3220Seneff et al 2011 - Is the metabolic syndrome caused by a high fructose, and relatively low fat, low cholesterol diet?Is the metabolic syndrome caused by a high fructose, and relatively low fat, low cholesterol diet?High fructose, low fat diets and metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity, heart diseaseSeneff S, Wainwright G, Mascitelli L08/03/2011Arch Med Sci.Feb;7(1):8-20. Epub 2011 Mar 8
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is manifested by a lipid triad which includes elevated serum triglycerides, small LDL particles, and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, by central obesity (central adiposity), insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and elevated blood pressure, and it is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease.
We have developed a new hypothesis regarding MetS as a consequence of a high intake in carbohydrates and food with a high glycemic index, particularly fructose, and relatively low intake of cholesterol and saturated fat.
We support our arguments through animal studies which have shown that exposure of the liver to increased quantities of fructose leads to rapid stimulation of lipogenesis and accumulation of triglycerides. The adipocytes store triglycerides in lipid droplets, leading to adipocyte hypertrophy. Adipocyte hypertrophy is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. An important modulator of obesity-associated macrophage responses in white adipose tissue is the death of adipocytes.
Excess exposure to fructose intake determines the liver to metabolize high doses of fructose, producing increased levels of fructose end products, like glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone phosphate, that can converge with the glycolytic pathway.
Fructose also leads to increased levels of advanced glycation end products. The macrophages exposed to advanced glycation end products become dysfunctional and, on entry into the artery wall, contribute to plaque formation and thrombosis.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22291727View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1887Cieslik et al 2011 - Chronic unpredictable stress-induced reduction in the hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression is antagonized by zinc treatmentChronic unpredictable stress-induced reduction in the hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression is antagonized by zinc treatmentChronic unpredictable stress-induced reduction in the hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression is antagonized by zinc treatmentCieslik K, Sowa-Kucma M, Ossowska G, Legutko B, Wolak M, Opoka W, Nowak G.01/03/2011Pharmacol Rep. 63(2):537-43.
Preclinical data indicate the antidepressant activity of zinc and the involvement of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in this mechanism.
The present study investigates the effect of chronic (16 days) combined treatment with zinc (15 mg/kg zinc hydroaspartate) and imipramine (5 mg/kg) in chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) on the BDNF mRNA level in the rat brain. Moreover, serum zinc concentrations were also assessed.
CUS induced a significant reduction in the BDNF mRNA level in the hippocampus by 21% but had no effect in the frontal cortex. Repeated treatment with zinc induced a significant increase in the BDNF mRNA level in the hippocampus in the unstressed animals by 12% and as in the chronically stressed animals by 14%, compared to the appropriate controls. Imipramine treatment did not affect this factor. However, combined treatment of zinc and imipramine induced a 12% elevation of the BDNF mRNA level in the stressed but not in the unstressed rats. CUS induced a 19% reduction in the serum zinc concentration, whereas combined treatment of zinc and imipramine reduced this concentration by 24% in the unstressed and increased it (by 20%) in the stressed animals.
These results indicate that: 1) CUS induces a reduction in the BDNF gene expression with a concomitant diminution of serum zinc concentration and 2) the CUS-induced reduction in the BDNF gene expression is antagonized by chronic treatment with zinc.
stress, depression, anti-depressant, zinc, BDNF, hippocampus, animal study, experimental study http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21602609View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1777Fabricatore et al 2011 - Intentional weight loss and changes in symptoms of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysisIntentional weight loss and changes in symptoms of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysisIntentional weight loss and changes in symptoms of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysisFabricatore AN, Wadden TA, Higginbotham AJ, Faulconbridge LF, Nguyen AM, Heymsfield SB, Faith MS.22/02/2011Int J Obes (Lond). 2011 Feb 22. [Epub ahead of print]
Objective:Obesity is related to increased risk of several health complications, including depression. Many studies have reported improvements in mood with weight loss, but results have been equivocal. The present meta-analysis examined changes in symptoms of depression that were reported in trials of weight loss interventions. Between-groups comparisons of different weight loss methods (for example, lifestyle modification, diet-alone and pharmacotherapy) were examined, as were within-group changes for each treatment type.
Method:MEDLINE was searched for articles published between 1950 and January 2009. Several obesity-related terms were intersected with terms related to depression. Results were filtered to return only studies of human subjects, published in English. Of 5971 articles, 394 were randomized controlled trials. Articles were excluded if they did not report mean changes in weight or symptoms of depression, included children or persons with psychiatric disorders (other than depression), or provided insufficient data for analysis. Thirty-one studies (n=7937) were included. Two authors independently extracted a description of each study treatment, sample characteristics, assessment methods and changes in weight and symptoms of depression. Treatments were categorized as lifestyle modification, non-dieting, dietary counseling, diet-alone, exercise-alone, pharmacotherapy, placebo or control interventions.
Results:Random effects models found that lifestyle modification was superior to control and non-dieting interventions for reducing symptoms of depression, and marginally better than dietary counseling and exercise-alone programs. Exercise-alone programs were superior to controls. No differences were found for comparisons of pharmacologic agents and placebos. Within-group analyses found significant reductions in symptoms of depression for nearly all active interventions. A meta-regression found no relationship between changes in weight and changes in symptoms of depression in lifestyle modification interventions.
