70228 October 2004 - Nairn - Food and Behaviour ResearchFood and Behaviour Research
Dyslexia, Dyspraxia, ADHD, Autistic Spectrum and Mood DisordersIntelligent Nutrition Ltd28/10/200428/10/2004
Dyslexia, Dyspraxia, ADHD, Autistic Spectrum and Mood Disorders
Learn what these labels mean and how nutrition can help
How Diet affects Behaviour, Learning and Mood
The latest research clearly explained, and its practical implications. (How nutrition affects your body and mind - and what you can do about it).
Who should participate?
Teachers/education professionals, parents, carers, doctors/health professionals, social workers, medical/academic researchers, charities/ support groups, the media, interested individuals.
The biological basis of Dyslexia and Dyspraxia, ADHD, Autism and related conditions.
Diet and Antisocial behaviour
Omega 3 Fatty Acids and the brain
Food allergies and intolerances
Other essential nutrients
Practical approaches - your questions answered
Dr Alex Richardson
Alex is a Senior Research Fellow at Oxford University and is well-known as a leading expert in this field. She originally trained as a teacher, and her excellent communication skills and clear presentation style are such that she is frequently invited to give lectures and talks to health and education professionals, support groups, charities and other organisations.
Marion is a Research Biochemist and a Dietician with unique specialist experience in these areas. She is regularly invited to give talks and conference presentations on the topic of nutrition and psychiatry.
Both Alex and Marion are actively involved in cutting-edge scientific research, including nutritional treatment trials for children and adults. They work closely with local and national charities and support groups.
Bernard is a Senior Research Scientist at the University Lab of Physiology, Oxford, and Director of the charity Natural Justice. From an early background in probation work, he has gone on to conduct world-class research showing that dietary supplementation can reduce antisocial behaviour in young offenders. As well as providing definitive evidence that food can and does affect behaviour, these findings potentially have major implications for education and health as well as criminal justice.
Dave Rex works with diet and autistic spectrum disorders in the Highlands, and also has a 'health promotion in schools' role. He has experience in the food industry, and in food and health policy. David is a state registered Dietician, has a degree in Chemistry and Food Science and is studying for a Masters in Food Policy.
71404 October 2004 - Dublin - FAB Research Public Talk04 October 2004 - Dublin - FAB Research Public Talk04/10/200404/10/2004
The Role of Nutrition in Behaviour, Learning and Mood: Can Omega-3 Fatty Acids help? Find out about the latest research - and its practical implications
Speaker: Dr Alex Richardson
World-class scientific research shows that diet can play an important role in dyslexia and related conditions such as dyspraxia, ADHD, and autistic spectrum disorders, as well as in many other aspects of behaviour, learning and mood.
In this talk, Dr Alex Richardson will explain the latest research findings and their practical implications, including results from the first controlled treatment trials of dietary supplementation with omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in dyslexic children. These fatty acids are essential to the brain, and must be provided by the diet. Everyone needs them - but some people appear to need more than others.
Dr Richardson's research into the importance of nutrition is independent of any commercial influences. She holds a Senior Research Fellowship at Mansfield College, Oxford, and her research is also supported by two charities - the Dyslexia Research Trust and Food And Behaviour Research. She and her colleagues are dedicated not only to improving the identification and management of difficulties in behaviour, learning and mood through cutting-edge scientific research, but also to translating the findings into real practical help for parents, teachers and other professionals involved in the education or health of children and adults with special needs.
The talk will start at 7.30pm and last for just over an hour. Afterwards, Dr Richardson will be happy to answer any questions raised
The attendance fee of _5 will be donated to Food and Behaviour Research
To reserve tickets please use the contact details provided below.
7.30-9.30DublinMoran Red Cow HotelShield Health LtdEire: 045-892267Dublin - Red Cow Moran Hotel.jpgDublin - Red Cow Moran Hotel
713Ayton et al 2004 - Pilot studies of ethyl-EPA in the treatment of anorexia nervosaA pilot open case series of Ethyl-EPA supplementation in the treatment of anorexia nervosa.Anorexia and fish oilsAyton, A.K., Azaz, A., Horrobin, D.F.01/10/2004Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 71(4)205-9.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) carries the highest risk of morbidity and mortality amongst psychiatric disorders. The efficacy of current treatment approaches is limited. Despite the fat-phobic nature of the disease, poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have not received much research attention. Patients who consume western diet, which is rich in n-6 PUFAs and trans-fatty acids, are likely to develop severe n-3 PUFA deficiency during self-induced starvation. Re-feeding programmes do not take into consideration n-3 EFA intake, possibly leading to further n-3 PUFA deficiency during weight restoration, and this might contribute to the maintenance of the disorder. To test this hypothesis, we carried out a systematic case series of E-EPA supplementation in the treatment of AN. Seven young patients received 1g/day E-EPA in addition to standard treatment, and were followed up for 3 months. Three of them recovered and four improved. Randomised controlled trials are warranted to examine the effectiveness of E-EPA in AN further.
