1291Riediger et al 2009 - A systemic review of the roles of n-3 fatty acids in health and diseaseA systemic review of the roles of n-3 fatty acids in health and diseaseA systemic review of the roles of n-3 fatty acids in health and diseaseRiediger ND, Othman RA, Suh M, Moghadasian MH.01/04/2009J Am Diet Assoc. 109(4)668-79
Attention to the role of n-3 long-chain fatty acids in human health and disease has been continuously increased during recent decades. Many clinical and epidemiologic studies have shown positive roles for n-3 fatty acids in infant development; cancer; cardiovascular diseases; and more recently, in various mental illnesses, including depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and dementia. These fatty acids are known to have pleiotropic effects, including effects against inflammation, platelet aggregation, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. These beneficial effects may be mediated through several distinct mechanisms, including alterations in cell membrane composition and function, gene expression, or eicosanoid production. A number of authorities have recently recommended increases in intakes of n-3 fatty acids by the general population. To comply with this recommendation a variety of food products, most notably eggs, yogurt, milk, and spreads have been enriched with these fatty acids. Ongoing research will further determine the tissue distribution, biological effects, cost-effectiveness, and consumer acceptability of such enriched products. Furthermore, additional controlled clinical trials are needed to document whether long-term consumption or supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid or the plant-derived counterpart (alpha-linolenic acid) results in better quality of life.
omega-3, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19328262?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
122320 March 2009 - FAB CONFERENCE - BRIGHTON - Diet, Behaviour and The Junk Food Generationdiet, ADHD, dyslexia, food additives20/03/200920/03/2009
Food and Behaviour Research presents:
Diet, Behaviour and the Junk Food Generation - a one-day professional conference aimed at Education and Health Professionals; Local Authority Staff; Professionals working in Criminal Justice; Policy Makers; School, College and University Caterers; Voluntary Organisations; Social Enterprise; Parents; Carers and those working with children and young people; the Media.
Do poor diets have a part to play in children's worsening behaviour and the escalation of special needs pupils?
Why are so many children diagnosed with ADHD and related conditions?
What are the most effective ways of managing these problems?
Does exposure to environmental toxins contribute to behavioural and learning problems?
Can nutritional changes really improve mood and wellbeing?
Speakers and Programme:
Food and Behaviour - An Overview by Dr Alex Richardson, Director of FAB Research; Senior Research Fellow, University of Oxford, Author of 'They Are What You Feed Them'
Dietary changes and their implications - past, present and future by Dr Paul Clayton, Chair of Forum on Food & Health; author of 'Health Defence' and 'Pharmageddon' (to be published Spring 2009)
The impact of trace and toxic minerals on behaviour, learning and mood in children and young people by Professor Neil Ward, Professor of Analytical Chemistry, Chair of Professional Training and Careers Committee, University of Surrey
A nutritional approach to the diagnosis and management of ADHD and related conditions by Dr Brian McDonogh, Specialist in Nutritional Medicine, Medical Director of The Eagle Clinic, Horsham, West Sussex
Omega-3 for mental performance and mood. Latest evidence and implications for practice by Dr Alex Richardson, Director of FAB Research; Senior Research Fellow, University of Oxford, Author of 'They Are What You Feed Them'
The links between nutrition, mental and emotional health - practical guidance by Martina Watts, BANT-registered Nutritional Therapist, Dolphin, specialising in digestive, behavioural and immune problems in children and adults
Encouraging healthy eating in schools and other organisations - practical tips by David Rex, Child Health Dietitian NHS Highland & Healthy Eating in Schools Co-ordinator
1241Golding et al 2009 - High levels of Depressive Symptoms in Pregnancy With Low Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake From Fish.High levels of Depressive Symptoms in Pregnancy With Low Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake From Fish.depression, pregnancy, omega-3, diet, fishGolding J, Steer C, Emmett P, Davis JM, Hibbeln JR.10/03/2009Epidemiology. 2009 Mar 10. [Epub ahead of print]
BACKGROUND: Depression during pregnancy has adverse consequences for both mother and child. Although common in western countries, depression appears to be virtually absent in countries with high seafood intake. We test the hypothesis that low seafood intake during pregnancy is associated with increased prevalence of depressive symptoms.
METHODS: This study used data prospectively collected from women participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in the period 1991-1992. At 32 weeks' gestation, the mother completed a questionnaire that included symptoms of depression and a food frequency questionnaire from which the amount of omega-3 fatty acids from fish was calculated. Statistical analysis took social and lifestyle factors into account.
RESULTS: Unadjusted and adjusted analyses showed lower maternal intake of omega-3 from seafood was associated with high levels of depressive symptoms. Compared with women consuming more than 1.5 g omega-3 from seafood per week, those consuming none were more likely to have high levels of depressive symptoms at 32 weeks' gestation (adjusted odds ratios = 1.54; 95% confidence interval = 1.25-1.89).
