1449Sullivan et al 2010 - High-Fat Diet during Pregnancy Causes Perturbations in the Serotonergic System and Increased Anxiety-Like Behavior in OffspringChronic Consumption of a High-Fat Diet during Pregnancy Causes Perturbations in the Serotonergic System and Increased Anxiety-Like Behavior in Nonhuman Primate Offspring. Chronic Consumption of a High-Fat Diet during Pregnancy Causes Perturbations in the Serotonergic System and Increased Anxiety-Like Behavior in Nonhuman Primate Offspring.Sullivan EL, Grayson B, Takahashi D, Robertson N, Maier A, Bethea CL, Smith MS, Coleman K, Grove KL.10/03/2010J Neurosci. 30(10)3826-30.
Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of behavioral/psychological disorders including depression, anxiety, poor learning, and attention deficit disorder. As the majority of women of child-bearing age are overweight or obese and consume a diet high in dietary fat, it is critical to examine the consequences of maternal overnutrition on the development of brain circuitry that regulates offspring behavior.
Using a nonhuman primate model of diet-induced obesity, we found that maternal high-fat diet (HFD) consumption caused perturbations in the central serotonergic system of fetal offspring. In addition, female infants from HFD-fed mothers exhibited increased anxiety in response to threatening novel objects.
These findings have important clinical implications as they demonstrate that exposure to maternal HFD consumption during gestation, independent of obesity, increases the risk of developing behavioral disorders such as anxiety.
diet, dietary fat, maternal obesity, nutritional programming, behaviour, anxiety, depression, experimental study, animal study http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20220017View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1595D'Asti et al 2010 - Maternal dietary fat determines metabolic profile and endocannabinoid inhibition of the stress response in neonatal rat offspringMaternal dietary fat determines metabolic profile and the magnitude of endocannabinoid inhibition of the stress response in neonatal rat offspring Maternal dietary fat determines metabolic profile and the magnitude of endocannabinoid inhibition of the stress response in neonatal rat offspring D'Asti E, Long H, Tremblay-Mercier J, Grajzer M, Cunnane SC, Di Marzo V, Walker CD.16/02/2010Endocrinology. 151(4)1685-94. Epub 2010 Feb 16
Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are products of phospholipid (PL)-derived arachidonic acid (AA) that regulate hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. We hypothesized that differences in the quality and quantity of maternal dietary fat would modulate the PL AA content in the neonatal brain affecting stress responsiveness via differences in eCB production and activity in stress-activated brain areas.
Pregnant rats were fed a 5% (control (C)) or 30% fat (high fat (HF)) diet rich in either n-6 (HF-n-6) or n-3 (HF-n-3) fat during the last week of gestation and lactation. Postnatal d 10 offspring were tested for metabolic hormones, AA (n-6) and eCB brain content, and hormonal effects of eCB receptor antagonism (AM251, 1 or 3 mg/kg ip) on stress responses.
Like maternal diet, milk from HF-n-3 mothers had a reduced n-6/n-3 fat ratio compared with that of C and HF-n-6 mothers. Hypothalamic and hippocampal levels of PL AA were diet specific, reflecting the maternal milk and dietary n-6/n-3 ratio, with HF-n-3 offspring displaying reduced AA content relative to C and HF-n-6 offspring. Plasma corticosterone and insulin were elevated in HF-fed pups, whereas leptin was increased only in HF-n-6 pups. Basal eCB concentrations were also diet and brain region specific. In C pups, eCB receptor antagonist pretreatment increased stress-induced ACTH secretion, but not in the HF groups. Stress-induced corticosterone secretion was not sensitive to AM251 treatment in HF-n-3 pups. Thus, the nature of preweaning dietary fat differentially influences neonatal metabolic hormones, brain PL AA levels, and eCB, with functional consequences on hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis modulation in developing rat pups.
endocannabinoid, fatty acid, diet, maternal diet, pregnancy, omega-3, omega-6, high-fat diet, stress, anxiety, animal study http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20160134View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1433Bilbo & Tsang 2010 - Enduring consequences of maternal obesity for brain inflammation and behavior of offspring.Enduring consequences of maternal obesity for brain inflammation and behavior of offspring. Enduring consequences of maternal obesity for brain inflammation and behavior of offspring.Bilbo SD, Tsang V.02/02/2010FASEB J. 242104-2115. Epub Feb 2
Obesity is well characterized as a systemic inflammatory condition, and is also associated with cognitive disruption, suggesting a link between the two. We assessed whether peripheral inflammation in maternal obesity may be transferred to the offspring brain, in particular, the hippocampus, and thereby result in cognitive dysfunction. Rat dams were fed a high-saturated-fat diet (SFD), a high-trans-fat diet (TFD), or a low-fat diet (LFD) for 4 wk prior to mating, and remained on the diet throughout pregnancy and lactation.
SFD/TFD exposure significantly increased body weight in both dams and pups compared to controls. Microglial activation markers were increased in the hippocampus of SFD/TFD pups at birth. At weaning and in adulthood, proinflammatory cytokine expression was strikingly increased in the periphery and hippocampus following a bacterial challenge (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) in the SFD/TFD groups compared to controls. Microglial activation within the hippocampus was also increased basally in SFD rats, suggesting a chronic priming of the cells. Finally, there were marked changes in anxiety and spatial learning in SFD/TFD groups.