Conclusions:On average, obese individuals in weight loss trials experienced reductions in symptoms of depression. Future studies should examine incidence and resolution of clinically significant depressive disorders with weight loss interventions
obesity, weight loss, mood, depression, intervention, human studieshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21343903View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
170918 Feb 2011 - Nutraingedients - Omega-3 may improve depression measures for seniors: StudyOmega-3 for depression in the elderlyDaily supplements of omega-3 fatty acids may improve measures of depression in seniors with mild to moderate depression, according to new findings from Iran. 18/02/2011By Stephen Daniells
Writing in the peer-reviewed European Archives of Psychiatry & Clinical Neuroscience, researchers from the Tehran University of Medical Sciences report that six months of supplementation with 300 mg of both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) resulted in significant improvements in depression scores, as measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale-15.
“In this study, low-dose omega-3 PUFAs had some efficacy in the treatment of mild to moderate depression in elderly participants,” wrote the researchers.
Jury’s still out?
The link between omega-3 and mood is complex and data to date is contradictory. For example, researchers from Norway reported that regular and long-term intake of omega-3 fatty acid-rich cod liver oil may protect people from symptoms of depression.
The study, published in the Journal of Affective Disorders, followed 21,835 subjects aged between 40 and 49 and 70 and 74 years, and found that the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 29 per cent lower in regular cod liver oil users than the rest of the population.
Moreover, a joint Anglo-Iranian study reported that depression ratings were cut by 50 per cent following daily one gram supplements of EPA, an effect similar to that obtained by the antidepressant drug fluoxetine, according to findings published in the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry.
"To our knowledge this is the first report of EPA monotherapy in major depressive disorder," wrote the researchers from Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Swallownest Court Hospital in Sheffield (UK).
When the researchers provided the omega-3 supplement in combination with fluoxetine, depression ratings were cut by 81 per cent.
Despite this growing number of studies, the science overall is unsufficient to support a link between omega-3 and depression, said the British Medical Journal's Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin (DTB) in February 2007.
"Despite observational evidence linking depression with reduced intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, there is no convincing basis for using these nutrients as a (means of alleviating) the condition," stated the DTB.
The review also states that, when used in combination with antidepressant drugs, there is also only limited evidence.
The new Iranian study adds to the ongoing debate, and concludes that omega-3 fatty acids were “clinically more effective in treating depression in comparison with the placebo”.
The researchers recruited 66 over-65 year olds and randomly assigned them to receive an omega-3 supplement – one gram of fish oil per day, providing 300 mg of both EPA and DHA – or placebo for six months.
Results of the double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study indicated that “after adjusting for cholesterol, BMI, and history of thyroid dysfunctions, a statistically significant difference was seen in GDS-15 scores between both groups”, said the researchers.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from fish oil include EPA and DHA. EPA is proposed to function by increasing blood flow in the body. It is also suggested to affect hormones and the immune system, both of which have a direct effect on brain function. DHA, on the other hand, is involved in the membrane of ion channels in the brain, making it easier for them to change shape and transit electrical signals.
http://www.nutraingredients.com/Product-Categories/Nutritional-lipids-and-oils/Omega-3-may-improve-depression-measures-for-seniors-Study/?utm_source=Newsletter_Product&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Newsletter%2BProductView this and related articles via the Nutraingredients website here
1778Capuron & Miller 2011. Immune System to Brain Signaling: Neuropsychopharmacological ImplicationsImmune System to Brain Signaling: Neuropsychopharmacological ImplicationsImmune System to Brain Signaling: Neuropsychopharmacological ImplicationsCapuron L, Miller AH.17/02/2011Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Feb 17. [Epub ahead of print]
There has been an explosion in our knowledge of the pathways and mechanisms by which the immune system can influence the brain and behavior.
In the context of inflammation, pro-inflammatory cytokines can access the central nervous system and interact with a cytokine network in the brain to influence virtually every aspect of brain function relevant to behavior including neurotransmitter metabolism, neuroendocrine function, synaptic plasticity, and neurocircuits that regulate mood, motor activity, motivation, anxiety and alarm.
Behavioral consequences of these effects of the immune system on the brain include depression, anxiety, fatigue, psychomotor slowing, anorexia, cognitive dysfunction and sleep impairment; symptoms that overlap with those which characterize neuropsychiatric disorders, especially depression.
Pathways that appear to be especially important in immune system effects on the brain include the cytokine signaling molecules, p38 mitogen activated protein kinase and nuclear factor kappa B; indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase and its down stream metabolites, kynurenine, quinolinic acid and kynurenic acid; the neurotransmitters, serotonin, dopamine and glutamate; and neurocircuits involving the basal ganglia and anterior cingulate cortex.
A series of vulnerability factors including aging and obesity as well as chronic stress also appear to interact with immune to brain signaling to exacerbate immunologic contributions to neuropsychiatric disease.
The elucidation of the mechanisms by which the immune system influences behavior yields a host of targets for potential therapeutic development as well as informing strategies for the prevention of neuropsychiatric disease in at risk populations.
immune system, brain, psychoneuroimmunology, human studies, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21334376View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1702Tajalizadekhoob et al 2011 - Low-dose omega 3 for mild to moderate depression in the elderly: a randomised controlled trialThe effect of low-dose omega 3 fatty acids on the treatment of mild to moderate depression in the elderly: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studyomega 3 for mild to moderate depression in the elderly: a randomised controlled trialTajalizadekhoob Y, Sharifi F, Fakhrzadeh H, Mirarefin M, Ghaderpanahi M, Badamchizade Z, Azimipour S.12/02/2011Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. Feb 12. [Epub ahead of print]
Due to the rise in the social and economic costs of depression, new antidepressant medication with fewer side effects should be found.
Several studies have shown that an association exists between ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) and depression. However, this association has not been clear enough in the elderly with mild to moderate depression.
Sixty-six inhabitants of Kahrizak Charity Foundation participated in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Each participant was ≥ 65 years of age, had a Mini Mental State Exam of ≥ 22, and had scores ranging from 5 to 11 on the Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15).