CONCLUSIONS: These observational data support an association between low omega-3 intake from seafood and increased risk of high levels of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Eating seafood during pregnancy may have beneficial effects on mental well-being.
depression, pregnancy, omega-3, diet, fishhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19289957?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this abstract via PubMed here
1298DiGirolamo & Ramirez-Zea 2009 - Role of zinc in maternal and child mental healthRole of zinc in maternal and child mental healthRole of zinc in maternal and child mental healthDiGirolamo AM, Ramirez-Zea M01/03/2009Am J Clin Nutr. 89(3)940S-945S. Epub 2009 Jan 28
Mental health problems in women, children, and adolescents are a significant public health issue. Given current barriers to the effective treatment of these problems, researchers are looking to the field of nutrition for potential alternatives to better understand and address mental health issues. The purpose of this article was to review current evidence on the relation between zinc and mental health disorders with a focus on 2 mental health problems that commonly affect women and children: depression and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A literature search of the databases Medline and PsychInfo was conducted with the use of key terms. The review included articles from 1975 to May 2008, but focused on articles published in recent years. Relations between zinc concentrations and behavior in animals; the relation between zinc deficiency, depression, and ADHD in patient and community samples; and the potential biological mechanisms for these relations were explored. The data support a relation between low concentrations of zinc and mental health problems, especially in at-risk populations. Evidence for the potential use of zinc in treating mental health problems comes mainly from patient populations and is strongest when zinc is given in combination with pharmacologic treatment. Less conclusive evidence exists for the effectiveness of zinc alone or in general community samples. Recommendations for further research in this area are provided.
Zinc, mental health, pregnancy, children, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19176735?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=1&log$=relatedreviews&logdbfrom=pubmedView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1297Ramakrishnan et al 2009 - Role of DHA in maternal and child mental healthRole of docosahexaenoic acid in maternal and child mental healthRole of docosahexaenoic acid in maternal and child mental healthRamakrishnan U, Imhoff-Kunsch B, DiGirolamo AM.01/03/2009Am J Clin Nutr. 89(3)958S-962S. Epub 2009 Jan 28
Mental health problems in women and children represent a significant public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. The role of nutrition as a cost-effective approach in the prevention and management of these conditions has received recent attention, particularly nutrients such as iron, zinc, and n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids, which play a role in brain structure and function. The objective of this article was to review current evidence on the relation between n-3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and maternal and child mental health disorders. Human studies published in English were identified from Medline databases (1966 to June 2008) by using key search terms and review articles. A summary of the role of DHA in the human brain is followed by a review of human studies, both observational and intervention trials, that examine the relation between n-3 fatty acids such as DHA and depression and child mental health disorders. Observational studies support a direct association between poor n-3 fatty acid status and increased risk of maternal depression and childhood behavioral disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, evidence from intervention trials is weak. Most of the studies reviewed had small sample sizes and were conducted in clinically diagnosed samples, with no placebo-controlled groups. Little is known about the benefits of DHA in the prevention of maternal depression and ADHD. Large, well-designed, community-based prevention trials are needed.
omega-3, DHA, mental health, depression, ADHD, pregnancy, children, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19176728?ordinalpos=12&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts here
1294Sarris et al 2009 - Major depressive disorder and nutritional medicine: a review of monotherapies and adjuvant treatments.Major depressive disorder and nutritional medicine: a review of monotherapies and adjuvant treatments.Major depressive disorder and nutritional medicine: a review of monotherapies and adjuvant treatments.Sarris J, Schoendorfer N, Kavanagh DJ.01/03/2009Nutr Rev. 2009 67(3)125-31
A literature review was conducted to examine the evidence for nutritional interventions in depression. It revealed a number of significant conclusions. Interestingly, more positive clinical trials were found to support adjuvant, rather than monotherapeutic, use of nutrients to treat depression. Much evidence exists in the area of adjuvant application of folic acid, S-adenosyl-methionine, omega-3, and L-tryptophan with antidepressants. Current evidence does not support omega-3 as an effective monotherapy to treat depression. However, this may be due, at least in part, to olive oil being used as the control intervention, some studies using docosahexaenoic acid alone or a higher docosahexaenoic acid to eicosapentaenoic acid ratio, and significant heterogeneity regarding depressive populations. Nevertheless, adjunctive prescription of omega-3 with antidepressants, or in people with dietary deficiency, may be beneficial. Inositol lacks evidence as an effective antidepressant and cannot be currently recommended. Evidence on the use of L-tryptophan for depression is inconclusive, and additional studies utilizing a more robust methodology are required.
nutrition, depression, treatment, omega-3, L-tryptophan, inositol, review http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19239627?ordinalpos=5&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1296Su 2009 - Biological Mechanism of Antidepressant Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids: How Does Fish Oil Act as a 'Mind-Body Interface'?Biological Mechanism of Antidepressant Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids: How Does Fish Oil Act as a 'Mind-Body Interface'?Biological Mechanism of Antidepressant Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids: How Does Fish Oil Act as a 'Mind-Body Interface'?Su KP.04/02/2009Neurosignals. 17(2):144-152.