These effects were all observed in adulthood, even after the pups were placed on standard chow at weaning, suggesting these outcomes were programmed early in life.
dietary fat, obesity, pregnancy, nutritional programming, inflammation, behaviour, experimental study, biochemical study, animal studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20124437View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1604Rodriguez 2010 - Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and risk for inattention and negative emotionality in childrenMaternal pre-pregnancy obesity and risk for inattention and negative emotionality in childrenMaternal pre-pregnancy obesity and risk for inattention and negative emotionality in children Rodriguez A.01/02/2010J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 51(2)134-43. Epub 2009 Aug 6.
OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to replicate and extend previous work showing an association between maternal pre-pregnancy adiposity and risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children.
METHODS: A Swedish population-based prospective pregnancy-offspring cohort was followed up when children were 5 years old (N = 1,714). Mothers and kindergarten teachers rated children's ADHD symptoms, presence and duration of problems, and emotionality. Dichotomized outcomes examined difficulties of clinical relevance (top 15% of the distribution). Analyses adjusted for pregnancy (maternal smoking, depressive symptoms, life events, education, age, family structure), birth outcomes (birth weight, gestational age, infant sex) and concurrent variables (family structure, maternal depressive symptoms, parental ADHD symptoms, and child overweight) in an attempt to rule out confounding.
RESULTS: Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity predicted high inattention symptom scores and obesity was associated with a two-fold increase in risk of difficulties with emotion intensity and emotion regulation according to teacher reports. Means of maternal ratings were unrelated to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Presence and duration of problems were associated with both maternal over and underweight according to teachers.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite discrepancies between maternal and teacher reports, these results provide further evidence that maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity are associated with child inattention symptoms and extend previous work by establishing a link between obesity and emotional difficulties. Maternal adiposity at the time of conception may be instrumental in programming child mental health, as prenatal brain development depends on maternal energy supply. Possible mechanisms include disturbed maternal metabolic function. If maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is a causal risk factor, the potential for prevention is great.
obesity, pregnancy, ADHD, mood disorders, epidemiologyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19674195View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
3709Tuohimaa et al 2009 - Vitamin D, nervous system and aging.Vitamin D, nervous system and aging.Vitamin D, nervous system and aging.Tuohimaa P1, Keisala T, Minasyan A, Cachat J, Kalueff A.01/12/2009Psychoneuroendocrinology.34 Suppl 1S278-86.
This is a mini-review of vitamin D(3), its active metabolites and their functioning in the central nervous system (CNS), especially in relation to nervous system pathologies and aging.
The vitamin D(3) endocrine system consists of 3 active calcipherol hormones: calcidiol (25OHD(3)), 1alpha-calcitriol (1alpha,25(OH)2D(3)) and 24-calcitriol (24,25(OH)2D(3)). The impact of the calcipherol hormone system on aging, health and disease is discussed.
Low serum calcidiol concentrations are associated with an increased risk of several chronic diseases including osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, autoimmune disorders, hypertension, atherosclerosis and muscle weakness all of which can be considered aging-related diseases.
The relationship of many of these diseases and aging-related changes in physiology show a U-shaped response curve to serum calcidiol concentrations.
Clinical data suggest that vitamin D(3) insufficiency is associated with an increased risk of several CNS diseases, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, seasonal affective disorder and schizophrenia.
In line with this, recent animal and human studies suggest that vitamin D insufficiency is associated with abnormal development and functioning of the CNS.
Overall, imbalances in the calcipherol system appear to cause abnormal function, including premature aging, of the CNS.
Vitamin D, Vit-D, Vit_D, ageing, nervous system, neurodegenerative disorders, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19660871View this and related abstracts via PubMed here.
1842Oddy et al 2009 - Dietary patterns and mental health in early adolescenceThe association between dietary patterns and mental health in early adolescenceDietary patterns and mental health in early adolescenceOddy WH, Robinson M, Ambrosini GL, O'Sullivan TA, de Klerk NH, Beilin LJ, Silburn SR, Zubrick SR, Stanley FJ.01/08/2009Prev Med. Aug;49(1):39-44. Epub 2009 May 23.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between dietary patterns and mental health in early adolescence.
METHOD: The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study is a prospective study of 2900 pregnancies recruited from 1989-1992. At 14 years of age (2003-2006; n=1324), the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) was used to assess behaviour (characterising mental health status), with higher scores representing poorer behaviour. Two dietary patterns (Western and Healthy) were identified using factor analysis and food group intakes estimated by a 212-item food frequency questionnaire. Relationships between dietary patterns, food group intakes and behaviour were examined using general linear modelling following adjustment for potential confounding factors at age 14: total energy intake, body mass index, physical activity, screen use, family structure, income and functioning, gender and maternal education at pregnancy.
RESULTS: Higher total (b=2.20, 95% CI=1.06, 3.35), internalizing (withdrawn/depressed) (b=1.25, 95% CI=0.15, 2.35) and externalizing (delinquent/aggressive) (b=2.60, 95% CI=1.51, 3.68) CBCL scores were significantly associated with the Western dietary pattern, with increased intakes of takeaway foods, confectionary and red meat. Improved behavioural scores were significantly associated with higher intakes of leafy green vegetables and fresh fruit (components of the Healthy pattern).