During the 6 months, the drug group was treated daily with one gram of fish oil capsule containing 300 mg of both eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. No significant differences were noted between the groups in regard to level of education, use of antidepressant drugs, alcohol, tobacco use, history of chronic diseases, age, body mass index (BMI), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), total cholesterol, and GDS-15 scores at baseline.
After adjusting for cholesterol, BMI, and history of thyroid dysfunctions, a statistically significant difference was seen in GDS-15 scores between both groups. Furthermore, treatment with ω-3 PUFAs was clinically more effective in treating depression in comparison with the placebo.
In this study, low-dose ω-3 PUFAs had some efficacy in the treatment of mild to moderate depression in elderly participants.
depression, omega-3, EPA, DHA, fish oil, treatment, human study, elderly, ageing, mood, RCT, randomised controlled trialhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21318452View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1786Matsuoka 2011 - Clearance of fear memory from the hippocampus through neurogenesis by omega-3: a novel preventive strategy for PTSD?Clearance of fear memory from the hippocampus through neurogenesis by omega-3 fatty acids: a novel preventive strategy for posttraumatic stress disorder?Clearance of fear memory from the hippocampus through neurogenesis by omega-3 fatty acids: a novel preventive strategy for posttraumatic stress disorder?
Matsuoka Y.01/02/2011Biopsychosoc Med.5:3.
Not only has accidental injury been shown to account for a significant health burden on all populations, regardless of age, sex and geographic region, but patients with accidental injury frequently present with the psychiatric condition of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Prevention of accident-related PTSD thus represents a potentially important goal. Physicians in the field of psychosomatic medicine and critical care medicine have the opportunity to see injured patients in the immediate aftermath of an accident.
This article first briefly reviews the prevalence and associated factors of accident-related PTSD, then focuses on a conceptual model of fear memory and proposes a new, rationally hypothesized translational preventive intervention for PTSD through promoting hippocampal neurogenesis by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation.
The results of an open-label pilot trial of injured patients admitted to the intensive care unit suggest that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation immediately after accidental injury can reduce subsequent PTSD symptoms.
omega-3, neurogenesis, memory, fear, PTSD, review, treatment, human study, free full texthttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21303552View this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text of this article is available online
1703Rondanelli et al 2011 - Long chain omega 3 PUFA supplementation in the treatment of elderly depressionLong chain omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation in the treatment of elderly depression: effects on depressive symptoms, on phospholipids fatty acids profile and on health-related quality of lifeOmega-3 for depression in the elderly Rondanelli M, Giacosa A, Opizzi A, Pelucchi C, La Vecchia C, Montorfano G, Negroni M, Berra B, Politi P, Rizzo AM.01/02/2011J Nutr Health Aging. 15(11):37-44.
Objective: Recent observations showed that long chain omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) could represent a potential treatment for elderly depression. To determine if a n-3 LCPUFA containing supplement improves depressive symptoms, changes phospholipids acids profile and ameliorates Health related quality of life (HRQoL) in depressed elderly patients.
Design: Two-months, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: Nursing home in Pavia, Italy. Subjects: Forty-six depressed females, aged 66-95 years.
Intervention: 22 depressed females were included in the intervention group (n-3 group, that received 2.5 g/day of n-3 LCPUFA, with 1.67 grams of EPA and 0.83 grams of DHA), and 24 patients in the placebo group.
The primary endpoint was the improvement of depressive symptoms as evaluated by Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Secondary endpoints were the evaluation of modifications of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids fatty acid profile and of of HRQoL, by using the Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36). All parameters were assessed before and after the treatment period of 8 weeks.
Results: The mean GDS at 2 months was significantly lowered only for the n-3 group. SF-36 physical and mental components were significantly increased in the intervention group. Compliance was good, as confirmed by erythrocyte membrane phospholipid FA concentrations, with significant increase of EPA and DHA in the intervention group.
Conclusion: The supplementation of n-3 LCPUFA in elderly female patients reduces the occurrence of depressive symptoms, improves phospholipids fatty acids profile and health-related quality of life.
depression, mood, quality of life, elderly, treatment, dietary supplementation, human study, randomised controlled trial, RCThttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21267525View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1722Tsai et al 2011 - Usefulness of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) in predicting the nutritional status of people with mental disorders in Taiwan.Usefulness of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) in predicting the nutritional status of people with mental disorders in Taiwan.Tsai et al 2007 - Usefulness of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) in predicting the nutritional status of people with mental disorders in Taiwan.
Tsai AC, Chou YT, Chang TL.01/02/2011J Clin Nurs. 20(3-4):341-50.
OBJECTIVE:The study was to evaluate the ability of the Mini Nutritional Assessment in predicting malnutrition in people with three subtypes of mental disorder (schizophrenia, major depression and bipolar disorder) in Taiwan.
DESIGN:The study involved a convenience sample of 120 residents of psychiatric wards managed by a hospital in central Taiwan (52 with schizophrenia, 36 with major depression and 32 with bipolar disorder) classified according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria.
METHODS:A structured questionnaire elicited subjects' personal data, disease history and answers to questions in the Mini Nutritional Assessment. Serum and anthropometrical parameters were measured. Nutritional status was evaluated with a content-equivalent version of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (Taiwan version-1, T1).
RESULTS:The Mini Nutritional Assessment-Taiwan version-1 was effective in assessing the nutritional status of people of all three subtypes of disorder. Nutritional statuses predicted with the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Taiwan version-1 agreed well with other nutritional indicators such as BMI, waist circumference and appetite status. According to the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Taiwan version-1, people with major depression were more likely to be at risk of undernutrition, whereas people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder were more likely to be at risk of overnutrition.