The unsatisfactory results of monoamine-based antidepressant therapy and the high occurrence of somatic symptoms and physical illness in patients with depression imply that the serotonin hypothesis is insufficient to approach the aetiology of depression.
Depressive disorders with somatic presentation are the most common form of depression. Somatization, the bodily symptoms without organic explanation, is similar to cytokine-induced sickness behaviour. Based on recent evidence, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs, or n-3 fatty acids) are enlightening a promising path to discover the unsolved of depression, sickness behaviour and to link the connection of mind and body.
The PUFAs are classified into n-3 (or omega-3) and n-6 (or omega-6) groups. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, the major bioactive components of n-3 PUFAs, are not efficiently synthesized in humans and should therefore be obtained directly from the diet, particularly by consuming fish.
Docosahexaenoic acid deficiency is associated with dysfunctions of neuronal membrane stability and transmission of serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, which might connect to the aetiology of mood and cognitive dysfunction of depression.
Likewise, eicosapentaenoic acid is important in balancing the immune function and physical health by reducing membrane arachidonic acid (an n-6 PUFA) and prostaglandin E(2) synthesis, which might be linked to the somatic manifestations and physical comorbidity in depression.
The role of n-3 PUFAs in immunity and mood function supports the promising hypothesis of psychoneuroimmunology of depression and provides an excellent interface between 'mind' and 'body'.
This review is to provide an overview of the evidence about the role of n-3 PUFAs in depression and its common comorbid physical conditions and to propose mechanisms by which they may modulate molecular and cellular functions.
omega-3, fatty acids, PUFA, EPA, DHA, depression, treatment, mechanisms, neurotransmitters, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19190401?ordinalpos=11&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1243Colangelo et al 2009 - Higher dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is inversely associated with depressive symptoms in women.Higher dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is inversely associated with depressive symptoms in women.Depression, omega-3, dietColangelo LA, He K, Whooley MA, Daviglus ML, Liu K.03/02/2009NutritionE-pub ahead of print
OBJECTIVE: Experimental and observational data suggest that a higher dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated acids may lead to a decreased risk of depressive disorders. We assessed multivariable-adjusted associations of fish consumption and dietary intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with depressive symptoms in a population-based sample of 3317 African-American and Caucasian men and women from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study. METHODS: Diet was assessed in year 7 (1992-1993) and depressive symptoms were measured in years 10 (1995-1996), 15 (2000-2001), and 20 (2005-2006) by the 20-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale score >/=16 or self-reported use of antidepressant medication. RESULTS: In the entire cohort, the highest quintiles of intakes of EPA (>/=0.03% energy), DHA (>/=0.05% energy), and EPA + DHA (>/=0.08% energy) were associated with a lower risk of depressive symptoms at year 10 (P for trends = 0.16, 0.10, and 0.03, respectively). The observed inverse associations were more pronounced in women. For the total number of occasions with depressive symptoms, the multivariable adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) in women were 0.75 (0.55-1.01) for fish intake, 0.66 (0.50-0.89) for EPA, 0.66 (0.49-0.89) for DHA, and 0.71 (0.52-0.95) for EPA + DHA when comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles. Analyses of continuous Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores revealed inverse associations with fourth-root-transformed omega-3 variables in women. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that dietary intakes of fish and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids may be inversely associated with chronic depressive symptoms in women.
depression, diet, omega-3http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19195841?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=1&log$=relatedarticles&logdbfrom=pubmedView this abstract via PubMed here
1306Cherniack et al 2009 - Some new food for thought: the role of vitamin D in the mental health of older adults.Some new food for thought: the role of vitamin D in the mental health of older adults.Some new food for thought: the role of vitamin D in the mental health of older adults.Cherniack EP, Troen BR, Florez HJ, Roos BA, Levis S01/02/2009Curr Psychiatry Rep. 11(1)12-9
Vitamin D, a multipurpose steroid hormone vital to health, has been increasingly implicated in the pathology of cognition and mental illness. Hypovitaminosis D is prevalent among older adults, and several studies suggest an association between hypovitaminosis D and basic and executive cognitive functions, depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Vitamin D activates receptors on neurons in regions implicated in the regulation of behavior, stimulates neurotrophin release, and protects the brain by buffering antioxidant and anti-inflammatory defenses against vascular injury and improving metabolic and cardiovascular function. Although additional studies are needed to examine the impact of supplementation on cognition and mood disorders, given the known health benefits of vitamin D, we recommend greater supplementation in older adults.