CONCLUSION: These findings implicate a Western dietary pattern in poorer behavioural outcomes for adolescents. Better behavioural outcomes were associated with a higher intake of fresh fruit and leafy green vegetables.
diet, dietary patterns, mental health, internalising behaviour problems, externalising behaviour problems, adolescents, human study, observational studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19467256View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
12312 June 2009 - FAB CONFERENCE - CARDIFF - Feeding a Better Future: Mothers' and Children's Diets02/06/200902/06/2009
About the conference:
An exceptional opportunity to hear from a panel of top UK experts, researchers and practitioners about how nutrition affects behaviour, learning and mood - specifically in mothers' and children.
There is endless media coverage about the food we consume. So why do we still eat such poor diets? And what part do they play in children's worsening behaviour and the rising numbers of special needs pupils?
What can we expect if pregnant mothers and their babies don't get a well-balanced diet? And is current dietary advice appropriate? Find out which nutrients in mothers' diets are most strongly linked with behaviour and intelligence in their children.
How do children develop their eating patterns, and what lifelong effects do these have? How can you deal with 'fussy eating' and encourage healthy food choices?
School meals from a new perspective - hear inspiring examples from around the world. And learn how to make informed food choices for your children and families.
Hear the latest evidence on the links between diet, brains and behaviour - and what practical steps can be taken to encourage healthy eating at home and at school.
Speakers and Programme:
Food and Behaviour: An Overview by Dr Alex Richardson, (Founder and Director, FAB Research; Senior Research Fellow, University of Oxford; Author of 'They Are What You Feed Them')
Recent dietary changes and their consequences for human brain development by Professor Michael Crawford, (Founder and Director of The Institute of Brain Chemistry and Human Nutrition, London Metropolitan University)
Key findings about food and behaviour from the 'Children of the 90s' Study - a world-famous long-term follow-up study of over 14,000 pregnant mothers and their children by Dr Pauline Emmett, (Independent Sr Research Fellow, Centre for Child and Adolescent Health, Bristol)
The Gwent behaviour study - latest results and their implications by Professor Amanda Kirby, (Medical Director, The Dyscovery Centre, University of Wales, Newport)
Improving children's diets - The school food revolution by Professor Kevin Morgan, (School of City & Regional Planning, Cardiff University)
The role of diet in ADHD, autism and related conditions' and 'Encouraging healthy eating at home and in schools: practical tips and guidance by David Rex, Child Health Dietitian NHS Highland, & Healthy Eating in Schools Co-ordinator
9am to 4.30pmCardiffThe Barcelo Angel Hotel, Castle Street, CF10 1SZFiona O'Feeadmin@fabresearch.org01463 667318FAB Cardiff flyer 3.pdfDownload flyer and booking form hereFAB Cardiff booking form only (4).docDownload booking form only hereimages.jpgFULL RATE (Commercial organisations; Central govt)125REDUCED RATE (Local authorities, Health, Education, Social Work, Charitable and Voluntary Organisations)99FAB Associate Members80SUPPORTED RATE (Students, parents and carers)60Press place50
1937Kiecolt-Glaser et al 2009 - How stress and anxiety can alter immediate and late phase skin test responses in allergic rhinitisHow stress and anxiety can alter immediate and late phase skin test responses in allergic rhinitisstress, anxiety, allergic rhinitisKiecolt-Glaser JK, Heffner KL, Glaser R, Malarkey WB, Porter K, Atkinson C, Laskowski B, Lemeshow S, Marshall GD.01/06/2009Psychoneuroendocrinology.34(5):670-80. Epub 2009 Jan 15.
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the fifth most common chronic disease, and the association between allergic disorders and anxiety is well-documented. To investigate how anxiety and stressors modulate skin prick test (SPT) responses and associated inflammatory responses, 28 men and women with AR were selected by clinical history and skin test responses.
The participants were admitted twice to a hospital research unit for 4h in a crossover trial. Changes in SPT wheals were assessed before and after a standardized laboratory speech stressor, as well as again the following morning; skin responses assessed twice during a lab session without a stressor and again the following morning served as the contrast condition.
Anxiety heightened the magnitude of allergen-induced wheals following the stressor. As anxiety increased, SPT wheal diameters increased after the stressor, compared to a slight decrease following the control task. Anxiety also substantially enhanced the effects of stress on late phase responses: even skin tests performed the day after the stressor reflected the continuing impact of the speech stressor among the more anxious participants. Greater anxiety was associated with more IL-6 production by Con A-stimulated leukocytes following the stressor compared to the control visit.
The data suggest that stress and anxiety can enhance and prolong AR symptoms.
stress, anxiety, immune response, allergies, free full texthttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19150180View this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text of this article is available online.
12286 May 2009 - FAB CONFERENCE - EDINBURGH - Eating for Health, Mental Performance and Wellbeingconference Edinburgh06/05/200906/05/2009
Food and Behaviour Research presents:
Eating for Health, Mental Performance and Wellbeing - a one-day professional conference aimed at professionals working in Education and Health ; Local Authority Staff; Professionals working in Criminal Justice; Policy Makers; School, College and University Caterers; Voluntary Organisations; Social Enterprise; Parents; Carers and those working with children and young people; the Media.
What influence does the food we eat have on our brains?
How does the modern diet impact on our mental performance and wellbeing?
Children's behaviour, learning and mental health problems are rising as fast as rates of obesity and diabetes, while many people are feeling tired, agitated and depressed - so what's going on?
