1130Mazza et al 2007 - Omega-3 and antioxidants in neurological and psychiatric diseases: an overview.Omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants in neurological and psychiatric diseases: an overview.Omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants in neurological and psychiatric diseases: an overview.Mazza M, Pomponi M, Janiri L, Bria P, Mazza S.01/01/2007Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 31(1). 12-26. .Epub 2006 Aug 28
RATIONALE: Omega-3 fatty acids are known to play a role in nervous system activity, cognitive development, memory-related learning, neuroplasticity of nerve membranes, synaptogenesis and synaptic transmission. The brain is considered abnormally sensitive to oxidative damage, and aging is considered one of the most significant risk factors for degenerative neurological disorders. Recently, clinical trials of several neurodegenerative diseases have increasingly targeted the evaluation of the effectiveness of various antioxidants. OBJECTIVES: The effects of omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants on the anatomic and functional central nervous system development and their possible therapeutical use in some neurological and psychiatric pathologies are evaluated. RESULTS: A number of critical trials have confirmed the benefits of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids not only in several psychiatric conditions, but also in inflammatory and autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases. Many evidences indicate that antioxidants are also essential in maintaining a correct neurophysiology. CONCLUSIONS: Omega-3 fatty acids could be useful in the prevention of different pathologies, such as cardiovascular, psychiatric, neurological, dermatological and rheumatological disorders. A number of studies suggest that antioxidants can prevent the oxidation of various macromolecules such as DNA, proteins, and lipids. The ideal use of antioxidants should be a prophylactic and continue treatment before aging.
review, omega-3, psychiatry, neurology, ageing, oxidative stress, fatty acidshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=16938373&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlusView this and related abstracts via Pubmed here
1061Appleton et al. 2006 - Omega-3 for mood disorders Effects of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on depressed mood: systematic review of published trialsOmega-3 for mood disorders - systematic reviewAppleton KM, Hayward RC, Gunnell D, Peters TJ, Rogers PJ, Kessler D, Ness AR.01/12/2006American Journal of Clinical Nutrition84(6)1308-16The American Society for Nutrition
BACKGROUND: Greater dietary intakes of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may be beneficial for depressed mood. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to systematically review all published randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of n-3 PUFAs on depressed mood. DESIGN: Eight medical and health databases were searched over all years of records until June 2006 for trials that exposed participants to n-3 PUFAs or fish, measured depressed mood, were conducted on human participants, and included a comparison group. RESULTS: Eighteen randomized controlled trials were identified; 12 were included in a meta-analysis. The pooled standardized difference in mean outcome (fixed-effects model) was 0.13 SDs (95% CI: 0.01, 0.25) in those receiving n-3 PUFAs compared with placebo, with strong evidence of heterogeneity (I2 = 79%, P < 0.001). The presence of funnel plot asymmetry suggested that publication bias was the likely source of heterogeneity. Sensitivity analyses that excluded one large trial increased the effect size estimates but did not reduce heterogeneity. Meta-regression provided some evidence that the effect was stronger in trials involving populations with major depression-the difference in the effect size estimates was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.05, 1.41; P = 0.04), but there was still considerable heterogeneity when trials that involved populations with major depression were pooled separately (I2 = 72%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Trial evidence that examines the effects of n-3 PUFAs on depressed mood is limited and is difficult to summarize and evaluate because of considerable heterogeneity. The evidence available provides little support for the use of n-3 PUFAs to improve depressed mood. Larger trials with adequate power to detect clinically important benefits are required.
The results of this meta-analysis are hardly surprising given the very diverse nature of the studies included. Some trials involved healthy subjects, others patients with conditions other than depression (including chronic fatigue syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder).
A more positive conclusion was obtained from another recent meta-analysis, which focused only on patients with major depression or bipolar disorder. This showed modest benefits for depressed mood in these patient groups when omega-3 were used in addition to standard medications.