anorexia, eating disorders, EPA, fish oilshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15301789View this abstract via Pubmed here
980Hallahan and Garland 2004 - Essential fatty acids and their role in the treatment of impulsivity disorders.Essential fatty acids and their role in the treatment of impulsivity disorders.Essential fatty acids and their role in the treatment of impulsivity disorders.Hallahan B, Garland MR. 01/10/2004Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.71(4)211-6
Essential fatty acids (EFAs) have been shown to benefit patients with depression, schizophrenia and dementia. More recently, their role in disorders characterised by impulsivity has attracted some attention. The psychiatric conditions of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and borderline personality disorder as well as the phenomena of deliberate self-harm and violence have been ameliorated by the supplementation of EFAs in a number of recent clinical trials. This paper summarises the burgeoning clinical and basic research indicating the existence of significant deficits of EFAs in impulsivity disorders and the supplementation studies of EFAs in these diverse conditions, all of which remain a major therapeutic challenge.
omega-3, impulsivity, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=15301790View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1114Huan et al 2004 - Suicide attempt and RBC n-3 fatty acids: a case control study in China.Suicide attempt and n-3 fatty acid levels in red blood cells: a case control study in China.Suicide attempt and n-3 fatty acid levels in red blood cells: a case control study in China.Huan M, Hamazaki K, Sun Y, Itomura M, Liu H, Kang W, Watanabe S, Terasawa K, Hamazaki T.01/10/2004Biol Psychiatry56(7)490-6
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies show that low fish intake is a risk factor of suicidality; however, there are no case-control studies investigating suicide attempt risk and tissue n-3 fatty acid levels. METHODS: We recruited 100 suicide-attempt cases and another 100 control patients injured by accidents who were admitted to three hospitals affiliated with Dalian Medical University in Dalian, China. Case and control subjects were matched for age, gender, and smoking status. Those who were inebriated at the time of hospitalization were excluded. Blood was sampled immediately after admission to a hospital. Washed red blood cells (RBCs) were obtained, and the fatty acid composition of the total RBC phospholipid fraction was analyzed by gas chromatography. RESULTS: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels in RBC in the case subjects were significantly lower than those of the control subjects (.74 +/-.52% vs. 1.06 +/-.62%, p <.0001). When the highest and lowest quartiles of EPA in RBC were compared, the odds ratios of suicide attempt was.12 in the highest quartile (95% confidence interval:.04-.36, p for trend =.0001) after adjustment for possible confounding factors CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that low n-3 fatty acid levels in tissues were a risk factor of suicide attempt. Further studies including intervention with fish oil are warranted.
RBCFA, omega-3, suicide, depression, bipolar, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=15450784View this abstract via PubMed here
747Ramos et al 2004 - Plasma folate concentrations are associated with depressive symptoms in elderly Latina women despite folic acid fortificationPlasma folate concentrations are associated with depressive symptoms in elderly Latina women despite folic acid fortification. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Oct;80(4):1024-8.Plasma folate concentrations are associated with depressive symptoms in elderly Latina women despite folic acid fortification.Ramos, M.I., Allen, L.H., Haan, M.N., Green, R., Miller, J.W.01/10/2004Am J Clin Nutr.80(4)1024-8.
BACKGROUND: A relation between low folate status and depression has been recognized since the 1960s. Since 1998, flour in the United States has been fortified with folic acid, and the prevalence of folate deficiency has decreased dramatically.
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether, in this era of folic acid fortification, low folate status is a determinant of depressive symptoms in a cohort of elderly Latinos (aged >/=60 y) participating in the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (SALSA).
DESIGN: In a cross-sectional logistic regression analysis of data from SALSA (n = 627 M, 883 F), odds ratios (ORs) were ascertained for elevated depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score >/=16) among tertiles of plasma folate. Depressive symptoms were assessed by using the CES-D. Plasma folate concentrations were determined by radioassay.