Can better informed food choices and dietary intervention reduce these symptoms and really make a difference?
Hear the latest evidence on the links between diet, brains and behaviour - and what practical steps can be taken to encourage healthy eating
Speakers and Programme:
Food and Behaviour - An Overview by Dr Alex Richardson, Director of FAB Research; Senior Research Fellow, University of Oxford, Author of 'They Are What You Feed Them'
Food and Mood: Dietary Factors in Depression and An Early Intervention Programme for Mental Health Problems by Professor Malcolm Peet, Consultant Psychiatrist; NHS consultant
The potential for intervention using fatty acid supplements in autism by Dr Gordon Bell, Project Leader of Nutrition Group, University of Stirling
Chronic Fatigue and Depression - lessons from a practice by Dr Tom Gilhooly, Glasgow-based GP and Medical Advisor
Omega-3 for behaviour, learning and mood. Latest evidence and implications for practice by Dr Alex Richardson, Director of FAB Research; Senior Research Fellow, University of Oxford, Author of 'They Are What You Feed Them'
Encouraging healthy eating in schools - practical tips by David Rex, Child Health Dietitian NHS Highland & Healthy Eating in Schools Co-ordinator
Food for Tot (a project aimed at helping families to develop the skills and knowledge they need to make informed dietary choices for their families) by Barbara Jessop, Development Worker, Greengables Nursery School, Edinburgh
9.30am to 4.30pmEdinburghThe Carlton Hotel, North Bridge, Edinburgh EH1 1SDFiona O'Feeadmin@fabresearch.org01463 667318FAB Edinburgh Flyer and Booking form.pdfDownload flyer hereFAB Edinburgh Booking form web.docDownload booking form hereedinburgh.jpg
122320 March 2009 - FAB CONFERENCE - BRIGHTON - Diet, Behaviour and The Junk Food Generationdiet, ADHD, dyslexia, food additives20/03/200920/03/2009
Food and Behaviour Research presents:
Diet, Behaviour and the Junk Food Generation - a one-day professional conference aimed at Education and Health Professionals; Local Authority Staff; Professionals working in Criminal Justice; Policy Makers; School, College and University Caterers; Voluntary Organisations; Social Enterprise; Parents; Carers and those working with children and young people; the Media.
Do poor diets have a part to play in children's worsening behaviour and the escalation of special needs pupils?
Why are so many children diagnosed with ADHD and related conditions?
What are the most effective ways of managing these problems?
Does exposure to environmental toxins contribute to behavioural and learning problems?
Can nutritional changes really improve mood and wellbeing?
Speakers and Programme:
Food and Behaviour - An Overview by Dr Alex Richardson, Director of FAB Research; Senior Research Fellow, University of Oxford, Author of 'They Are What You Feed Them'
Dietary changes and their implications - past, present and future by Dr Paul Clayton, Chair of Forum on Food & Health; author of 'Health Defence' and 'Pharmageddon' (to be published Spring 2009)
The impact of trace and toxic minerals on behaviour, learning and mood in children and young people by Professor Neil Ward, Professor of Analytical Chemistry, Chair of Professional Training and Careers Committee, University of Surrey
A nutritional approach to the diagnosis and management of ADHD and related conditions by Dr Brian McDonogh, Specialist in Nutritional Medicine, Medical Director of The Eagle Clinic, Horsham, West Sussex
Omega-3 for mental performance and mood. Latest evidence and implications for practice by Dr Alex Richardson, Director of FAB Research; Senior Research Fellow, University of Oxford, Author of 'They Are What You Feed Them'
The links between nutrition, mental and emotional health - practical guidance by Martina Watts, BANT-registered Nutritional Therapist, Dolphin, specialising in digestive, behavioural and immune problems in children and adults
Encouraging healthy eating in schools and other organisations - practical tips by David Rex, Child Health Dietitian NHS Highland & Healthy Eating in Schools Co-ordinator
1295Gow et al 2009 - Total red blood cell concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids are associated with emotion-elicited neural activity in adolescent boys with ADHD.Total red blood cell concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids are associated with emotion-elicited neural activity in adolescent boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Total red blood cell concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids are associated with emotion-elicited neural activity in adolescent boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.Gow RV, Matsudaira T, Taylor E, Rubia K, Crawford M, Ghebremeskel K, Ibrahimovic A, Vallée-Tourangeau F, Williams LM, Sumich A01/02/2009Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.80(2-3):151-6. Epub 2009 Feb 20
Affective impairment is observed in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Low levels of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), specifically omega-3 (omega-3) fatty acids in blood measures have been linked to a range of behavioural and mood disorders including ADHD. However, nothing is known about the relationship between omega-3 and brain function in children with ADHD.
In the current study, 20 adolescent boys with ADHD were assessed for total lipid fractions in red blood cells and their event-related potential (ERP) response to the presentation of facial expressions of happiness, sadness and fearfulness.
The results supported the hypothesis of a positive association between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and a cognitive bias in orientation to overt expressions of happiness over both sad and fearful faces as indexed by midline frontal P300 amplitude. Additional exploratory analyses revealed a positive association between levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the right temporal N170 amplitude in response to covert expressions of fear. The arachidonic (AA)/DHA ratio was negatively associated with the right temporal N170 amplitude also to covert expressions of fear.