CONCLUSION: The Mini Nutritional Assessment-Taiwan version-1 can effectively grade both undernutrition and overnutrition of people with schizophrenia, major depression or bipolar disorder.
RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE:The Mini Nutritional Assessment enables nurses to monitor emerging nutritional problems in people with psychiatric disorder without relying on subjective judgement. With proper intervention, it can help reduce nutrition-related chronic conditions in these individuals and save on healthcare cost.
schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, mental health, nutrition, diet, dietary assessment, nutritional status, human study, surveyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21219517View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
167430 Jan 2011 - Scientific American - Diets Low In Omega-3 Linked to Depressive Behavior In Micefatty acids and depression; omega 3 and depression; omega 3 and mood disorders; fatty acids and mood disordersNew research shows why some individuals deficient in beneficial fatty acids might be more prone to mood disorders30/01/2011
Although most people in developed countries get plenty of calories each day, their diets are often lacking in key nutrients that their bodies have evolved to expect. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as those found in fish and walnuts, are one category of crucial ingredients that the body cannot make on its own. Although these beneficial fatty acids are known to be good for heart health, researchers are just beginning to learn how omega-3s impact our brains—and by extension, our moods and behavior.
Lipids are integral to the central nervous system, and as studies of statins and diabetes drugs have shown, dropping levels of some lipids can have deleterious cognitive effects. Omega-3 deficiencies specifically have been linked to mood disorders, such as depression, but the underlying neural mechanism has been subject to debate.
New research in mice, published online January 30 in Nature Neuroscience, offers insights into just how dietary intake of these fatty acids might alter the brain's function. (Scientific American is part of Nature Publishing Group.)
"Our results can now corroborate clinical and epidemiological studies which have revealed associations between an omega-3/omega-6 imbalance and mood disorders," scientists behind the new study commented in a prepared statement.
The group, led by Mathieu Lafourcade, of Unité Inserm's Neurocentre Magendie in France, found that mice reared on an omega-3-deficient diet had lower levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in their brains as well as higher overall levels of the more harmful omega-6. These mice also went on to exhibit a range of depressive symptoms in behavioral tests. The deficient animals, for example, gave up more easily in a classic forced swimming test, were less inclined to explore and were more inclined to stay near the wall of a cage, "a widely accepted index of anxiety," the researchers noted in their study.
More specifically, the team found that a diet lacking ample omega-3 decreased the function of presynaptic cannabinoid receptors, part of the brain's signaling network that is thought to be involved in pain and appetite regulation. By getting down to synaptic levels in the brain—even if only in mice—the researchers seem to have taken a step toward explaining why omega-3 trials in humans have shown some success in treating mood disorders.
Others who have been following the links between nutrition and neuroscience are excited about the findings. "I think it's an important paper," says Gregory Asnis, a professor of psychiatry at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in the Bronx and who was not involved in the new study. "This raises concern about the true effect of omega-3 on behavior in human beings."
Omega-3 has already been used to treat depression in adults as well as children, but as Asnis points out, "not every depressed patient has omega-3 deficiencies." And although clinical data has shown it to be effective in some patients, "it's not a knock-you-head-over kind of data," he says.
Researchers can now measure a person's omega-3 levels relatively accurately via a blood test. Now that this test is available, "this research is really going to blossom," Asnis says. He suggests that screening might soon become routine for people with depression as well as other key populations, such as pregnant women.
Although malnutrition during pregnancy is known to lead to poor outcomes for babies, "the functional long-term consequences of maternal malnutrition on the brains and behavior of their progeny are mostly unknown," noted the researchers.
"It makes sense" that a baby born to a mother who was not consuming enough omega-3s might be at higher risk for neural deficiencies, Asnis says. Offspring are wholly dependent on their mothers to supply these fatty acids both while in utero and during breastfeeding. And the researchers found that mice born to mothers who had been fed an omega-3-deficient diet and were then themselves given poor diets also suffered from negative behavioral changes.
Omega-3s are of course not the sole actor in neurological development and health. "Behavior is multi-determined, affected by so many things," Asnis says. And depression and other mood disorders can vary widely among individuals.
Animal models for diseases such as cancer have frequently been found lacking and for neurological disorders they also do not always translate synapse-by-synapse to humans. But Asnis notes that there have been reassuring precedents in studying depressive behavior in animals, such as work with serotonin and tryptophan. "I think there might be a paradigm" that could translate to humans, he says. "It seems like an important discovery that manipulating omega-3 levels can have behavioral effects."
And even if the findings prove relevant only for a subpopulation of patients with depression and omega-3 deficiencies, the implications are substantial. With omega-3-rich fish and flaxseed oils now common in grocery and drug store supplement sections, maintaining a diet replete in these crucial fatty acids is not as hard as it once was. And the promise of being able to treat some depressed individuals—and perhaps prevent the condition in others—with "something that's so easy to give," Asnis says, is incredibly appealing.
Many previous studies have shown that relative deficiencies of omega-3 fatty acids in maternal diets during pregnancy are associated with increased risks of depression, anxiety and related problems in the offspring.
This study reveals a specific mechanism by which omega-3 deficiency, which corresponds to omega-6 excess, could produce these effects. Omega-3 deficiency in early life was found to downregulate receptors that are usually sensitive to endocannabinoids - and this reduction in sensitivity appeared to be permanent.
Endocannabinoids are substances involved in the regulation of pain, temperature, appetite and many other functions in the brain and body, and the most abundant forms are produced from the key omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid.