RESULTS: The prevalence of folate deficiency (plasma folate</= 6.8 nmol/L) in the SALSA population was <1%. For men, no significant association between folate tertile and high CES-D score was observed. The adjusted OR for high CES-D score in women in the lowest tertile of folate was 2.04 (95% CI: 1.38, 3.02), which was significantly different from that in women in the highest tertile of folate (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: These data indicate that, despite folic acid fortification, low folate status is associated with depressive symptoms in elderly Latina women (but not elderly Latino men).
depression, folate, folic acid, plasma, depressive symptoms, elderly, women, menhttp://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/80/4/1024Licensed users of Am J Clin Nutr can view the full text of this article here
68215 September 2004 - York Festival of Food & Drink 10-19th September 2004 - York Festival of Food & Drink10/09/200419/09/2004
The York Festival of Food and Drink is in its eighth year. This year, there will be speciality food markets, roving feasts, tastings, demonstrations, gourmet dinners and much more. As well as being entertaining and fun, the festival also has a serious side. This year the theme is 'The Obesity Time Bomb' with particular emphasis on the problems of childhood obesity.
There will be a food clinic in which a panel of experts, headed by TV nutritionist Amanda Ursell, will answer questions on children's eating habits. Kate Bowie from Sustain will address teachers and professionals on the Grab 5 campaign to encourage children to eat more fruit and vegetables and a head teacher will explain how he revolutionised school meals by bringing in a restaurant chef.
On Wednesday 15th September, the festival's keynote address will be given by Dr Alexandra Richardson, Senior Research Fellow, Mansfield College and the University Laboratory of Physiology at Oxford, and co-director of the charity Food And Behaviour Research. She has carried out important research into the links between a junk food diet and the brain and whether fish oils can improve learning and behaviour. This session will be of interest to parents, teachers and health professionals.
This is a ticketed event but tickets are free of charge. To book a place, phone the Festival ticket line 08701 20 31 15 (active from 5th July).
Keynote Address by Dr Alex Richardson - 15th September, 7.30pm - 9.30pmYorkKeynote Address 15th September - Hilton Hotel, 1, Tower Streethttp://www.yorkfestivaloffoodanddrink.com/Visit the York Festival website here
782Gut and Psychology Syndromes: Natural Treatment for Autism, ADD/ADHD, Dyslexia, Dyspraxia, Depression, Schizophrenia Gut and Psychology Syndromes: Natural Treatment for Autism, ADD/ADHD, Dyslexia, Dyspraxia, Depression, Schizophrenia Natural Treatment for Autism,ADD/ADHD,Dyslexia,Dyspraxia,Depression,Schizophrenia Natasha Campbell-McBride01/09/2004
Dr. Natasha Campbell-McBride set up The Cambridge Nutrition Clinic in 1998. As a parent of a child diagnosed with learning disabilities, she was acutely aware of the difficulties facing other parents like her, and she has devoted much of her time to helping these families.
She realised that nutrition played a critical role in helping children and adults to overcome their disabilities, and has pioneered the use of probiotics in this field.
Her willingness to share her knowledge has resulted in her contributing to many publications, as well as presenting at numerous seminars and conferences on the subjects of learning disabilities and digestive disorders. Her book "Gut and Psychology Syndrome" captures her experience and knowledge, incorporating her most recent work.
She believes that the link between learning disabilities, the food and drink that we take, and the condition of our digestive system is absolute, and the results of her work have supported her position on this subject. In her clinic, parents discuss all aspects of their child's condition, confident in the knowledge that they are not only talking to a professional but to a parent who has lived their experience. Her deep understanding of the challenges they face, puts her advice in a class of it's own.
From the Publisher
"Gut and Psychology Syndrome" reveals the true connection between nutrition and brain function. Written by a neurologist and practising nutritionist it is a "no holds barred" investigation into the real facts behind why today's generation of children have the highest incidence of learning disabilities and behavioural disorders ever. Reviewers have praised it for it's wealth of information and advice. Presented in a style that will benefit both parents and practitioners, this book is definitely one to read and keep for reference".
gut, nutrition, autism, adhd, immunne, psychology, gut microflora, prebiotics, probioticsGAPS.jpgGAPS book coverhttp://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0954852001/fabresearfood-21GAPS.jpg
76323rd August 2004 - BBC Website - Are we emotionally what we eat?Emotions, mood, food, eating disorders, depression, stress, anxietyBBC Online23/08/2004
Negative emotions can send us rushing to the biscuit tin or hiding our horrors in a tub of ice-cream - with up to 43% of people using food to alter their mood, according to a survey by the Priory Clinic.
Others binge and vomit or develop anorexia as a way of trying to gain some sort of control over runaway feelings.
BBC News Online spoke to the experts to try to find out why so many of us have this up and down relationship with what, on its most fundamental level, is just a means of fuelling our bodies. According to Deanne Jade, principle of the National Centre for Eating Disorders, our complex relationship with food starts right back in the cradle.