These findings indicate that EPA and DHA may be involved in distinct aspects of affect processing in ADHD and have implications for understanding currently inconsistent findings in the literature on EFA supplementation in ADHD and depression.
omega-3, fatty acids, EPA, DHA, RBCFA, ADHD, experimental study, emotion processinghttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19230637?ordinalpos=6&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1843O'Sullivan et al 2009 - A good-quality breakfast is associated with better mental health in adolescenceA good-quality breakfast is associated with better mental health in adolescenceA good-quality breakfast is associated with better mental health in adolescenceO'Sullivan TA, Robinson M, Kendall GE, Miller M, Jacoby P, Silburn SR, Oddy WH.01/02/2009Public Health Nutr.12(2):249-58. Epub 2008 Nov 25.
OBJECTIVE: Breakfast consumption has been associated with better mental health in adulthood, but the relationship between breakfast and mental health in adolescence is less well known. The aims of the present study were to evaluate breakfast quality in a cohort of adolescents and to investigate associations with mental health.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based study. Breakfast quality was assessed by intake of core food groups at breakfast, as determined from 3 d food diaries. Mental health was assessed using the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), with higher scores representing poorer behaviour.
SETTING: The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, Perth, Western Australia.
SUBJECTS: Eight hundred and thirty-six males and females aged between 13 and 15 years.
RESULTS: Mean mental health score as assessed by the CBCL was 45.24 (sd 11.29). A high-quality breakfast consisting of at least three food groups was consumed by 11 % of adolescents, while 7 % of adolescents did not consume any items from core food groups on average over the 3 d period. The two most common core food groups consumed at breakfast in this population were dairy products followed by breads and cereals. For every additional food group eaten at breakfast, the associated total mental health score decreased by 1.66 (95 % CI -2.74, -0.59) after adjustment for potential confounding factors, representing an improvement in mental health score.
CONCLUSION: These findings support the concept that breakfast quality is an important component in the complex interaction between lifestyle factors and mental health in early adolescence.
diet, breakfast, mental health, adolescents, human study, observational studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19026092View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1666Reissig et al 2009 - Caffeinated energy drinks--a growing problemCaffeinated energy drinks--a growing problem Caffeinated energy drinks--a growing problem Reissig CJ, Strain EC, Griffiths RR.01/01/2009Drug Alcohol Depend. 99(1-3):1-10. Epub 2008 Sep 21.
Since the introduction of Red Bull in Austria in 1987 and in the United States in 1997, the energy drink market has grown exponentially. Hundreds of different brands are now marketed, with caffeine content ranging from a modest 50 mg to an alarming 505 mg per can or bottle. Regulation of energy drinks, including content labeling and health warnings differs across countries, with some of the most lax regulatory requirements in the U.S.
The absence of regulatory oversight has resulted in aggressive marketing of energy drinks, targeted primarily toward young males, for psychoactive, performance-enhancing and stimulant drug effects.
There are increasing reports of caffeine intoxication from energy drinks, and it seems likely that problems with caffeine dependence and withdrawal will also increase. In children and adolescents who are not habitual caffeine users, vulnerability to caffeine intoxication may be markedly increased due to an absence of pharmacological tolerance. Genetic factors may also contribute to an individual's vulnerability to caffeine-related disorders including caffeine intoxication, dependence, and withdrawal.
The combined use of caffeine and alcohol is increasing sharply, and studies suggest that such combined use may increase the rate of alcohol-related injury. Several studies suggest that energy drinks may serve as a gateway to other forms of drug dependence. Regulatory implications concerning labeling and advertising, and the clinical implications for children and adolescents are discussed.
caffeine, energy drinks, intoxication, health risks, human studies, review, Free Full Texthttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18809264View this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text of this paper is available online.
1257Tassabehji et al 2008 - Zinc deficiency induces depression-like symptoms in adult rats.Zinc deficiency induces depression-like symptoms in adult rats.Zinc deficiency induces depression-like symptoms in adult rats.Tassabehji NM, Corniola RS, Alshingiti A, Levenson CW.20/10/2008Physiol Behav. 95(3)365-9. Epub 2008 Jul 3
There is mounting evidence suggesting a link between serum zinc levels and clinical depression. Not only is serum zinc negatively correlated with the severity of symptoms, but zinc levels appear to be lowest in patients who do not respond to antidepressant drug therapy. It is not known if reduced zinc levels are contributing to depression, or the result of dietary or other factors associated with major depression. Thus, we designed this study to test the hypothesis that dietary zinc deficiency would induce depression-like behaviors in rats. Two-month-old male rats were fed zinc adequate (ZA, 30 ppm), deficient (ZD, 1 ppm), or supplemented (ZS, 180 ppm) diets for 3 weeks. Consistent with the development of depression, ZD rats displayed anorexia (p<0.001), anhedonia (reduced saccharin:water intake, p< 0.001), and increased anxiety-like behaviors in a light-dark box test (p<0.05). Furthermore, the antidepressant drug fluoxetine (10 mg/kg body wt) reduced behavioral despair, as measured by the forced swim test, in rats fed the ZA and ZS rats (p<0.05), but was ineffective in ZD rats. Together these studies suggest that zinc deficiency leads to the development of depression-like behaviors that may be refractory to antidepressant treatment.
zinc, depression, treatment http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18655800?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
11998 October 2008 - Nutraingredients - Don't ignore omega-3 for mood and behaviour, say UK expertsFAB Research conference, omega-3, mood disorders, child behaviour and learning08/10/2008by Lorraine Heller who attended the 'Feeding Young Minds' event in Oxford on 3 October 2008.