1673Lafourcade et al 2011 - Nutritional omega-3 deficiency abolishes endocannabinoid-mediated neuronal functionsNutritional omega-3 deficiency abolishes endocannabinoid-mediated neuronal functions Nutritional omega-3 deficiency abolishes endocannabinoid-mediated neuronal functions
Lafourcade M, Larrieu T, Mato S, Duffaud A, Sepers M, Matias I, De Smedt-Peyrusse V, Labrousse VF, Bretillon L, Matute C, Rodríguez-Puertas R, Layé S, Manzoni OJ30/01/2011Nature Neuroscience14(3):345-50. Epub 2011 Jan 30.
The corollaries of the obesity epidemic that plagues developed societies are malnutrition and resulting biochemical imbalances.
Low levels of essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have been linked to neuropsychiatric diseases, but the underlying synaptic alterations are mostly unknown.
We found that lifelong n-3 PUFAs dietary insufficiency specifically ablates long-term synaptic depression mediated by endocannabinoids in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex and accumbens.
In n-3–deficient mice, presynaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) normally responding to endocannabinoids were uncoupled from their effector Gi/o proteins. Finally, the dietary-induced reduction of CB1R functions in mood-controlling structures was associated with impaired emotional behavior.
These findings identify a plausible synaptic substrate for the behavioral alterations caused by the n-3 PUFAs deficiency that is often observed in western diets.
166826 Jan 2011 - Science Daily - Eating Poorly Can Make You Blue: Trans-Fats Increase Risk of Depression, While Olive Oil Helps Avoid RiskEating Poorly Can Make You Blue: Trans-Fats Increase Risk of Depression, While Olive Oil Helps Avoid Risk
Researchers from the universities of Navarra and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria have demonstrated that the ingestion of trans-fats and saturated fats increase the risk of suffering depression, and that olive oil, on the other hand, protects against this mental illness. 27/01/2011
They have confirmed this after studying 12,059 SUN Project volunteers over the course of six years; the volunteers had their diet, lifestyle and ailments analyzed at the beginning of the project, over its course and at the end of the project. In this way the researchers confirmed that despite the fact that at the beginning of the study none of the volunteers suffered from depression, at the end of the study 657 new cases had been detected.
Of all these cases, the participants with an elevated consumption of trans-fats (fats present in artificial form in industrially-produced pastries and fast food, and naturally present in certain whole milk products) "presented up to a 48% increase in the risk of depression when they were compared to participants who did not consume these fats," affirmed Almudena Sánchez-Villegas, Associate Professor of Preventive Medicine at the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, first author of the article.
In addition, the study demonstrated a dose-response relationship, "whereby the more trans-fats were consumed, the greater the harmful effect they produced in the volunteers," the expert stated.
Furthermore, the team, directed by Miguel Ángel Martínez-González, Professor of Preventive Medicine at the University of Navarra, also analyzed the influence of polyunsaturated fats (abundant in fish and vegetable oils) and of olive oil on the occurrence of depression. "In fact, we discovered that this type of healthier fats, together with olive oil, are associated with a lower risk of suffering depression," emphasized the researcher and director of the SUN Project.
150 MILLION PERSONS DEPRESSED WORLDWIDE
Thus, the results of the study corroborate the hypothesis of a greater incidence of the disease in countries of the north of Europe compared to the countries of the south, where a Mediterranean dietary pattern prevails. Nevertheless, experts have noted that the incidence of the disease has increased in recent years, so that today some 150 million persons are affected worldwide, where it is the principal cause of loss of years of life in those countries with a medium-to-high per capita income.
This is due, according to Almudena Sánchez Villegas, "to radical changes in the sources of fats consumed in Western diets, where we have exchanged certain types of beneficial fats - polyunsaturated and monounsaturated in nuts, vegetable oils and fish - for the saturated and trans-fats found in meats, butter and other products such as mass-produced pastries and fast food."
In addition, the research - published in the online peer reviewed journal PLoS ONE - has been performed on a population with a low average intake of trans-fats, given that it made up only 0.4% of the total energy ingested by the volunteers. "Despite this, we observed an increase in the risk of suffering depression of nearly 50%. On this basis," concluded Miguel A. Martínez, "we derive the importance of taking this effect into account in countries like the U.S., where the percentage of energy derived from these foods is around 2.5%."
Finally, the analysis, headed by the University of Navarra and the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, suggests that both depression as well as cardiovascular disease are influenced in a similar manner by diet, and might share similar mechanisms in their origin. This hypothesis is further suggested by numerous studies that indicate the harmful effect of trans-fats and saturated fats on the risk of cardiovascular disease.
This study reports an association (correlation) between the type of dietary fat consumed and risk for depression. Higher intakes of trans fats (and lower intakes of natural polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats), predicted a higher risk of subsequent depression in a large cohort of healthy Spanish graduates.
The press release (and some of the researchers comments quoted) imply that this is a causal effect, although other data would be needed to confirm this.
There are, however, various plausible mechanisms for such an effect. Trans fats are toxic. They are known to promote inflammation (associaed with depression) and to raise the risk for cardiovascular disease (also associated with depression). They are twisted, mis-shapen versions of the natural omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturates needed for healthy brain structure and function, and if consumed, are likely to compete with and displace these essential fats.
These findings are also consistent with other data from prospective observational studies showing that diets high in processed foods (the major source of trans fats) raise the risk of future depressive illness (e.g. Akbaraly et al, 2009)
1667Sánchez-Villegas et al 2011 - Dietary Fat Intake and the Risk of Depression: The SUN ProjectDietary Fat Intake and the Risk of Depression: The SUN Project Dietary Fat Intake and the Risk of Depression: The SUN Project
Sánchez-Villegas A, Verberne L, De Irala J, Ruíz-Canela M, Toledo E, Serra-Majem L, Martínez-González MA27/01/2011PLoS ONE 6(1): e16268.