Vitamin D, Vit-D, depression, mental health, ageing, treatment, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19187703?ordinalpos=7&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1295Gow et al 2009 - Total red blood cell concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids are associated with emotion-elicited neural activity in adolescent boys with ADHD.Total red blood cell concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids are associated with emotion-elicited neural activity in adolescent boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Total red blood cell concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids are associated with emotion-elicited neural activity in adolescent boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.Gow RV, Matsudaira T, Taylor E, Rubia K, Crawford M, Ghebremeskel K, Ibrahimovic A, Vallée-Tourangeau F, Williams LM, Sumich A01/02/2009Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.80(2-3):151-6. Epub 2009 Feb 20
Affective impairment is observed in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Low levels of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), specifically omega-3 (omega-3) fatty acids in blood measures have been linked to a range of behavioural and mood disorders including ADHD. However, nothing is known about the relationship between omega-3 and brain function in children with ADHD.
In the current study, 20 adolescent boys with ADHD were assessed for total lipid fractions in red blood cells and their event-related potential (ERP) response to the presentation of facial expressions of happiness, sadness and fearfulness.
The results supported the hypothesis of a positive association between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and a cognitive bias in orientation to overt expressions of happiness over both sad and fearful faces as indexed by midline frontal P300 amplitude. Additional exploratory analyses revealed a positive association between levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the right temporal N170 amplitude in response to covert expressions of fear. The arachidonic (AA)/DHA ratio was negatively associated with the right temporal N170 amplitude also to covert expressions of fear.
These findings indicate that EPA and DHA may be involved in distinct aspects of affect processing in ADHD and have implications for understanding currently inconsistent findings in the literature on EFA supplementation in ADHD and depression.
omega-3, fatty acids, EPA, DHA, RBCFA, ADHD, experimental study, emotion processinghttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19230637?ordinalpos=6&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1843O'Sullivan et al 2009 - A good-quality breakfast is associated with better mental health in adolescenceA good-quality breakfast is associated with better mental health in adolescenceA good-quality breakfast is associated with better mental health in adolescenceO'Sullivan TA, Robinson M, Kendall GE, Miller M, Jacoby P, Silburn SR, Oddy WH.01/02/2009Public Health Nutr.12(2):249-58. Epub 2008 Nov 25.
OBJECTIVE: Breakfast consumption has been associated with better mental health in adulthood, but the relationship between breakfast and mental health in adolescence is less well known. The aims of the present study were to evaluate breakfast quality in a cohort of adolescents and to investigate associations with mental health.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based study. Breakfast quality was assessed by intake of core food groups at breakfast, as determined from 3 d food diaries. Mental health was assessed using the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), with higher scores representing poorer behaviour.
SETTING: The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, Perth, Western Australia.
SUBJECTS: Eight hundred and thirty-six males and females aged between 13 and 15 years.
RESULTS: Mean mental health score as assessed by the CBCL was 45.24 (sd 11.29). A high-quality breakfast consisting of at least three food groups was consumed by 11 % of adolescents, while 7 % of adolescents did not consume any items from core food groups on average over the 3 d period. The two most common core food groups consumed at breakfast in this population were dairy products followed by breads and cereals. For every additional food group eaten at breakfast, the associated total mental health score decreased by 1.66 (95 % CI -2.74, -0.59) after adjustment for potential confounding factors, representing an improvement in mental health score.
CONCLUSION: These findings support the concept that breakfast quality is an important component in the complex interaction between lifestyle factors and mental health in early adolescence.
diet, breakfast, mental health, adolescents, human study, observational studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19026092View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1300Pan et al 2009 - Association between depressive symptoms and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in middle-aged and elderly Chinese.Association between depressive symptoms and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Association between depressive symptoms and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in middle-aged and elderly Chinese.Pan A, Lu L, Franco OH, Yu Z, Li H, Lin X01/02/2009J Affect Disord.Feb 25. [Epub ahead of print]
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is recently speculated to play a role in the development of depression. Nevertheless, few studies have explored the association between blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and depression in the general population. Therefore, we aimed to determine this association in middle-aged and elderly Chinese.
METHODS: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in 2005 in Beijing and Shanghai, China. Participants included 3262 community residents aged 50-70. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D) score of 16 or higher. Circulating 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay.
RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was lower in the top tertile of 25(OH)D concentrations compared to the lowest tertile (7.2% vs. 11.1%) in the study population (odds ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.46-0.83; P for trend=0.002). This association was substantially attenuated after controlling for various confounding factors, and disappeared after including geographic location in the model. Stratified analysis by location did not find any association between depressive symptoms and 25(OH)D levels among participants from either Beijing or Shanghai.
LIMITATIONS: Due to the cross-sectional study design, causal relation remains unknown.
CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms are not associated with 25(OH)D concentrations in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Further prospective studies are required to determine whether they are correlated.
depression, Vitamin D, Vit-D, population studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19249103?ordinalpos=3&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1663Leung & Kaplan 2009 - Perinatal depression: prevalence, risks, and the nutrition link - a review of the literature.Perinatal depression: prevalence, risks, and the nutrition link--a review of the literature. Perinatal depression: prevalence, risks, and the nutrition link--a review of the literature.
Leung BM, Kaplan BJ23/01/2009J Am Diet Assoc. 109(9):1566-75.
The purpose of this review is to examine the role of nutrition in perinatal depression. Perinatal (maternal) depression refers to major and minor episodes during pregnancy (termed antenatal) and/or within the first 12 months after delivery (termed postpartum or postnatal).
Prevalence of antenatal depression can be as high as 20%, while approximately 12% to 16% of women experience postpartum depression. These are probably conservative estimates, as cases of maternal depression are underreported or underdiagnosed. Risk factors for depression include genetic predisposition and environmental factors, as well as a number of social, psychological, and biological factors.
One biological factor given increasing consideration is inadequate nutrition. Credible links between nutrient deficiency and mood have been reported for folate, vitamin B-12, calcium, iron, selenium, zinc, and n-3 fatty acids. For maternal depression, the nutrient that has received the most attention from nutrition researchers has been the n-3 essential fatty acids. Numerous studies, such as randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, and ecological studies, have found a positive association between low n-3 levels and a higher incidence of maternal depression.
In addition, nutrient inadequacies in pregnant women who consume a typical western diet might be much more common than researchers and clinicians realize. A number of studies have reported inadequate intakes of n-3, folate, B vitamins, iron, and calcium in pregnant women. Depletion of nutrient reserves throughout pregnancy can increase a woman's risk for maternal depression.
depression, pregnancy, perinatal depression, post-natal depression, nutrition, diet, micronutrients, human study, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19699836View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1305Young 2009 - Has the time come for clinical trials on the antidepressant effect of vitamin D?Has the time come for clinical trials on the antidepressant effect of vitamin D?Has the time come for clinical trials on the antidepressant effect of vitamin D?Young SN01/01/2009J Psychiatry Neurosci. 34(1) 3.
No Abstract is available, but the full text of this paper can be freely accessed using the link above. The concluding paragraph only is reproduced here:
"Treatment of depression with vitamin D is an idea worth testing in carefully selected populations. This includes those with low vitamin D levels, especially the elderly, who have an increased incidence of low vitamin D, and patients with seasonal affective disorder who do not respond to light therapy. If there are patients in whom vitamin D is an effective antidepressant, this is likely to be one of the most cost-effective treatments in psychiatry, and one with negligible side effects."
Vitamin D, Vit-D, depression, review, Free full texthttp://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=19125208View the free full text of this paper here
1219The Ultimate Omega-3 Diet by Evelyn Tribole MS, RDThe Ultimate Omega-3 Diet by Evelyn Tribole MS, RDEvelyn Tribole; The Ultimate Omega-3 Diet;Evelyn Tribole MS RD17/12/2008
Highly recommended reading starting with the basics of omega-3 fats, the role they play in the prevention of diseases to how you can optimise your diet by including omega-3 fats.
The amazing health benefits of omega-3 fats have been grabbing headlines all over the world, but rarely do you hear about how to properly incorporate this miraculous nutrient into your everyday life. The Ultimate Omega-3 Diet is the first book to provide a simple, step-by-step guide to getting the right amount of omega-3 fats while balancing your intake of less healthy omega-6 fats. The result: a reduced risk of stroke, allergies, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease and improved treatment of depression, asthma, arthritis, and other ailments.
With The Ultimate Omega-3 Diet, you will:
UNDERSTAND the building blocks of omega-3 and omega-6 fats and the science behind the harmful effects of excess omega-6s on your body
INCREASE your intake of ALA (short-chain) fats such as flax and canola oils, while also getting enough key EPA and DHA (long-chain) fats, including fatty fish
IDENTIFY and limit omega-6 fats, which lead to heart problems, mood disorders, inflammation disorders, cancer, and other ailments
CHOOSE the best omega-3 supplements - without wasting money on what you don't need
PREPARE easy, delicious snacks and meals and make the best choices when eating out
LEARN how a good supply of omega-3s during pregnancy can help guarantee health far into a child's life
Food labels, packaging, TV commercials, and magazine articles often give misleading information on omega-3s and "healthy" fats, and those popular low-carb, high-fat diets actually cancel out the good effects of omega-3 fats. With all this conflicting informaiton, it's easy to be overwhelmed when considering a healthy diet change. But living the omega-3 lifestyle doesn't have to be a confusing guessing game. The Ultimate Omega-3 Diet offers practical, easy-to-follow strategies for chaing your eating habits, including 40 delicious recipes for everything from pancakes to burritos to brownies, as well as vegetarian and kid-friendly choices.