Academic and nutrition experts in the UK are calling for an increased focus on the benefits of omega-3 in mood and behaviour, especially in children, as a lack of consistent research is stunting potential in the field.
The resounding message that came out of a Food and Behaviour (FAB) research conference held in Oxford last week was the need for more funding for additional scientific studies.
"Omega-3s are precious nutrients that have never reached such historically low levels in our diets. We cannot ignore the physical health risks to children from a poor nutritional diet as they are all too visible. What's less visible is the damage to their brains," said Dr Alex Richardson, a research scientist at the University of Oxford and founder and director of FAB.
Dr Richardson and other speakers highlighted the studies that have so far indicated the crucial role of omega-3 in improving behaviour, learning and mood disorders.
Potential benefits of the fatty acids include a reduction in violent or impulsive behaviour, improvements in neurodevelopmental disorders in children (such as ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia and autism), as well as improvements or even prevention of adult psychiatric disorders (such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders and depression).
A number of randomized controlled trials - the gold standard in the scientific world - have demonstrated some of these benefits, explained the speakers. However, the results cannot be compared and confirmed through systematic reviews or meta-analyses because the studies are too differing - conducted in different populations and using different measures.
Ultimately, this means that regulatory authorities require more studies before the benefits can be recognised, but funds for these remain limited.
"Omega-3s do not work in the same way for everyone - we all agree that we need more studies. The department of education wants to see the results, but they don't want to contribute anything," said Dr Richardson.
"Stop setting the bar so high that there will never be enough evidence for us to do something about it," she said.
Other speakers at the event - entitled Feeding Young Minds - included:
1326Rubin et al 2008 - Acne vulgaris, mental health and omega-3 fatty acids: a report of casesAcne vulgaris, mental health and omega-3 fatty acids: a report of casesAcne vulgaris, mental health and omega-3 fatty acids: a report of casesRubin MG, Kim K, Logan AC01/10/2008Lipids Health Dis. 13;7:36
Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition, one that is associated with significant psychological disability. The psychological impairments in acne include higher rates of depression, anxiety, anger and suicidal thoughts. Despite a paucity of clinical research, patients with skin conditions and/or mental health disorders are frequent consumers of dietary supplements. An overlap may exist between nutrients that potentially have both anti-acne and mood regulating properties; examples include omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil, chromium, zinc and selenium. Here we report on five cases of acne treated with eicosapentaenoic acid and antioxidant nutrients. Self-administration of these nutrients may have improved inflammatory acne lesions and global aspects of well-being; the observations suggest a need for controlled trials.
acne, skin, fatty acids, omega-3, vitamins, mineralshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18851733?ordinalpos=30&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free Full Text of this paper is available on the Journal website
1845Mathieu et al 2008 - Synergistic effects of stress and omega-3 fatty acid deprivation on emotional response and brain lipid composition in adult ratsSynergistic effects of stress and omega-3 fatty acid deprivation on emotional response and brain lipid composition in adult ratsSynergistic effects of stress and omega-3 fatty acid deprivation on emotional response and brain lipid composition in adult ratsMathieu G, Denis S, Lavialle M, Vancassel S.24/06/2008Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 78(6):391-401. Epub 2008 Jun 24.
The aim was to determine the consequences of multi-generational n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) deficiency on emotional response in rats subjected to maternal separation (MS) as chronic early life stress.
Pups fed a control or an n-3 PUFA deficient diet were daily separated for 2 weeks before weaning. In adult rats, reward response was assessed by sucrose consumption and reactivity to novelty using openfield test.
Both n-3 PUFA deficiency and MS increased reward response and impulsivity. Moreover, nutritional deficiency and stress acted in synergy to elevate sucrose intake by 80%, compared to control conditions. n-3 PUFA deprivation induced a depletion of docosahexanoeic acid of brain membranes by 70% compensated by increase in 22:5 n-6 and arachidonic acid (AA) levels. The diet-induced AA increase was, however, significantly higher in MS rats.
This suggests that n-3 PUFA deficit could be an environmental risk increasing vulnerability to depressive-like response induced by chronic stress.
omega-3, emotional deprivation, stress, depression, brain tissue, DHA, AA, animal study, experimental studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18579362View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
117830 Jan 2008 - Associate Parliamentary Food and Health Forum Report on the links between diet, mental health and behaviourAssociate Parliamentary Food and Health Forum30/01/2008Associate Parliamentary Food and Health Forum
The Associate Parliamentary Food and Health Forum has issued a report which looks at the scientific evidence on whether mental health and performance can be affected by what we eat, and explores how this may be happening. It concentrates particularly on the role of omega-3 fatty acids (whose benefits are promoted relentlessly and often inaccurately by the food industry) but recognises that other nutrients forming part of a healthy diet also have a significant role.
The report backs the recommendations of the FSA that fish consumption should be increased since it is the prime source of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, but is concerned that fish stocks may not be sufficient if this advice is followed and considers possible alternative sources of omega-3 fatty acids. The report emphasises the importance of omega-3 in the diet of pregnant and breast feeding mothers and children since brain development mainly occurs at the beginning of life, but also recognises that older people may benefit. There may be a protective effect of omega-3 against Alzheimer's disease but the report concludes that more research, already under way, needs to be evaluated before firm conclusions can be drawn."
