result will be".
James Bowkett, Deputy Head teacher at the school stated, “The real impact for our community will come if we can harness the enthusiasm of the children together with the resources of the community. We can then make a real difference to the kind of food that the town offers and consumes, and persuade more people to engage in an active healthy lifestyle”.
A ‘Healthy Town of Clevedon’ logo design competition is underway, and again many local businesses have agreed to sport this logo in their outlets to ensure the project is seen across the community and raise further awareness.
Clevedon School is currently in the organisational stages of running a Jump Rope event to support the British Heart Foundation which will involve pupils taking it in turn to keep 30 students at one time skipping for a whole school day (7.5 hours).
The big question for The Clevedon Challenge is “where do we go from here?”
The Healthy Town of Clevedon committee will be meeting on a regular basis and have invited anyone from the community who feels they would like to be part of the project to come along. Their next step will be to see what projects they can run within different areas of the community. Future aspirations include, free taster session for locals classes in various activities, meet and greet morning with others in the community, book club, healthy eating drop in advice days, and events to raise awareness of health and raise money for charity.
The project is community-based and will only be able to maintain its good work if the residents of Clevedon continue to support it and come on board. Individuals, groups and businesses can be involved in many ways, good ideas are always welcome and if anyone would like to run an event then the school will assist and help in any way possible. They are appealing to Clevedon businesses with an interest in the Healthy Town of Clevedon logo to please feel free to contact them at the school.
For further information about the Clevedon Challenge, please contact:
1873Food Rules: An Eater's ManualFood Rules: An Eater's ManualFood Rules; Michael PollanMichael Pollan06/07/2011
The idea for this book followed on from Michael Pollan’s last book, In Defence of Food, which ended with a handful of tips for eating well: simple ways to navigate the treacherous landscape of modern food and the often-confusing science of nutrition.
After spending several years trying to answer the supposedly incredibly complicated question of how we should eat in order to be maximally healthy, he discovered the answer was shockingly simple: eat real food, not too much of it, and more plants than meat. Or, put another way, get off the modern western diet, with its abundance of processed food, refined grains and sugars, and its sore lack of vegetables, whole grains and fruit.
He set out to collect and formulate some straightforward, memorable, everyday rules for eating, a set of personal policies that would, taken together or even separately, nudge people onto a healthier and happier path. He solicited rules from doctors, scientist, chefs, and readers, and then wrote a few himself, trying to boil down into everyday language what we really know about healthy eating. And while most of the rules are backed by science, they are not framed in the vocabulary of science but rather culture - a source of wisdom about eating that turns out to have as much, if not more, to teach us than nutritional science does.
For thousands of years, humans have eaten well and stayed healthy without nutritional scientists or even knowing what an antioxidant is.
So which of the modern world's hundreds of rules do we actually need?
EAT FOOD. NOT TOO MUCH. MOSTLY PLANTS.
Seven simle words of plain English. In Food Rules, internationally acclaimed journalist Michael Pollan gives us straightforward and invaluable rules from these seven words for day-to-day living, such as avoiding food advertised on TV or that your recent ancestors wouldn't recognise. These rules are simply designed to help you eat real food in reasonable amounts.
Phrased in everyday language and collected from grandmothers, folk wisdom, science and common sense from around the world, this book is all you need to eat healthily, dine happily and live well.
1874In Defence of FoodIn Defence of Food: The Myth of Nutrition and the Pleasures of EatingIn Defence of Food; Michael PollanMichael Pollan06/07/2011
Following this book, Michael Pollan went on to write Food Rules: An Eater’s Manual, where he has managed to collect and formulate some straightforward, memorable, everyday rules for eating. Beautifully boiled down into everyday language.
This book is a celebration of food. By food, Michael Pollan means real, proper, simple food – not the kind that comes in a packet, or has lists of unpronounceable ingredients, or that makes nutritional claims about how healthy it is. More like the kind of food your great-grandmother would recognize.
In Defence of Food is a simple invitation to junk the science, ditch the diet and instead rediscover the joys of eating well. By following a few pieces of advice (Eat at a table – a desk doesn’t count. Don’t buy food where you’d buy your petrol!), you will enrich your life and your palate, and enlarge your sense of what it means to be healthy and happy.
It’s time to fall in love with food again.