One conclusion reached by both groups, however, is that further evidence is needed, i.e. that more good quality randomised controlled trials of onmega-3 for mood disorders are clearly warranted.
omega-3, depression, mood disorders, systematic reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=17158410&query_hl=5&itool=pubmed_docsumView the abstract via PubMed here
1060Freeman et al. 2006 - Omega-3 fatty acids: evidence basis for treatment and future research in psychiatryOmega-3 fatty acids: evidence basis for treatment and future research in psychiatry Omega-3 fatty acids: evidence basis for treatment and future research in psychiatryFreeman MP, Hibbeln JR, Wisner KL, Davis JM, Mischoulon D, Peet M, Keck PE Jr, Marangell LB, Richardson AJ, Lake J, Stoll AL.01/12/2006The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry67(12):1954-67
OBJECTIVE: To determine if the available data support the use of omega-3 essential fatty acids (EFA) for clinical use in the prevention and/or treatment of psychiatric disorders.
PARTICIPANTS: The authors of this article were invited participants in the Omega-3 Fatty Acids Subcommittee, assembled by the Committee on Research on Psychiatric Treatments of the American Psychiatric Association (APA).
EVIDENCE: Published literature and data presented at scientific meetings were reviewed. Specific disorders reviewed included major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, dementia, borderline personality disorder and impulsivity, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analyses were conducted in major depressive and bipolar disorders and schizophrenia, as sufficient data were available to conduct such analyses in these areas of interest.
CONSENSUS PROCESS: The subcommittee prepared the manuscript, which was reviewed and approved by the following APA committees: the Committee on Research on Psychiatric Treatments, the Council on Research, and the Joint Reference Committee.
CONCLUSIONS: The preponderance of epidemiologic and tissue compositional studies supports a protective effect of omega-3 EFA intake, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in mood disorders. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials demonstrate a statistically significant benefit in unipolar and bipolar depression (p = .02). The results were highly heterogeneous, indicating that it is important to examine the characteristics of each individual study to note the differences in design and execution. There is less evidence of benefit in schizophrenia. EPA and DHA appear to have negligible risks and some potential benefit in major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, but results remain inconclusive in most areas of interest in psychiatry. Treatment recommendations and directions for future research are described. Health benefits of omega-3 EFA may be especially important in patients with psychiatric disorders, due to high prevalence rates of smoking and obesity and the metabolic side effects of some psychotropic medications.
This timely new review, supported by the American Psychiatric Association (APA), summarises for clinicians both the theory and the available evidence that omega-3 fatty acids may help in the prevention and management of a wide range of psychiatric disorders.
Importantly, it summarises evidence from epidemiological (population), experimental and clinical treatment trials to give a far more complete picture than most conventional systematic reviews or 'meta-analyses'. The latter were also performed, however, in areas where there was sufficient evidence from randomized controlled trials to merit this.
The APA committee made the following specific treatment recommendations on the basis of the available evidence:
all adults should eat fish at least 2 x week
patients with mood, impulse control or psychotic disorders should consume 1g/day of EPA + DHA (the omega-3 found in fish oils)
a supplement may be useful in patients with mood disorders (1-9g/day). Use of > 3g/day should be monitored by a physician.
It was emphasised that these dietary recommendations are *not* intended as a substitute for standard treatments for psychiatric disorders, but as a complement to these.
The meta-analysis of 8 studies involving patients with depression or bipolar disorder showed overall significant benefits from omega-3 treatment (p < 0.03) although there was considerable variability between studies. This indicates the need to consider differences between study populations as well as doses and ratios of EPA:DHA used. It was noted that most positive trials used EPA primarily or exclusively, rather than DHA.
For schizophrenia, meta-analysis of 4 trials showed no overall benefits for psychotic symptoms, and less variability between studies. Here, however, it was noted that the physical health benefits of omega-3 may help to mitigate the increased risks of cardiovascular disease and diabetes associated with schizophrenia, which some antipsychotic medications can exacerbate.