Half a dozen Parliamentarians have been conducting an inquiry for a year, in which they have taken scientific and other evidence from experts at a number of open meetings. This evidence has clarified the role of omega-3 and other nutrients in brain development and function, but has also revealed the need for further well conducted research into their effect on different aspects of human behaviour and cognitive development. However they agreed that the evidence for the benefits of naturally occurring omega-3 in fish and fish oils was very powerful and that this should be a vital component of a well balanced healthy diet.
In their report, the Parliamentarians emphasise that we should consider the impact on our mental health, as well as our physical health, of what we eat. In particular the inquiry report looks at the evidence that diet influences the behaviour and performance of school children, the behaviour of offenders and people suffering from depression.
The recommendations range from advice on Government messages about healthy eating, to specific advice in relation to pregnant women and on nutritional standards in prisons.
Lord Rea, Chairman of the FHF inquiry team, said:
"The scientific evidence we heard showed very clearly the importance of omega-3 long chain fatty acids in brain composition and function. There is epidemiological evidence that populations with a high fish intake have less depression, a lower rate of Alzheimer's disease and brighter children (as well as healthier hearts and arteries). But there is less hard evidence so far that intervention studies which change people's diets or give them supplements show a beneficial effect. However there are a few well conducted random controlled trials which do appear to show such an effect among juvenile offenders and children with ADHD and other behavioural disorders and we learnt of others in progress, some which we describe briefly in the report. However it became clear that far too little research of this kind has been done and one of our main recommendations is that more should be commissioned and funded in view of the burden that mental and behavioural disorders place on society."
The report looks at a number of issues which may affect mental health and behaviour, including the controversial issue of artificial food colours. The Parliamentarians recommend that all artificial food colours (which have no nutritional value) and non-essential preservatives, should be banned from food products and soft drinks.
Dr Ian Gibson, said:
"It was an illuminating experience to hear from a wide range of scientists who have been studying the links between diet, mental health and behaviour. I was pleased that we were also able to hear from teachers at the grassroots level, such as those at Eaton Hall School in Norwich, who are trying to help children with behavioural problems. Mrs Moore and her colleagues do an excellent job and it was very interesting to hear how they are using emerging evidence on diet and behaviour as one strand in their approach to supporting their pupils."
Earl Baldwin of Bewdley said:
"While we majored on the importance of fish oils, we were also impressed by the emerging evidence of the influence of a range of micronutrients on behaviour, performance and well-being, especially in young offenders, and by the importance for some people of avoiding foodstuffs to which they appear to be intolerant.
The report also recommends better diets for offenders held in prisons and young offender institutes, especially pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers. It calls for the introduction of nutrient-based standards for meals, similar to those used in schools, but based on adult dietary needs.
Baroness Miller of Chilthorne Domer said:
"I am especially pleased that our report highlights how important fish oils are in a mother's diet. We heard how the development of the foetus brain is particularly dependent on the mothers' nutrient intake. Our report highlights how mothers with little or no control of their diet, such as those in prison, must be offered an adequate diet taking their pregnancy into account. Otherwise the unborn child could be having their life chances severely hampered even before they are born."
The Parliamentarians are also critical of medical training, noting that a lack of training in nutrition and diet for GPs and other medical professionals detracts from their ability to support their patients' physical and mental health. The Parliamentarians recommend that this issue should be addressed by the Royal Medical Colleges and the General Medical Council.
The Government may be concerned that the Parliamentarians recommend it includes financial support to School Breakfast Clubs as part of the package set up to improve school meals. They strongly recommend that all children entitled to free school lunches should be entitled also to a free school breakfast the content of which, like school lunches, should be subject to quantified nutritional standards.
Baroness Gibson of Market Rasen said:
"A good breakfast is a good start to the day, especially for children. It (free school breakfasts for the children of low income families) could help the least well off in our society and help children to recognise good nutritional food as part of their everyday life."
The Countess of Mar said:
"The evidence we received for this report has shown that whilst, in the past, we have recognised the importance of some of the major vitamins and minerals - those we see on cereal packets, for example, we may now be paying the price of ignoring the importance of the role played by lesser known factors, including trace elements in our health and behaviour. I was surprised by the lack of knowledge there is about these essential constituents in the human diet when, in my role as a farmer and stock breeder, I learned very early on to ensure that animals in my care receive a balanced diet, to look out for signs and symptoms of deficiency before they become serious and to provide supplements if necessary. This report is a step along the way towards doing the same, particularly for infants, children and young people."
The members of the FHF inquiry team were: Lord Rea (Chairman), Baroness Gibson of Market Rasen, Baroness Miller of Chilthorne Domer, Dr Ian Gibson and Earl Baldwin of Bewdley.
"The Associate Parliamentary Food and Health Forum" launched this report on 30 January 2008 following a year long inquiry into the links between diet, mental health and behaviour. More detailed information about the inquiry, including minutes of all the meetings and presentations given by witnesses, is available on the Forum's website at: www.fhf.org.uk/inquiry."
The Parliamentarians' recommendations are set out below:
1. We recommend that the Government - principally the Department of Health, the Department for Children, Schools and Families and the Ministry of Justice, working with the FSA and the Medical Research Council - commission and support further research in the areas highlighted in this report.