Evelyn Tribole, MS, RD is an award-winning registered dietitian, with a nutrition counseling practice in Newport Beach, California. She has written seven books including the bestsellers Healthy Homestyle Cooking and Intuitive Eating(co-author). Her newest book is the Ultimate Omega-3 Diet.
Evelyn was the nutrition expert for Good Morning America, appearing from 1994-'95 and was a national spokesperson for the American Dietetic Association for 6 years. She was contributing editor for Shape magazine where her monthly column, Recipe Makeovers, appeared for 11 years.
She is often sought by the media for her nutritional expertise and has appeared on hundreds of interviews, including: CNN, Today Show, MSNBC, Fox News, USA Today, Wall St. Journal and People magazine.
Achievements and honors include, receiving the American Dietetic Association's Award for Excellence in Private Practice. Many national magazines have rated Evelyn as one of the best nutritionists in the country including: Self, Harper's Bazaar, and Redbook magazine.
Professional memberships include: the Am. Dietetic Assoc., International Society for Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids, the Celiac Disease Foundation, and the Academy for Eating Disorders.
Evelyn qualified for the Olympic Trials in the first ever women's marathon in 1984. Although she no longer competes, Evelyn runs for fun and is an avid skier and hiker. She also enjoys surfing, kayaking and white water rafting. Evelyn's favorite food is chocolate, when it can be savored slowly.
1304Jorde et al 2008 - Effects of vitamin D supplementation on symptoms of depression in overweight and obese subjects: randomized double blind trial.Effects of vitamin D supplementation on symptoms of depression in overweight and obese subjects: randomized double blind trial. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on symptoms of depression in overweight and obese subjects: randomized double blind trial.Jorde R, Sneve M, Figenschau Y, Svartberg J, Waterloo K.01/12/2008J Intern Med. 2008264(6)599-609. Epub 2008 Sep 10
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to examine the cross-sectional relation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-(OH) D) levels and depression in overweight and obese subjects and to assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation on depressive symptoms.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional study and randomized double blind controlled trial of 20,000 or 40,000 IU vitamin D per week versus placebo for 1 year.
SETTING: A total of 441 subjects (body mass index 28-47 kg m(-2), 159 men and 282 women, aged 21-70 years) recruited by advertisements or from the out-patient clinic at the University Hospital of North Norway.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score with subscales 1-13 and 14-21.
RESULTS: Subjects with serum 25(OH)D levels < 40 nmol L(-1) scored significantly higher (more depressive traits) than those with serum 25(OH)D levels > or = 40 nmol L(-1) on the BDI total (6.0 (0-23) versus 4.5 (0-28) (median and range)) and the BDI subscale 1-13 (2.0 (0-15) versus 1.0 (0-29.5))(P < 0.05). In the two groups given vitamin D, but not in the placebo group, there was a significant improvement in BDI scores after 1 year. There was a significant decrease in serum parathyroid hormone in the two vitamin D groups without a concomitant increase in serum calcium.
CONCLUSIONS: It appears to be a relation between serum levels of 25(OH)D and symptoms of depression. Supplementation with high doses of vitamin D seems to ameliorate these symptoms indicating a possible causal relationship.
Vitamin D, Vit-D, depression, obesity, dietary supplementation, treatment, RCThttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18793245?ordinalpos=12&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1257Tassabehji et al 2008 - Zinc deficiency induces depression-like symptoms in adult rats.Zinc deficiency induces depression-like symptoms in adult rats.Zinc deficiency induces depression-like symptoms in adult rats.Tassabehji NM, Corniola RS, Alshingiti A, Levenson CW.20/10/2008Physiol Behav. 95(3)365-9. Epub 2008 Jul 3
There is mounting evidence suggesting a link between serum zinc levels and clinical depression. Not only is serum zinc negatively correlated with the severity of symptoms, but zinc levels appear to be lowest in patients who do not respond to antidepressant drug therapy. It is not known if reduced zinc levels are contributing to depression, or the result of dietary or other factors associated with major depression. Thus, we designed this study to test the hypothesis that dietary zinc deficiency would induce depression-like behaviors in rats. Two-month-old male rats were fed zinc adequate (ZA, 30 ppm), deficient (ZD, 1 ppm), or supplemented (ZS, 180 ppm) diets for 3 weeks. Consistent with the development of depression, ZD rats displayed anorexia (p<0.001), anhedonia (reduced saccharin:water intake, p< 0.001), and increased anxiety-like behaviors in a light-dark box test (p<0.05). Furthermore, the antidepressant drug fluoxetine (10 mg/kg body wt) reduced behavioral despair, as measured by the forced swim test, in rats fed the ZA and ZS rats (p<0.05), but was ineffective in ZD rats. Together these studies suggest that zinc deficiency leads to the development of depression-like behaviors that may be refractory to antidepressant treatment.