It was also noted that while omega-3 may have benefits for various disorders involving poor impulse control (such as ADHD and some personality disorders), existing evidence was insufficient to support additional treatment recommendations, but the need for further research in these and other areas of psychiatry was emphasised.
omega-3, psychiatry, review, meta-analysis, treatment, RCTshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=17194275&query_hl=5&itool=pubmed_docsumView this abstract via PubMed here
1066Wilkins et al. 2006 - Vitamin D deficiency is associated with low mood and worse cognitive performance in older adultsVitamin D deficiency is associated with low mood and worse cognitive performance in older adults Vitamin D deficiency is associated with low mood and worse cognitive performance in older adultsWilkins CH, Sheline YI, Roe CM, Birge SJ, Morris JC.01/12/2006The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry14(12)1032-40
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is common in older adults and has been implicated in psychiatric and neurologic disorders. This study examined the relationship among vitamin D status, cognitive performance, mood, and physical performance in older adults.
METHODS: A cross-sectional group of 80 participants, 40 with mild Alzheimer disease (AD) and 40 nondemented persons, were selected from a longitudinal study of memory and aging. Cognitive function was assessed using the Short Blessed Test (SBT), Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR; a higher Sum of Boxes score indicates greater dementia severity), and a factor score from a neuropsychometric battery; mood was assessed using clinician's diagnosis and the depression symptoms inventory. The Physical Performance Test (PPT) was used to measure functional status. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured for all participants.
RESULTS: The mean vitamin D level in the total sample was 18.58 ng/mL (standard deviation: 7.59); 58% of the participants had abnormally low vitamin D levels defined as less than 20 ng/mL. After adjusting for age, race, gender, and season of vitamin D determination, vitamin D deficiency was associated with presence of an active mood disorder (odds ratio: 11.69, 95% confidence interval: 2.04-66.86; Wald chi(2) = 7.66, df = 2, p = 0.022). Using the same covariates in a linear regression model, vitamin D deficiency was associated with worse performance on the SBT (F = 5.22, df = (2, 77), p = 0.044) and higher CDR Sum of Box scores (F = 3.20, df = (2, 77), p = 0.047) in the vitamin D-deficient group. There was no difference in performance on the MMSE, PPT, or factor scores between the vitamin D groups.
CONCLUSIONS: In a cross-section of older adults, vitamin D deficiency was associated with low mood and with impairment on two of four measures of cognitive performance.
vitamin d, ageing, mental health, mood disorders, Vit-Dhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=17138809&query_hl=10&itool=pubmed_docsumView this and related abstracts via Pubmed here
1885Xu et al 2006 - Curcumin reverses the effects of chronic stress on behavior, the HPA axis, BDNF expression and phosphorylation of CREBCurcumin reverses the effects of chronic stress on behavior, the HPA axis, BDNF expression and phosphorylation of CREBCurcumin reverses the effects of chronic stress on behavior, the HPA axis, BDNF expression and phosphorylation of CREBXu Y, Ku B, Tie L, Yao H, Jiang W, Ma X, Li X.29/11/2006Brain Res. 1122(1):56-64. Epub 2006 Oct 3.
Curcuma longa is a major constituent of the traditional Chinese medicine Xiaoyao-san, which has been used to effectively manage stress and depression-related disorders in China. Curcumin is the active component of curcuma longa, and its antidepressant effects were described in our prior studies in mouse models of behavioral despair.
We hypothesized that curcumin may also alleviate stress-induced depressive-like behaviors and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction. Thus in present study we assessed whether curcumin treatment (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) affects behavior in a chronic unpredictable stress model of depression in rats and examined what its molecular targets may be.
We found that subjecting animals to the chronic stress protocol for 20days resulted in performance deficits in the shuttle-box task and several physiological effects, such as an abnormal adrenal gland weight to body weight (AG/B) ratio and increased thickness of the adrenal cortex as well as elevated serum corticosterone levels and reduced glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA expression.
These changes were reversed by chronic curcumin administration (5 or 10 mg/kg, p.o.). In addition, we also found that the chronic stress procedure induced a down-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels and reduced the ratio of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) to CREB levels (pCREB/CREB) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of stressed rats. Furthermore, these stress-induced decreases in BDNF and pCREB/CREB were also blocked by chronic curcumin administration (5 or 10 mg/kg, p.o.).