"A baby's blood sugar falls if they are hungry and they get in a dire emotional state. They scream and cry, are fed and feel better. So very early on we learn to associate stress reduction with eating and drinking.
"Secondly, the chemicals we gain from food have a strong impact not only on our appetite but also on our emotional brains, so the connections between food and mood become intricately connected in a very complex way."
Because of this complex relationship, people might say they are hungry and genuinely believe it, when in fact they are sad. They will also feel sad and miserable when they are hungry because of the deficiency of certain neurochemicals, which carry messages in the brain.
"For example, when we eat we get changes in serotonin, endorphins and dopamine levels in the brain. These are very powerful chemicals, which also affect mood.
"Sugar, for example, causes serotonin flows and serotonin is a chemical used in certain anti-depressants, such as Prozac, which cause the user to feel more balanced and equitable.
"People who are low in serotonin in the brain do generally feel better when they eat sugar, but that's not true of people who have adequate levels of serotonin."
"Then on an individual level, food has also taken on the role of comfort and distraction from boredom. If we were animals it would have only a very basic meaning but because we are social beings it is inevitable food is going to have a much bigger role in people's lives. "
Binge eating leads to a cycle that can prove hard to break. Foods like ice cream may be tempting - but they are only a short-term answer to feeling bad.
So could that mean we can become addicted to certain foods? The notion has certainly sparked vigorous debate in recent months.
Jane Ogden, a reader in health psychology at King's College, London, believes it depends on your definition of addiction. She says: "If addiction means you have no control over something, then this could apply to food, but if you take the classic definition of addiction, which means you get withdrawal and tolerance, then I'm not sure it can really apply to eating behaviour."
She adds: "Ideally, if we were purely biological beings, we would only eat when we were hungry, but food intake isn't like that.
So how does all this apply to people with anorexia or bulimia?
"Starving causes people to feel high and spaced out and separated from their emotions," says Mrs Jade. "When you starve, you don't feel the normal range of emotions. You feel kind of insulated from them. It doesn't mean you don't get depressed and miserable - you can get severely depressed - but we are talking about a narrowing of emotional range.
"There are many reasons why starving is alluring to some people. It makes them feel special, powerful, maybe more sexy, maybe less sexy, and it makes them feel they can transcend the normal things that other people need. It makes them feel very, very much in control.
"What is common to people with eating disorders is that body image and feelings about their body are a very big part of their self-esteem."
With binge eating, it has been proved that an unhealthy diet leads to chemical disturbances in the brain, setting up a cycle, so we become depressed, irritable or aggressive, then eat more of the very food that makes us feel that way. Studies have shown that antisocial behaviour can be connected to having too much sugar and refined carbohydrates and a shortage of vitamins B11, B1 and minerals such as iron, selenium and magnesium and omega-3 fatty acids, found especially in oily fish such as salmon, sardines and mackerel.
The research, carried out by a team led by C Bernard Gesch of Oxford University, was a trial of nutritional supplements on 231 young adults, comparing disciplinary offences before and during supplementation.
Those receiving the active capsules, rather than a placebo, committed an average of 26.3% fewer offences.
So in times of stress some people will eat more and some will eat less. It apparently comes down to something called biochemical individuality. It also has a lot to do with the fact that we're all different in terms of our life experiences. Our emotional response to food is formed in childhood, due to many things - the way our parents feed us, and our own experiences around food, which are very personal.
To treat eating problems, the National Centre for Eating Disorders tries to regulate food intake, so people are at least protected on the chemical side. The centre also tries to help people become better at dealing with their own emotions without hiding behind food or drugs.
"If I got up in the morning, had a cup of black coffee, went to work and had a diet coke and had no protein until my evening meal, then washed it down with tea and biscuits, I'd be in a pretty bad emotional state by the end of the day as well," says Mrs Jade.
"And that is absolutely and totally to do with the food you don't eat, as well as the food you do eat. A lot of people are absolutely all over the place emotionally, simply because they have a desperately poor diet."
According to conventional medical opinion, emotional disorders reflect 'biochemical imbalances' for which pharmaceutical drugs usually remain the first line of treatment. However, as this article makes very clear, the foods we eat - and the way we eat them - can make a very obvious contribution to any such 'biochemical imbalances'. Food and diet can therefore play a key role in both the prevention and the management of negative emotions, and much of the published research in this area can be found on this website.