2. We recommend that the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) should be asked to define further the optimum intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in different stages of life, especially for pregnant women and children.
3. We also recommend that in the meantime, on a precautionary basis, the FSA should reconsider its advice to pregnant women about fish consumption, with a view to encouraging them to eat two portions of oily fish, or the equivalent in omega-3 PUFAs, a week (rather than that people should eat two portions of fish a week, of which one should be oily).
4. We also recommend that the FSA continues to monitor closely levels of mercury, dioxin and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) in the different species of oily fish available in the UK.
The lack of nutritional training for GPs and other medical professionals detracts from their ability to support their patients' physical and mental health; this issue should be addressed by the Royal Medical Colleges and the General Medical Council if we are to tackle the problems and costs associated with mental as well as physical ill health.
5. We recommend that the Royal Medical Colleges and the GMC consider upgrading the role of nutrition in the medical curriculum.
6. We recommend that Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) should increase the number of posts for dietitians working in the community and that GP practices should be fully reimbursed if they employ a dietitian to whom patients can be referred for nutritional advice.
The campaigns by the Department of Health and FSA to increase the consumption of fruit and vegetables and reduce consumption of sugar and salt are welcome, but they do not make explicit the emerging link between diet and mental well-being and they neglect the vital role of essential fatty acids, which appear to be crucial to children's life chances particularly in utero and in early childhood.
7. We believe the Government should take further action to raise public awareness of the significance of good nutrition in pregnancy and to tackle the incidence of low birth-weight in the UK.
The evidence which has emerged to date of the links between nutritional status and childhood disorders, depression, aggressive and anti-social behaviour merits further publicly funded research.
8. We recommend that more research to test the effect of selected essential fatty acids on the cognitive skills, mood and behaviour of both "healthy" children (that is, children suffering from no known disorders), as well as children suffering from a range of behavioural disorders should be undertaken.
9. We recommend that regulations should be introduced to prohibit all artificial colours and non-essential preservatives in food products and soft drinks.
10. We recommend that the Government includes financial support to School Breakfast Clubs as part of the package set up to improve school meals. We strongly recommend that all children entitled to free school lunches should be entitled also to a free school breakfast whose content, like school lunches, should be subject to quantified nutritional standards.
11. We recommend that the Department of Health encourages other NHS Trusts to adopt an approach similar to that pursued by the Doncaster and South Humber Healthcare NHS Trust which undertakes a nutritional assessment of patients suffering from depression and patients with early symptoms of psychosis and provides dietary advice to them.
12. We recommend that consideration of the outcome of the next trial of nutritional supplements in Young Offender Institutes should be a priority for the National Offender Management Service (NOMS) given that our prisons are overcrowded and there is continuing concern about the mental health of prisoners, particularly young offenders at risk of self-harm and suicide.
13. We recommend that any dietary intervention that can be used to improve the behaviour and mental well-being of offenders held in custody should be given serious consideration by the NOMS.
14. We recommend that the NOMS looks positively at the case for introducing nutrient-based standards for meals in prisons, similar to those introduced for schools, but based on recommended daily intakes for adults.
15. We also recommend that effective measures should be taken in all prisons to inform prisoners about the benefits of a good diet and to persuade and encourage them to make healthy choices both while they are in custody and after their release.
16. We recommend that in all women's prisons national nutritional standards should be introduced to ensure that the basic dietary needs of pregnant women prisoners are achieved.
17. Because of the major potential benefit for the fields of education, crime, health and the well-being of vulnerable sections of society, we believe that more research is urgently needed in the area of nutrition and behaviour and we recommend that the Government devotes more resources to this, especially in corrective institutions and care homes.
18. We recommend that the Department of Health messages on a healthy diet should emphasise the importance of a balanced diet for optimum mental as well as physical health.
19. While research continues to identify and produce alternative sources of omega-3 PUFAs, we recommend that all people in the UK should be encouraged to eat more fish, some of which should be oily fish, or its equivalent in omega-3 PUFAs.
http://www.fhf.org.uk/inquiryVisit the FHF website hereThe Links Between Diet and Behaviour - FHF inquiry report January 2008 (2).pdfDownload a pdf copy of the full report hereAPFHF.jpgAPFHF
1173Detoxing Childhood - by Sue PalmerDetoxing Childhood: What parents need to know to raise happy, successful childrenSue Palmer; Detoxing ChildhoodSue Palmer10/01/2008
When Sue Palmer wrote Toxic Childhood, her ground-breaking book that showed how problems of diet, education, fitness and mental health problems were all inter-related, she created a national debate. Everyone from educationists and scientists to politicians, religious leaders and authors got involved in the debate. The problems seemed potentially overwhelming. Now, in this important successor volume, Sue Palmer provides an essential guide on how to bring up children in a way that avoids the problems of a toxic world. With practical, easy-to-follow advice she explains what children need, in terms of food, play, sleep and talk; what childcare and education will help most; how families can work together for the best, given the hectic pace of 21st century life; and how to turn the electronic village of TV, computers and mobile phones to our advantage. With so many pressures across so many parts of our lives today, this book is the one-stop solution to all our concerns about raising healthy, happy children in the modern world.
Sue Palmer; Detoxing ChildhoodDetoxing Childhood.jpgDetoxing Childhoodhttp://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0752890107/fabresearfood-21http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0752890107/fabresearch-20
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