Emerging evidence relates some nutritional factors to depression risk. However, there is a scarcity of longitudinal assessments on this relationship.
To evaluate the association between fatty acid intake or the use of culinary fats and depression incidence in a Mediterranean population.
Material and Methods
Prospective cohort study (1999–2010) of 12,059 Spanish university graduates (mean age: 37.5 years) initially free of depression with permanently open enrolment. At baseline, a 136-item validated food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate the intake of fatty acids (saturated fatty acids (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), trans unsaturated fatty acids (TFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and culinary fats (olive oil, seed oils, butter and margarine) During follow-up participants were classified as incident cases of depression if they reported a new clinical diagnosis of depression by a physician and/or initiated the use of antidepressant drugs. Cox regression models were used to calculate Hazard Ratios (HR) of incident depression and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for successive quintiles of fats.
During follow-up (median: 6.1 years), 657 new cases of depression were identified. Multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) for depression incidence across successive quintiles of TFA intake were: 1 (ref), 1.08 (0.82–1.43), 1.17 (0.88–1.53), 1.28 (0.97–1.68), 1.42 (1.09–1.84) with a significant dose-response relationship (p for trend = 0.003). Results did not substantially change after adjusting for potential lifestyle or dietary confounders, including adherence to a Mediterranean Dietary Pattern. On the other hand, an inverse and significant dose-response relationship was obtained for MUFA (p for trend = 0.05) and PUFA (p for trend = 0.03) intake.
A detrimental relationship was found between TFA intake and depression risk, whereas weak inverse associations were found for MUFA, PUFA and olive oil. These findings suggest that cardiovascular disease and depression may share some common nutritional determinants related to subtypes of fat intake.
For an accessible summary of the findings from this study and their implications, see the News Article 'Eating Poorly Can Make you Blue' by Science Daily, and the associated FAB Comment.
diet, dietary fat, fatty acids, monounsaturates, saturates, polyunsaturates, trans fats, MUFA, SFA, SAFA, PUFA, TFA, olive oil, depression, mood, human study, observational study, epidemiologyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21298116View this and related abstracts via Pubmed here, Free full text of this article is available online.
1580Levant 2011 - Omega-3 Fatty acids in postpartum depression: implications for prevention and treatment.N-3 (omega-3) Fatty acids in postpartum depression: implications for prevention and treatment.N-3 (omega-3) Fatty acids in postpartum depression: implications for prevention and treatment.
Levant B.01/01/2011Depress Res Treat. 467349. Epub 2010 Oct 27.
A growing body of clinical and epidemiological evidence suggests that low dietary intake and/or tissue levels of n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are associated with postpartum depression.
Low tissue levels of n-3 PUFAs, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are reported in patients with either postpartum or nonpuerperal depression. Moreover, the physiological demands of pregnancy and lactation put childbearing women at particular risk of experiencing a loss of DHA from tissues including the brain, especially in individuals with inadequate dietary n-3 PUFA intake or suboptimal metabolic capabilities.
Animal studies indicate that decreased brain DHA in postpartum females leads to several depression-associated neurobiological changes including decreased hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor and augmented hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to stress.
Taken together, these findings support a role for decreased brain n-3 PUFAs in the multifactorial etiology of depression, particularly postpartum depression. These findings, and their implications for research and clinical practice, are discussed.
omega-3, pregnancy, depression, post-partum, review, Free Full Texthttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21151517View this and related abstracts via Pub Med here. Free full text of this article is available online
1723Nimitphong & Holick 2011 - Vitamin D, neurocognitive functioning and immunocompetenceVitamin D, neurocognitive functioning and immunocompetenceVitamin D, neurocognitive functioning and immunocompetenceNimitphong H, Holick MF.01/01/2011Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 14(1):7-14.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Vitamin D deficiency is recognized as one of the most common medical conditions in children and adults. The major causes are inadequate sun exposure and inadequate intakes of dietary and supplemental vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency defined as a 25-hydroxyvitamin D level less than 20 and 21-29 ng/ml, respectively, have been linked to increased risk for a variety of medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, type II diabetes, infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases, metabolic bone diseases and neurological disorders.
RECENT FINDINGS:The skeletal muscle and brain have a vitamin D receptor and the central nervous system has a capacity to activate vitamin D. Low vitamin D status has been linked to poor performance in neurocognitive testing in elderly. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with muscle weakness, depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis and a lower motor neuron-induced muscle atrophy.
SUMMARY:Correcting vitamin D deficiency and preventing vitamin D deficiency in children and adults should be a high priority for healthcare professionals to reduce risk for a wide variety of neurological disorders. Children and adults should take at least 400 international unit IU and 2000 IU vitamin D/day, respectively, to prevent vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency.
Vitamin D, review, brain, immune system, neurological disorders, recommended dietary intakes, human studies, children, adultshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21102318View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1814Validation of a food frequency questionnaire to assess intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in subjects with and without major depressive disorderValidation of a food frequency questionnaire to assess intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in subjects with and without major depressive disorderValidation of a food frequency questionnaire to assess intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in subjects with and without major depressive disorderSublette ME, Segal-Isaacson CJ, Cooper TB, Fekri S, Vanegas N, Galfalvy HC, Oquendo MA, Mann JJ.01/01/2011J Am Diet Assoc. 111(1):117-123.e1-2.
The role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in psychiatric illness is a topic of public health importance.