FAB Research is committed to both improving scientific knowledge and raising public and professional awareness of the importance of food and diet in human behaviour, learning and mood. If you'd like to be kept updated with the latest news and research, please sign up for our free email alerts, and or join us as an Associate to receive our Newsletter and other benefits.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/3592058.stmView this article on the BBC website hereChocolate boosts serotonin levels, making us feel good - for a while.jpg
68124 June 2004 - The Herald - Menu for the Mind24 June 2004 - The Herald - Menu for the Mind24/06/2004Rebecca McQuillan
The day Pat Webster read that schizophrenia often occurs in families with a high incidence of heart disease, it was like switching on a light.
Of course. Schizophrenia had affected three generations of her own family, including her son, while both of her parents died of heart attacks at the age of 60. The suggestion that high-fat diets might be a causal factor in schizophrenia as well as heart disease, seemed entirely possible to her.
"This is the way I see it," says Pat, who is the co-ordinator and founder of the Hearing Voices Network in Dundee, a support and information network for schizophrenia sufferers. "In our family, we're prone to either heart attacks or schizophrenia, so it could be there's a quirk in our nutrition. It could be to do with fatty acids."
Pat read about the possible link between diet and mental illness in an article by the late Dr David Horrobin, a neuroscientist who lived in Scotland until his death in April last year. He was not the first to make the association and will certainly not be the last. In fact, there is a growing body of evidence to back up the theory, particularly on the importance of fatty acids found in fish oils.
The latest piece of research is by Professor Malcolm Peet, a consultant psychiatrist for the NHS, previously attached to the University of Sheffield, and associated with Food and Behaviour Research, a charitable organisation dedicated to researching the links between nutrition and human behaviour. His study looks at whether dietary differences could explain why depression is more common and schizophrenia more severe in developed western countries than in poor developing countries.
Writing in the British Journal of Psychiatry, published by the Royal College of Psychiatry, Professor Peet has shown that in countries with high rates of depression, the national diet is typically low in fish and seafood. Where diets are high in refined carbohydrates and saturated fat, schizophrenia sufferers fare worse.
Those who believe diet is a causal factor in mental illness are excited about such research. They believe it could have implications for the treatment, not to mention the prevention, of mental ill health, and might also release patients from their over-reliance on drugs.
Yet some remain unconvinced. Dr Stephen Lawrie, a consultant psychiatrist at the Royal Edinburgh Hospital, says that, while it's almost certainly a good thing for a patient's general health to eat more fish and seafood, the research is still not conclusive on the link to mental health. "There's no specific evidence that having a good diet affects mental health," he says.
One shortcoming of Prof Peet's research, he says, is that it focuses on national diets and national patterns of mental illness rather than those of specific individuals. What's more, while schizophrenia sufferers have worse diets than the general population, as proven in a study by Professor Robin MacReadie of Crichton Hospital, Dumfries, last year, that might be a result of their illness rather than a cause of it.
Prof Peet's research, however, is only one part of a small avalanche of studies which have looked at the effects of diet on individual patients. "To deny any link between diet and mental health seems untenable in the face of the evidence," says Dr Alex Richardson, a senior research fellow at Mansfield College, Oxford University, who is also attached to FAB Research.
There is clearly a need to follow Prof Peet's study with trials at individual level, she says. However, she stresses that a lot of research has already been done.
Much of this has focused on certain fatty acids, called Omega 3s, which are essential for proper chemical function in the brain, regulating hormones and the immune system. Fish oils are rich in Omega 3 fatty acids called EPA and DHA. With regard to depression, several published trials have shown that omega-3 (particularly EPA) can reduce symptoms when used in addition to medication. With schizophrenia, four out of five published studies have shown benefits from EPA. However, in the West, we now eat far less Omega 3 than we did and far more of other fatty acids, called Omega 6.
"In hunter-gatherer diets, the ratio of total Omega 3 to Omega 6 was less than 5:1; now it's often as high as 20:1 in favour of Omega 6," says Dr Richardson. So, could bingeing on fry-ups for a month affect mood? Yes, says Dr Richardson: the combination of toxic fats and excessive sugar and fat "wouldn't do any good at all" for your mental health.
Vegetarians also need to take care. They should take flaxseed oil which contains a type of Omega 3, if not the kind preferred by the body. Eating for good mental health, says Dr Richardson, should involve cutting refined carbohydrates such as sugar and white flour (if unused, the body converts it to fat); avoiding processed foods containing hydrogenated fats (switch to rapeseed oil for cooking, not sunflower or safflower); and above all, including Omega 3 fatty acids. The best sort can be obtained from oily fish or a high-quality supplement.