About the Author
For the past twenty years, Michael Pollan has been writing about the places where the human and natural worlds intersect: food, agriculture, gardens, drugs, and architecture. His most recent book, about the ethics and ecology of eating, is The Omnivore’s Dilemma, named one of the ten best books of 2006 by the New York Times and the Washington Post. He is also the author of The Botany of Desire, A Place of My Own and Second Nature.
In Defense of Food.jpgIn Defence of Foodhttp://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/9780141034720/fabresearfood-21
187124 June 2011 - OBITUARY: Professor Derek Bryce-Smith 29.4.1926 to 24.6.2011Derek Bryce-Smith30/06/2011
By Bernard Gesch - Senior Research Scientist in the Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford; founder of Natural Justice; member of the FAB Research Scientific and Professional Advisory Board
Derek was one of the most honest people you could hope to meet. He walked a straight and honourable path. He had a successful career as a Professor of Chemistry at the University of Reading.
But Derek is perhaps best known for alerting the world to the dangers of tetraethyl lead additives in petrol because he realised that releasing large quantities of lead, a potent and persistent neurotoxin, into our environment posed a danger for mankind. Few people have the resolve to take on the might of the petrochemical industries. I was never sure if he was fearless or more likely that Derek could never hide behind the truth. Derek was also capable of thinking well beyond his own discipline, sometimes to the annoyance of more staid individuals. He had that potent combination of broad interests coupled with an uncanny ability to bring the big picture into clear focus.
He had become intrigued by 1950’s research he had translated from Russian that showed that for any given neurotoxin (brain poison), the dosage required to affect behaviour was one hundredth of that to affect health. He followed this up and realised that the levels of lead being introduced into the environment from petrol were well into the threshold that could affect human behaviour. He first attempted to persuade industry and then went public in 1972. His work inspired key researchers and campaigns against lead fuel additives. Over the years the case against lead became overwhelming. So much so that by the early nineties many industrialised countries removed lead from petrol and the majority experienced a fall in violent crime. Naturally, most of the governments wished to attribute this to their various criminal justice policies, yet some of the most impressive epidemiological evidence suggests the reduced violence was most closely associated with the removal of lead from petrol, as Derek had predicted so many years before.
I first met Derek in 1988 when I was running a charity that had begun to use diet as part of a community sentence for persistent juvenile offenders. The approach had quickly taken off with the courts and I was anxious to find UK experts who could help. I found an obscure reference to Derek in an intriguing book on diet and delinquency and got in touch. He could not have been more supportive and quickly became a mentor and friend, lending his name and time to help me improve the programme. He introduced the charity to influential people who were to become important members of the Board such as The Earl Kitchener and Bishop Montefiore. Derek had already worked out many of the implications for criminal justice in his award winning John Jeyes Silver Medal Lecture ‘Environmental chemical influences on behaviour, personality, and mentation,’ for the Royal Society of Chemistry. He predicted that there was a potent stratum of influences that could affect our behaviour without us being aware of it, such as poor nutrition or exposure to lead, which acted in addition to social influences. In 1991 our charity was rebranded under the name Natural Justice, a national charity to create a platform in criminal justice policy and practice for these factors that influenced brain function and hence behaviour directly. It was the start of another long battle for Derek but in 2002, with the generous help of many more eminent scientists, we produced the first widely accepted empirical evidence that enhanced nutrition caused prisoners to commit significantly fewer offences compared to those taking placebo nutritional supplements.
Derek was a private man, devoted to his family and not one to seek recognition. He was never properly recognised for what he had achieved, while others that stood against him were honoured. As was typical of him, he was far more concerned that the productions of tetraethyl lead additives continued and were being sold to developing countries instead. He once told me ruefully that he realised he would eventually be forgiven if he was wrong about lead but he would never be forgiven if he was right. Yet the world should be grateful for what he did. That farsightedness and resolute honesty in the face of cruel self-interest deserves recognition, even if only now on a posthumous basis.
Sadly after Derek lost his beloved wife Joy, he began a tragic personal battle of his own with Alzheimer’s disease. He died peacefully with his family on Friday 24th June 2011 aged 85. He leaves four children - Madeleine, Duncan, David and Hazel from his first wife Mary; two step-daughters, Diane and Pam, from his second wife Joy, thirteen grandchildren and one great god son, Theo.