This report describes development and biomarker validation of a 21-item, self-report food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) intended for use in psychiatric research to assess intake of α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3
), docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3
), and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3
In a cross-sectional study conducted from September 2006 to September 2008, sixty-one ethnically diverse adult participants with (n=34) and without (n=27) major depressive disorder completed this n-3 PUFA FFQ and provided a plasma sample. Plasma levels of n-3 PUFAs EPA and DHA, and n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (20:4n-6
) were quantified by gas chromatography.
Using Spearman's ρ, FFQ-estimated intake correlated with plasma levels of DHA (r=0.50; P<0.0001) and EPA (r=0.38; P=0.002), but not with ALA levels (r=0.22; P=0.086). Participants were classified into quartiles by FFQ-estimated intake and plasma PUFA concentrations. Efficacy of the FFQ to rank individuals into same or adjacent plasma quartiles was 83% for DHA, 78.1% for EPA, and 70.6% for ALA; misclassification into extreme quartiles was 4.9% for DHA, 6.5% for EPA, and 8.2% for ALA. FFQ-estimated EPA intake and plasma EPA were superior to plasma AA levels as predictors of the plasma AA to EPA ratio.
This brief FFQ can provide researchers and clinicians with valuable information concerning dietary intake of DHA and EPA.
omega-3, dietary intake, assessment, FFQ, human studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21185973View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1605Brion et al 2011 - Intrauterine Effects of Maternal Prepregnancy Overweight on Child Cognition and Behavior in 2 CohortsIntrauterine Effects of Maternal Prepregnancy Overweight on Child Cognition and Behavior in 2 CohortsIntrauterine Effects of Maternal Prepregnancy Overweight on Child Cognition and Behavior in 2 Cohorts Brion MJ, Zeegers M, Jaddoe V, Verhulst F, Tiemeier H, Lawlor DA, Smith GD.27/12/2010Pediatrics. Epub ahead of print Dec 27 2010
Objective: Greater maternal prepregnancy adiposity has been associated with behavioral problems, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and lower intellectual function in offspring. However, few studies of humans have explored this, and it is unclear if intrauterine mechanisms or confounding factors drive these associations.
Patients and Methods: Parental adiposity and offspring verbal skills, nonverbal skills, and behavioral problems were assessed in the British Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (N = ∼5000) and Dutch Generation R (N = ∼2500) cohorts. We aimed to determine the plausibility of intrauterine effects by (1) adjusting for multiple confounders, (2) comparing associations between maternal and paternal overweight with offspring cognition/behaviors, and (3) searching for cross-cohort consistency.
Results: Maternal prepregnancy overweight was associated with reduced child verbal skills (unadjusted). However, after adjusting for confounders, this result was not consistently observed in both cohorts. Maternal overweight was also associated with child total behavior problems and externalizing problems even after adjusting for confounders. However, this was observed in Generation R only and was not replicated in the British Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. No associations of maternal overweight with child attention problems, emotional/internalizing problems, or nonverbal skills were observed in either cohort. Paternal overweight was not associated with any of the child outcomes but was also less strongly related to potential confounding factors than was maternal overweight.
Conclusions: Overall, we found little consistent evidence of intrauterine effects of maternal prepregnancy overweight on child cognition and behavior. Some associations initially observed were not consistently replicated across cohorts or robust to adjustment for confounding factors and, thus, are likely to reflect confounding by socioeconomic or postnatal factors.
pregnancy, maternal obesity, nutritional programming, ADHD, cognition, behaviour, mood, epidemiological study, human studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21187310View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
15768 Dec 2010 - PR Newswire - Omega 3 Supplements Show Promise in Alleviating Depressiondepression and omega-3A new analysis of the effects of omega-3 essential fatty acids offers the hope of enhanced treatment options for tens of millions of people with depression.16/12/2010
Two critical omega-3 essential fatty acids available from certain food or nutritional supplements but not manufactured by the body—Eicosapentenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) — play a role in optimal brain functioning and have antidepressant benefits that have not been fully recognized. The results were presented today at the annual meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology.
In a meta-analysis of 15 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago, led by John M. Davis, M.D., research professor at the University of Illinois at Chicago and ACNP member, found that patients taking omega-3 with either EPA or a combination of EPA and DHA experienced clear antidepressant benefits. However, across studies, patients taking the pure DHA form of omega-3 saw no antidepressant effect.
"Our analysis clarifies the precise type of omega-3 fatty acid that is effective for people with depression and explains why previous findings have been contradictory," said Davis. "The EPA predominant formulation is necessary for the therapeutic action to occur. The DHA predominant formulation does not have antidepressant efficacy."
While scientists noted that omega-3 produces beneficial effects in patients with depression, EPA does not improve mood in people who are not depressed. In several studies, people without depression experienced no difference in mood as a result of omega-3 consumption. In another study Davis and his team found that women with inadequate omega-3 intake were more likely to experience depression during and after pregnancy than women with adequate omega-3 in their diets.
"The findings are unambiguous," said Davis. "Omega-3 fatty acids have antidepressant properties, and this effect is ready to be tested in a large study to establish the dose range and to pave the way for FDA approval. In the meantime, omega-3 fatty acids containing EPA could be useful to augment effects of antidepressant medications. However, scientists caution that patients should always talk with their mental health professional before taking omega-3 fatty acids to alleviate symptoms of depression."
Approximately 20.9 million American adults suffer from mood disorders, including depression, the world's fourth leading cause of morbidity and death.
SOURCE: American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
This news article reports on the following conference presentation:
Omega-3 for depression and other illnesses. John M. Davis, Joseph R. Hibbeln, Brian P. Hallahan. (2010) American College of Neuropsychopharmacology Conference, Dec 5-9, Miami Beach, Florida.