However, diet is no panacea for depression or schizophrenia. Firstly, says Dr Richardson, poor diet is only one of many factors that can contribute to mental illness and secondly, the constitution of one person is different from the next, so changes in diet will affect them differently.
More research is needed to discover just how important diet is in comparison to other factors. Yet it could be a step towards reduced reliance on pharmaceutical solutions.
"My view is that you have to listen to your body," says Pat. "Nutrition is one of the things we should be looking at."
For more information on fish oil and mental health, visit www.fabresearch.org www.hearingvoicesnetwork.com
Professor Malcolm Peet has already carried out pioneering controlled trials of treatment with omega-3 fatty acids in both schizophrenia and depression. His latest study in the British Journal of Psychiatry (see Peet 2004) focuses on cross-national data, and shows that schizophrenia is more severe in countries where the national diet is higher in sugar and saturated fats, while depression is more common in countries with a lower consumption of omega-3 fatty acids from fish and seafood.
720Healing Without Freud or Prozac: Natural Approaches to Conquering Stress, Anxiety, Depression Without Drugs and Without Psychotherapy Healing Without Freud or Prozac: Natural Approaches to Conquering Stress, Anxiety, Depression Without Drugs and Without Psychotherapy David Servan-Schreiber - Healing without Freud or ProzacDavid Servan-Schreiber04/06/2004
The late David Servan-Schreiber (1961 to 2011) was a distinguished psychiatrist and research scientist both in his native France and in the USA, where he co-founded the Center for Complementary Medicine at the University of Pittsburg Medical Centre.
This book represents a remarkable synthesis of what he has learned from his professional and personal experience, and it clearly displays his extraordinary combination of intelligence, wisdom, insight and real compassion. With an open mind, Dr Servan-Schreiber has sought out and critically appraised the scientific evidence for a number of new therapies for depression, anxiety and stress-related conditions. He has also made his findings accessible by relating them to the cases of real people he has worked with in a variety of settings. This is a book that anyone with an interest in mental health and well-being should read.
Price includes p&p.
Stress, anxiety and depression are among the most common reasons for people to see the doctor. The drugs targeting these conditions are pharmaceutical bestsellers. Yet a majority of patients would like to be able to heal without taking drugs or engaging in therapy that involves talking about their problems. Dr Servan-Schreiber gathers together the answers to questions about alternatives to drugs and talk therapy. He discusses only treatment methods he has used with patients himself, methods which have been proven to work in clinical studies. Written with case histories, this book should make those who dismiss alternative medicine think again and provide those who are looking for help - without taking drugs and without talk therapy - with some answers.
This new edition of his groundbreaking No 1 international bestseller:
Describes seven highly effective treatments that work through the body to tap into the emotional brain's self-healing process
Combines cutting-edge science with alternative medicine
1258Evans et al 2004 - Regulation of metabolic rate and substrate utilization by zinc deficiency.Regulation of metabolic rate and substrate utilization by zinc deficiency.Regulation of metabolic rate and substrate utilization by zinc deficiency.Evans SA, Overton JM, Alshingiti A, Levenson CW.01/06/2004Metabolism.53(6)727-32
The trace metal zinc (Zn) is essential for the catalytic activity of many enzymes involved in energy nutrient metabolism and appears to regulate hormones, such as insulin, leptin, and thyroid hormone that play key roles in metabolism. Thus, this study used the continuous monitoring of oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, locomotion, and food intake to determine the effect of dietary Zn restriction on metabolic rate (MR), basal metabolic rate (BMR), and respiratory quotient (RQ). Rats were fed a Zn-adequate (ZA, 28 ppm) or Zn-deficient (ZD, <1 ppm) diet for 8 days, followed by a 4-day refeeding period. To control for reductions in food intake that characteristically occur in ZD rats, an additional group was pair-fed (PF) the same amount ZA food eaten by ZD rats. The mean caloric intake of ZD rats was significantly lower than ZA rats by day 3. By day 8, ZD and PF rats weighed 64% and 67% of ZA rats, respectively, (P <.01). Pair feeding resulted in increased locomotor activity, such that the distance traveled for PF rats (316 +/- 43 m) was 6 times that of ZA (53 +/- 6 m). Despite the fact that PF and ZD rats had the same food intake, there was no increase in locomotor activity in ZD rats suggesting that the mechanisms responsible for increased physical activity in food restricted animals may be Zn dependent. Furthermore, differences in activity between PF and ZD animals were not reflected in differences in MR. Both ZD and PF significantly reduced MR compared with ZA rats beginning on day 4. There was a significant relationship between RQ and caloric intake (r = 0.708, P <.01), but no specific effect of Zn status. Thus, while there may be an effect of Zn on locomotion and the energetic cost of activity, it appears that the most profound effect of Zn status on MR and substrate utilization is the result of Zn deficiency-induced anorexia.