zinc, depression, treatment http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18655800?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
11998 October 2008 - Nutraingredients - Don't ignore omega-3 for mood and behaviour, say UK expertsFAB Research conference, omega-3, mood disorders, child behaviour and learning08/10/2008by Lorraine Heller who attended the 'Feeding Young Minds' event in Oxford on 3 October 2008.
Academic and nutrition experts in the UK are calling for an increased focus on the benefits of omega-3 in mood and behaviour, especially in children, as a lack of consistent research is stunting potential in the field.
The resounding message that came out of a Food and Behaviour (FAB) research conference held in Oxford last week was the need for more funding for additional scientific studies.
"Omega-3s are precious nutrients that have never reached such historically low levels in our diets. We cannot ignore the physical health risks to children from a poor nutritional diet as they are all too visible. What's less visible is the damage to their brains," said Dr Alex Richardson, a research scientist at the University of Oxford and founder and director of FAB.
Dr Richardson and other speakers highlighted the studies that have so far indicated the crucial role of omega-3 in improving behaviour, learning and mood disorders.
Potential benefits of the fatty acids include a reduction in violent or impulsive behaviour, improvements in neurodevelopmental disorders in children (such as ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia and autism), as well as improvements or even prevention of adult psychiatric disorders (such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders and depression).
A number of randomized controlled trials - the gold standard in the scientific world - have demonstrated some of these benefits, explained the speakers. However, the results cannot be compared and confirmed through systematic reviews or meta-analyses because the studies are too differing - conducted in different populations and using different measures.
Ultimately, this means that regulatory authorities require more studies before the benefits can be recognised, but funds for these remain limited.
"Omega-3s do not work in the same way for everyone - we all agree that we need more studies. The department of education wants to see the results, but they don't want to contribute anything," said Dr Richardson.
"Stop setting the bar so high that there will never be enough evidence for us to do something about it," she said.
Other speakers at the event - entitled Feeding Young Minds - included:
11863 October 2008 - FAB CONFERENCE - Feeding Young Minds, Oxfordomega-3 for behaviour, learning and mood; science, policy and practice, event; FAB conference; Food and Behaviour Research03/10/200803/10/2008
ABOUT THE CONFERENCE
Omega-3 for Behaviour, Learning and Mood: Science, policy and practice
Nutrition is as important for our mental health and performance as it is for our physical fitness - the amount and type of fat in our diets is a key influence on both.
Certain omega-3 fats are critical to brain development and function, but are lacking from many people's diets.
Infants and children are particularly vulnerable; the effects of early malnourishment can last a lifetime. Evidence shows that 'getting the fats right' can help at any age.
Omega-3 deficiencies are linked with many different behaviour, learning and mental health problems - but most people still don't know which omega-3 really matter or how to ensure an adequate intake.
Leading international experts in this field will bring you the latest scientific evidence, clearly explaining its implications for policy and practice as well as for anyone seeking to improve their own health through diet.
Find out what positive changes you can make at home and at work. Learn how you could help influence policy in the UK, and have your own questions answered.
Do pregnant mothers and babies consume enough omega-3? What are the implications if they don't? Is current dietary advice appropriate?
Can omega-3 really help combat depression and anti-social behaviour, or reduce symptoms of ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia and autism? Can they improve mood or boost learning more generally? How would we know and what are the practical implications?
How can our omega-3 dietary requirements be met? Are there enough fish in the sea, and what about vegetarian sources? What can we all do to help?
WHO SHOULD ATTEND
Education professionals in schools, colleges and universities
Early childhood education and care professionals, family support professionals
Local authority social services directors and social workers
Local authority catering managers
Public health directors, NHS childcare co-ordinators, health visitors and GPs
Child psychiatrists and psychologists and other clinical and therapeutic professionals
Violence and crime prevention professionals
Professional bodies and Royal Colleges
Policy-makers, researchers and academics
Voluntary organizations and Charities
Parents and carers
Dr Alex Richardson Founder director of FAB Research; Visiting Research Scientist at Universities of Oxford and Bristol; Author of 'They Are What You Feed Them'
An authority on the role of nutrition (particularly fatty acids) in childhood developmental disorders and adult mental health, Alex Richardson carried out the first controlled trials of omega-3 for child behaviour and learning.