1973Yasuda et al 2011 - Infantile zinc deficiency: Association with autism spectrum disordersInfantile zinc deficiency: Association with autism spectrum disordersInfantile zinc deficiency: Association with autism spectrum disorders
Yasuda H, Yoshida K, Yasuda Y, Tsutsui T30/06/2011Scientific Reports 1, Article Number 129, doi:10.1038/srep00129
Elucidation of the pathogenesis and effective treatment of autism spectrum disorders is one of the challenges today. In this study, we examine hair zinc concentrations for 1,967 children with autistic disorders (1,553 males and 414 females), and show considerable association with zinc deficiency. Histogram of hair zinc concentration was non-symmetric with tailing in lower range, and 584 subjects were found to have lower zinc concentrations than −2 standard deviation level of its reference range (86.3–193ppm). The incidence rate of zinc deficiency in infant group aged 0–3 year-old was estimated 43.5 % in male and 52.5 % in female. The lowest zinc concentration of 10.7 ppm was detected in a 2-year-old boy, corresponding to about 1/12 of the control mean level. These findings suggest that infantile zinc deficiency may epigenetically contribute to the pathogenesis of autism and nutritional approach may yield a novel hope for its treatment and prevention.
autism, zinc deficiency, epigenetics, development, bioinorganic chemistry, neurodevelopmental disordershttp://www.nature.com/srep/2011/111103/srep00129/full/srep00129.htmlFull free text available from 'Scientific Reports' here
185721 June 2011 - Mystery ingredient in coffee boosts protection against Alzheimer's diseaseMystery ingredient in coffee boosts protection against Alzheimer's diseaseA yet unidentified component of coffee interacts with the beverage's caffeine, which could be a surprising reason why daily coffee intake protects against Alzheimer's disease. A new Alzheimer's mouse study by researchers at the University of South Florida found that this interaction boosts blood levels of a critical growth factor that seems to fight off the Alzheimer's disease process23/06/2011
The findings appear in the early online version of an article to be published June 28 in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. Using mice bred to develop symptoms mimicking Alzheimer's disease, the USF team presents the first evidence that caffeinated coffee offers protection against the memory-robbing disease that is not possible with other caffeine-containing drinks or decaffeinated coffee.
Previous observational studies in humans reported that daily coffee/caffeine intake during mid-life and in older age decreases the risk of Alzheimer's disease. The USF researchers' earlier studies in Alzheimer's mice indicated that caffeine was likely the ingredient in coffee that provides this protection because it decreases brain production of the abnormal protein beta-amyloid, which is thought to cause the disease.
The new study does not diminish the importance of caffeine to protect against Alzheimer's. Rather it shows that caffeinated coffee induces an increase in blood levels of a growth factor called GCSF (granulocyte colony stimulating factor).
GCSF is a substance greatly decreased in patients with Alzheimer's disease and demonstrated to improve memory in Alzheimer's mice. A just-completed clinical trial at the USF Health Byrd Alzheimer's Institute is investigating GCSF treatment to prevent full-blown Alzheimer's in patients with mild cognitive impairment, a condition preceding the disease. The results of that trial are currently being evaluated and should be known soon.
"Caffeinated coffee provides a natural increase in blood GCSF levels," said USF neuroscientist Dr. Chuanhai Cao, lead author of the study. "The exact way that this occurs is not understood. There is a synergistic interaction between caffeine and some mystery component of coffee that provides this beneficial increase in blood GCSF levels."
The researchers would like to identify this yet unknown component so that coffee and other beverages could be enriched with it to provide long-term protection against Alzheimer's.
In their study, the researchers compared the effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee to those of caffeine alone. In both Alzheimer's mice and normal mice, treatment with caffeinated coffee greatly increased blood levels of GCSF; neither caffeine alone or decaffeinated coffee provided this effect. The researchers caution that, since they used only "drip" coffee in their studies, they do not know whether "instant" caffeinated coffee would provide the same GCSF response.
The boost in GCSF levels is important, because the researchers also reported that long-term treatment with coffee (but not decaffeinated coffee) enhances memory in Alzheimer's mice. Higher blood GCSF levels due to coffee intake were associated with better memory. The researchers identified three ways that GCSF seems to improve memory performance in the Alzheimer's mice. First, GCSF recruits stem cells from bone marrow to enter the brain and remove the harmful beta-amyloid protein that initiates the disease. GCSF also creates new connections between brain cells and increases the birth of new neurons in the brain.