zinc, depression, anxiety, anorexia, mechanismshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15164319?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=3&log$=relatedarticles&logdbfrom=pubmedView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
791Watanabe et al 2004 - Dietary n-3 fatty acids attenuate behavioral depression in miceDietary n-3 fatty acids selectively attenuate LPS-induced behavioral depression in miceDietary n-3 fatty acids selectively attenuate LPS-induced behavioral depression in miceWatanabe S., Kanada S., Takenaka M., Hamazaki, T.01/06/2004Physiology and Behaviour81(4)605-13
Systemic administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces a series of physiological and pathological alterations as well as behavioral depression in experimental animals. These alterations induced by LPS administration are known to be mediated by endogenous cytokines and arachidonate metabolites, which may be modulated by dietary n-3 fatty acids. Mice were fed a diet supplemented with n-3 or n-6 fatty acids for 4 weeks prior to LPS administration. Food-motivated behavior after intraperitoneal administration of LPS as compared with that before LPS administration was significantly depressed in the mice fed with the n-6 fatty-acid-rich diet (47% to 85% reduction; P<.05) but not significantly in the mice fed with the n-3 fatty-acid-rich diet. Depression of social exploration by intraperitoneal LPS administration in the n-3 fatty-acid-rich diet group (39% reduction vs. vehicle group) was significantly less in the n-6 fatty-acid-rich diet group (76% reduction vs. vehicle group; P<.05). The behavioral depressions induced by intracerebroventricular LPS injection were not significantly different between the two dietary groups (P=.60). The elevation of serum corticosterone and the hypoglycemic response following intraperitoneal LPS administration were not significantly different between the two dietary groups (P=.57 and P=.43, respectively). We demonstrate that dietary n-3 fatty acids attenuate behavioral depression in mice peripherally administered with LPS without affecting the increase in serum corticosterone and the decrease in serum glucose concentration.
Lipopolysaccharide; Food-motivated behavior; Social exploration; Sickness behavior; Corticosterone; Hypoglycemia, depression, animal studies, omega-3http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T0P-4C7W20V-1&_coverDate=06%2F30%2F2004&_alid=267677039&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_qd=1&_cdi=4868&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=8c6e7b6a98cc18b6a20c017646bc96dcLicensed users of Physiology & Behaviour (via Science Direct) can view the full text of this article here
670Ford et al 2004 - Depression and C-reactive protein in US adults: data from the third national health and nutrition examination survey.Depression and C-reactive protein in US adults: data from the third national health and nutrition examination survey.Depression and C-reactive protein in US adults: data from the third national health and nutrition examination survey.Ford DE, Erlinger TP.10/05/2004Arch Intern Med.164(9)1010-4
BACKGROUND: The biological mechanisms by which depression might increase risk of cardiovascular disease are not clear. Inflammation may be a key element in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to determine the association between major depression and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) level in a nationally representative cohort. METHODS: We estimated the odds of elevated CRP level (>0.21 mg/mL) associated with depression in 6914 noninstitutionalized men and women (age, 18-39 years) from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). RESULTS: The prevalence of lifetime major depression was 5.7% for men and 11.7% for women. The prevalence of elevated CRP level was 13.7% for men and 27.3% for women. A history of major depression was associated with elevated CRP level (odds ratio
, 1.64; 95% confidence interval
, 1.20-2.24). The association between depression and CRP was much stronger among men than among women. Results were adjusted for age, African American race, body mass index, total cholesterol, log triglycerides, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, smoking status, alcohol use, estrogen use in women, aspirin use, ibuprofen use, and self-reported health status. Compared with men without a history of depression, CRP levels were higher among men who had a more recent (within 1 year) episode of depression (adjusted OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.39-6.48) and who had recurrent (>or=2 episodes) depression (adjusted OR, 3.55; 95% CI, 1.55-8.14). CONCLUSION: Major depression is strongly associated with increased levels of CRP among men and could help explain the increased risk of cardiovascular disease associated with depression in men.
depression, heart disease, nutrition, c-reactive proteinhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15136311The abstract on PubMed can be viewed here
667McIntosh & Lawrie 2004 - Cross-national differences in diet, the outcome of schizophrenia and the prevalence of depressionCross-national differences in diet, the outcome of schizophrenia and the prevalence of depression: you are (associated with) what you eat Cross-national differences in diet, the outcome of schizophrenia and the prevalence of depression: you are (associated with) what you eatMcIntosh & Lawrie01/05/2004Br J Psychiat184381-382
Editorial / commentary on the paper by Peet 2004. No abstract is available, but the first and last sections are presented here.