Professor Michael Crawford Director, Institute of Brain Chemistry and Human Nutrition, London Metropolitan University
Michael Crawford is one of the world's leading experts in brain chemistry and human nutrition specialising in dietary fats and their health implications. In his book "The Driving Force: Food, Evolution and the Future" he presented evidence for the Aquatic Ape Theory - that the modern human brain could not have developed a savannah diet, but needed the long-chain fatty acids provided by the food from a seashore environment.
Professor John Stein Professor of Neurophysiology, University of Oxford; Chair of the Dyslexia Research Trust
His extensive research has included pioneering work on auditory and visual perceptual difficulties in dyslexia, and their genetic and neurobiological basis. As a medical doctor, John Stein has had a long-term interest in the benefits of fish oils, and he now leads a research programme investigating nutritional approaches to antisocial behaviour as well as developmental disorders.
Dr Joseph Hibbeln Lead Clinical Investigator, Unit of Nutrition in Psychiatry; Nat Inst of Health, USA; Commander in the US Public Health Service
Joseph Hibbeln is a primary collaborator in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in Bristol, studying the effect of nutritional insufficiencies in pregnancy in childhood, neuro-developmental outcomes and relevant gene-nutrition interactions. He also collaborates internationally in clinical trials of omega-3 fatty acids in the areas of suicide prevention, postpartum depression and violence.
Professor Malcolm Peet Consultant Psychiatrist, Doncaster and South Humber Healthcare NHS Trust, Professor Associate, School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield
Malcolm Peet has a research background in psychopharmacology and has been investigating the role of nutrition in mental health since 1990. His main research focus has been the role of omega-3 fatty acids in depression and schizophrenia. Recently he has focused on the practical applications of nutritional interventions within mental health services in the UK.
Dr Paul Montgomery Director of the Centre for Evidence-Based Intervention, University of Oxford; Director of FAB Research
Paul has established a research group focusing on high quality trials and systematic reviews of complex psychosocial interventions, including diet. He has recently reviewed the effects of omega-3 supplementation in bipolar disorder (manic depression) and has also carried out other research with Alex Richardson into fatty acid supplementation in children.
Professor Jack Winkler Professor of Nutrition Policy, London Metropolitan University, Director of Nutrition Policy Unit; Director of Food & Health Research
Jack Winkler originally trained as a sociologist. He is responsible for post-graduate teaching in nutrition policy and co-ordination/communication of London Metropolitan University's activities. He is a founder, officer and/or member of most UK voluntary groups concerned with diet and health, including London Food Commission, National Food Alliance, Coronary Prevention Group, Consensus Action on Salt and Health, Joint Claims Initiative, Baby Drinks Campaign, Action and Information on Sugars, and Sustain.
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1303Berk et al 2008 - Is this D vitamin to worry about? Vitamin D insufficiency in an inpatient sample.Is this D vitamin to worry about? Vitamin D insufficiency in an inpatient sample. Vitamin D, psychiatric disorders, mental healthBerk M, Jacka FN, Williams LJ, Ng F, Dodd S, Pasco JA01/10/2008Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 42(10)874-8
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between reduced serum vitamin D levels and psychiatric illness.
METHOD: This study was an audit of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels measured routinely in a sample of 53 inpatients in a private psychiatric clinic. These levels were compared with those of controls without psychiatric illness.
RESULTS: The median levels of serum 25-OHD were 43.0 nmol L(-1) (range 20-102 nmol L(-1)) in the patient population, 46.0 nmol L(-1) (range 20-102 nmol L(-1)) in female patients (n =33) and 41.5 nmol L(-1) (range 22-97 nmol L(-1)) in male patients (n =20). The proportion of vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25-OHD < or =50 nmol L(-1)) in this patient population was 58%. Furthermore, 11% had moderate deficiency (serum 25-OHD < or =25 nmol L(-1)). There was a 29% difference between mean levels in the patient population and control sample (geometric mean age- and season-adjusted levels: 46.4 nmol L(-1) (95% confidence interval (CI) =38.6-54.9 nmol L(-1)) vs 65.3 nmol L(-1) (95%CI =63.2-67.4 nmol L(-1)), p <0 .001).
CONCLUSION: Low levels of serum 25-OHD were found in this patient population. These data add to the literature suggesting an association between vitamin D insufficiency and psychiatric illness, and suggest that routine monitoring of vitamin D levels may be of benefit given the high yield of clinically relevant findings.
Vitamin D, Vit-D, mental health, psychiatric disorder, case-control studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18777231?ordinalpos=13&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
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