View the abstract of this conference presentation here
http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/omega-3-supplements-show-promise-in-alleviating-depression-111503984.htmlView the PR Newswire article here
1577Davis et al 2010 - Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acids in Depression and Illnesses Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acids in Depression and Illnesses depression; depression and omega-3 John M. Davis, Joseph R. Hibbeln, Brian P. Hallahan. 16/12/2010American College of Neuropsychopharmacology Conference, Dec 5-9, Miami Beach, Florida
Since omega-3 fatty acids are essential fatty acids (EFA) that cannot be synthesized to a large degree in the body from other dietary substance, the limiting factor in determining tissue concentrations is the amount of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet. Omega-3 and omega-6 are both constituents of many tissues and, in some sense, compete for incorporation into tissue.
In the last 100 years or so, there has been a large increase in the dietary consumption of the omega-6 fatty acids due to alteration of farming and animal feed. The increase in the incidence of depression over these years parallels the increase of omega-6, so that much more omega-6 is consumed relative to omega-3 EFA’s. Hence, an omega-3 EFA dietary deficit may be a risk factor for depression.
We will present a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind-placebo-controlled studies testing the administration of omega-3 EFA for the treatment of depression. We performed a systematic literature search, subdividing studies as those which used an EPA predominant or a DHA formulation.
Omega 3 is more effective than placebo in treating depressive illness, although there is some variability in results. We explored whether the composition of the omega-3 administered is important, finding that EPA predominant formulation is necessary for the full therapeutic antidepressant action with a large effect size, with little variability. The DHA predominant formulation has little antidepressant efficacy.
We conclude that omega-3 does have antidepressant properties. We will also discuss the role of omega-3 in depression or other disorders, in the broader range of ecological, epidemiological and experimental context, focusing on findings that have implication on cellular mechanism of antidepressant action or in disease.
157017 Nov 2010 - Nutraingredients - Jury still out on omega-3 for post-natal depressionpost-natal depressionby Stephen Daniells09/12/2010
Reducing the risk of depression during pregnancy and after birth with supplements of omega-3 fatty acids is not backed up by the science-to-date, says a new meta-analysis and systematic review.
According to findings published in the British Journal of Nutrition, data from 309 women receiving omega-3 supplements and 303 women on placebo showed no differences between the groups, but the quality of the available studies was described as “low-to-moderate”.
However, reviewers note that one of the studies involved in their meta-analysis did produce beneficial results, and that this occurred with relatively high daily doses of EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), said researchers from Leiden University in The Netherlands.
"Results from this one study suggest that a high dose of EPA may be important, but in this study, the intervention induced an increase in the erythrocyte DHA level but not in the EPA level,” they added. “Future studies should provide a complete profile of the oils used, and blood samples should be taken to evaluate the biochemical effects of the intervention.”
The systematic review and meta-analysis are a timely update on the state of the science. Numerous observational studies and uncontrolled trials have reported the benefits of fish oils and omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA on the behaviour and learning, especially in kids, as well for improving the symptoms of depression.
The number of studies reporting a potential beneficial effect from increased omega-3 fatty acid for depression is increasing. In the last couple of years, studies from various corners of the earth, including Norway (Journal of Affective Disorders), and England and Iran (Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry), have reported positive results.
Regarding depression in the general population, a review in the British Medical Journal's Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin (DTB) in February 2007 concluded that there is no solid scientific evidence to back the benefits reported by some observational studies and uncontrolled trials of fish oils and DHA and EPA on behaviour and learning as well as depression.
“Pregnancy and the post-partum period provide an excellent opportunity to examine the relationship between n-3 PUFA and depression,” state the Leiden-based researcher. “Pregnancy leads to several changes in PUFA status, including a depletion of maternal plasma DHA under normal dietary conditions that persists after delivery. This suggests that normal dietary intake may be insufficient during the perinatal period".
“During pregnancy, maternal DHA is selectively transferred to the fetus to support optimal fetal development, and after birth, breast milk provides DHA to the infant. Mothers may be at higher risk for post-partum depression when they become depleted of n-3 PUFA, and especially of DHA,” they added.
Reviewing the review
The reviewers identified seven randomised controlled trials for their meta-analysis, involving 309 women receiving EPA and/or DHA supplementation, and 303 women on placebo.
In general, the supplements were not associated with a significant improvement in depression measures. “In a subgroup analysis of three small studies of pregnant women with major depression, there was some indication of effectiveness,” they added.
“It is unclear whether DHA or EPA or their combination may be more effective,” wrote the authors. “The positive study used 2.2 g EPA and 1.2 g DHA daily, suggesting that a high dose of EPA may be important, but in this study, the intervention induced an increase in the erythrocyte DHA level but not in the EPA level".
“Future studies should provide a complete profile of the oils used, and blood samples should be taken to evaluate the biochemical effects of the intervention. The intervention should be sufficient in dose and duration, and should start when the natural decline in n-3 PUFA during pregnancy occurs,” they added.
“On the basis of these findings, EPA and/or DHA cannot be considered to be an empirically supported treatment for perinatal depression as yet,” wrote the scientists. “However, the limitations in study quality complicate this interpretation".
“Well-controlled and larger studies of longer duration are necessary to assess the efficacy of the DHA and EPA in pregnant patients with a major depressive disorder or at high risk for developing depression (e.g. with a history of depression),” they concluded.
Omega-3 supplements do not always help women at risk of depression during pregnancy and after birth, says a review of several research studies involving over 600 women. However, in three small studies, pregnant women with major depression did get some benefit, with the indications being that EPA may be more important than DHA.
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