Malcolm Peet (2004, this issue) presents some evidence that the international variations in the outcome of schizophrenia are associated with higher amounts of refined sugar and dairy products in the average national diet data published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. An association is also found between the prevalence of depression and a low dietary intake of fish and seafood. It is a simple correlational study with a multivariate statistical analysis that finds very strong associations. The regression coefficients reported suggest that these foodstuff consumption levels account for almost all the variance in the outcome of schizophrenia and the prevalence of depression. Is Peet correct in stating that previous epidemiological studies of these issues are missing crucial information, or is the reported association between diet and psychiatric disorder at a population level just a particularly dramatic example of the ecological fallacy?
Peet’s study meets only the strong association criterion for assessing causation (Hill, 1965). Whether or not the results are biologically plausible is a value judgement. Dietary explanations for just about everything are the spirit of the age and popular in lay circles, at least in developed countries; whereas those, like us, who believe in evidence-based everything prefer their data served up from rigorous prospective cohort studies and randomised controlled trials. Arguably, however, dietary factors deserve just as much study as the other ill-defined influences on international differences in psychiatric epidemiology for which they may be a proxy. Ultimately, if Peet’s study serves to rekindle interest in the cultural influences on major psychiatric disorders, it will have been a valuable contribution.
schizophrenia, depression, diethttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15123499View this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free Full Text is available online
666Peet 2004 - International variations in schizophrenia outcome and depression prevalence in relation to national dietInternational variations in the outcome of schizophrenia and the prevalence of depression in relation to national dietary practices: an ecological analysis Peet 2004 - International variations in the outcome of schizophrenia and the prevalence of depression in relation to national dietary practices: an ecological analysisPeet, M.01/05/2004Br J Psychiat184404-408
Background: Dietary variations are known to predict the prevalence of physical illnesses such as diabetes and heart disease but the possible influence of diet on mental health has been neglected.
Aims: To explore dietary predictors of the outcome of schizophrenia and the prevalence of depression.
Method: Ecological analysis of national dietary patterns in relation to international variations in outcome of schizophrenia and prevalence of depression.
Results: A higher national dietary intake of refined sugar and dairy products predicted a worse 2-year outcome of schizophrenia. A high national prevalence of depression was predicted by a low dietary intake of fish and seafood.
Conclusions: The dietary predictors of outcome of schizophrenia and prevalence of depression are similar to those that predict illnesses such as coronary heart disease and diabetes, which are more common in people with mental health problems and in which nutritional approaches are widely recommended. Dietary intervention studies are indicated in schizophrenia and depression.
schizophrenia, depression, diet, cross-national, international, sugar, fat, dairy products, fish, seafood, diabetes, heart disease http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15123503View this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text of this paper is available online
829Sommer et al 2004 - Molecular analysis of homocysteic acid-induced neuronal stressMolecular analysis of homocysteic acid-induced neuronal stressMolecular analysis of homocysteic acid-induced neuronal stressSommer, S., Hunzinger, C., Schillo, S., Klemm, M., Biefang-Arndt, K., Schwall, G., Putter, S., Hoelzer, K., Schroer, K., Stegmann, W., Schrattenholz, A.01/05/2004J Proteome Res. 3(3)572-81.
Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for vascular and neuronal lesions often observed with concomitant high levels of homocysteic acid. In contrast to homocysteine, homocysteic acid induces calcium influx into neurons, with characteristics of an excitotoxic glutamatergic agonist at elevated concentrations. On the molecular level this is correlated to fast modifications of proteins (phosphorylation and proteolysis). Within the homocysteic acid induced molecular signature we focused in more detail on phosphorylation of two proteins implicated as risk factors in schizophrenia and neurodegeneration: Dihydropyrimidinase related protein and 14-3-3 protein isoforms. Among the identified proteins there are known chaperones and oxidative metabolism enzymes, but a few are new in context of neuronal stress: Lasp-1, a vitamin D associated factor and an expressed sequence with features of a Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor. Moreover, we detect a specific proteolytic processing of heat shock protein 70 and proteindisulfide isomerase, which is abolished by vitamins (folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6), which also decrease elevated intracellular calcium levels induced by homocysteic acid.
homocysteine, honocysteic acid, neuronal stress, heat shock protein, phosphorylation, oxidative stress, Vitamin D, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B6, folic acidhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15253439&query_hl=7View this astract via PubMed here
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