"All three mechanisms could complement caffeine's ability to suppress beta amyloid production in the brain" Dr. Cao said, "Together these actions appear to give coffee an amazing potential to protect against Alzheimer's -- but only if you drink moderate amounts of caffeinated coffee."
Although the present study was performed in Alzheimer's mice, the researchers indicated that they've gathered clinical evidence of caffeine/coffee's ability to protect humans against Alzheimer's and will soon publish those findings.
Coffee is safe for most Americans to consume in the moderate amounts (4 to 5 cups a day) that appear necessary to protect against Alzheimer's disease. The USF researchers previously reported this level of coffee/caffeine intake was needed to counteract the brain pathology and memory impairment in Alzheimer's mice. The average American drinks 1½ to 2 cups of coffee a day, considerably less than the amount the researchers believe protects against Alzheimer's.
"No synthetic drugs have yet been developed to treat the underlying Alzheimer's disease process" said Dr. Gary Arendash, the study's other lead author. "We see no reason why an inherently natural product such as coffee cannot be more beneficial and safer than medications, especially to protect against a disease that takes decades to become apparent after it starts in the brain."
The researchers believe that moderate daily coffee intake starting at least by middle age (30s – 50s) is optimal for providing protection against Alzheimer's disease, although starting even in older age appears protective from their studies. "We are not saying that daily moderate coffee consumption will completely protect people from getting Alzheimer's disease," Dr. Cao said. "However, we do believe that moderate coffee consumption can appreciably reduce your risk of this dreaded disease or delay its onset."
The researchers conclude that coffee is the best source of caffeine to counteract the cognitive decline of Alzheimer's because its yet unidentified component synergizes with caffeine to increase blood GCSF levels. Other sources of caffeine, such as carbonated drinks, energy drinks, and tea, would not provide the same level of protection against Alzheimer's as coffee, they said.
Coffee also contains many ingredients other than caffeine that potentially offer cognitive benefits against Alzheimer's disease. "The average American gets most of their daily antioxidants intake through coffee," Dr. Cao said. "Coffee is high in anti-inflammatory compounds that also may provide protective benefits against Alzheimer's disease."
An increasing body of scientific literature indicates that moderate consumption of coffee decreases the risk of several diseases of aging, including Parkinson's disease, Type II diabetes and stroke. Just within the last few months, new studies have reported that drinking coffee in moderation may also significantly reduce the risk of breast and prostate cancers.
"Now is the time to aggressively pursue the protective benefits of coffee against Alzheimer's disease," Dr. Arendash said. "Hopefully, the coffee industry will soon become an active partner with Alzheimer's researchers to find the protective ingredient in coffee and concentrate it in dietary sources."
New Alzheimer's diagnostic guidelines, now encompassing the full continuum of the disease from no overt symptoms to mild impairment to clear cognitive decline, could double the number of Americans with some form of the disease to more than 10 million. With the baby-boomer generation entering older age, these numbers will climb even more unless an effective preventive measure is identified.
"Because Alzheimer's starts in the brain several decades before it is diagnosed, any protective therapy would obviously need to be taken for decades," Dr. Cao said. "We believe moderate daily consumption of caffeinated coffee is the best current option for long-term protection against Alzheimer's memory loss. Coffee is inexpensive, readily available, easily gets into the brain, appears to directly attack the disease process, and has few side-effects for most of us."
According to the researchers, no other Alzheimer's therapy being developed comes close to meeting all these criteria.
"Aside from coffee, two other lifestyle choices -- physical and cognitive activity -- appear to reduce the risk of dementia. Combining regular physical and mental exercise with moderate coffee consumption would seem to be an excellent multi-faceted approach to reducing risk or delaying Alzheimer's," Dr. Arendash said. "With pharmaceutical companies spending millions of dollars trying to develop drugs against Alzheimer's disease, there may very well be an effective preventive right under our noses every morning – caffeinated coffee."
More information: Caffeine Synergizes with Another Coffee Component to Increase Plasma GCSF: Linkage to Cognitive Benefits in Alzheimer's Mice; Chuanhai Cao, Li Wang, Xiaoyang Lin, Malgorzata Mamcarz, Chi Zhang, Ge Bai, Jasson Nong, Sam Sussman and Gary Arendash; Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 25(2), June 28, 2011.
Provided by University of South Florida
Interested readers can view the abstract of this research paper here
http://medicalxpress.com/news/2011-06-mystery-ingredient-coffee-boosts-alzheimer.htmlView this and other articles at MedXpress here
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