These results provide compelling evidence that the behavioral effects of curcumin in chronically stressed animals, and by extension humans, may be related to their modulating effects on the HPA axis and neurotrophin factor expressions.
curcumin, antiocxidant, stress, depression, BDNF, antidepressant, animal study, experimental study
104924th Nov 2006 - Cardiff - Diet, Nutrition and Behaviour24th Nov 2006 - Cardiff - Diet, Nutrition and BehaviourThe Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health in Wales, with FAB Research24/11/200624/11/2006
Diet, Nutrition and Behaviour
A full-day conference organised by the ACAMH in Wales, in collaboration with FAB Research.
Find out about the latest research into the effects of diet on child hehaviour, learning and mood, and its implications for parents and practitioners in health, education and allied disciplines.
Material covered will be generally applicable, but with particular relevance to conditions such as ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia, mood disorders and the autistic spectrum.
Dr Alex Richardson Senior Research Fellow at the University of Oxford; Founder Director of Food And Behaviour Research; and author of 'They Are What You Feed Them'
David Rex Child Health Lead Dietitian for NHS Highland; and Healthy Eating in Schools Co-ordinator
ACAMH is multidisciplinary and welcomes attendance from those in learning support, psychology, education, educational psychology, psychiatry, nursing, social work, youth justice, indeed anyone working within Child & Adolescent Mental Health.
9.15 - 4.15Cardiff, South WalesThe Holiday Inn Hotel, Cardiff City CentreRosemary Mackenzie0141 445 4340http://WWW.ACAMH.ORG.UKVisit the ACAMH website here
101909 Sep 2006 - The Guardian - It's business, and it's fishyfish oil, trials, school, Durham trial09/09/2006by Ben Goldacre
Fish oil is clearly a matter of huge national importance. Channel 4 and ITV (and the Daily Mail, and the BBC) all report on a plan by education officials in County Durham to give £1m worth of omega-3 fish oils to 5,000 children as they approach their GCSEs, and see how it improves performance.
Contrary to what the pill-peddlers would tell you, the evidence as it stands is incredibly thin. There is a handful of small trials published in proper journals, at last count three positive, two negative and none in "normal" mainstream children. All these "studies" you keep hearing about in the media are little more than cheap promos for the pill pushers, with no control group, and crippled by inadequate research methods. So bravo for Durham.
Oh, hang on. The Eye-Q study is a cheap promo for Equazen's Eye-Q range: there is no placebo, in fact there is no control group whatsoever. They're going to the trouble of giving 5,000 children the tablets, six a day, under the watchful eye of the nation, hyping the study, with all their hopes pinned on success, and then they're going to measure their performance against ... what the council predicts it should have been without the tablets.
This is - let me be quite clear - a rubbish study, which has been designed in such a way that it cannot provide useful results: it is therefore a waste of time, resources, money, and parents' goodwill.
In the name of fairness, I decide to put this modest proposal to Dave Ford, chief schools inspector for Durham, the mastermind behind the project. Then it all gets a bit weird. "We've been quite clear," he says, "this is not a trial."
Well, hang on. I call up to tell you it's a bad trial, and suddenly that's OK because it's not actually a trial? The Press Association called it a trial. The Daily Mail called it a trial. Channel 4 and ITV and everyone covering it all present it, very clearly, as research (damning quotes and clips at badscience.net). In four solid years of moron baiting, this is definitely the most surreal defence I've come across. I look at Durham council's press release for it. They call it a "trial" twice, and a "study" once. You are giving something and measuring the result. Your own descriptive term for this activity is "trial". How is this not a trial? To excuse you out of a hole?
Exasperated, I move on to Equazen. Their Eye-Q tablets cost £7.99 for a 10-day supply, and they have given £1m worth to Durham (street value, as the drug squad say). This has bought them flattering news items on peaktime terrestrial television, and large colour photos of their products on prominent news pages.
Adam Kelliher, director of Equazen, clarifies further: this is not a "trial", so I cannot critique it as such. Nor is it a "study". It's an "initiative". By now I'm losing the will to live. Madeleine Portwood, the senior educational psychologist running the study, calls it a "trial" (twice in the Daily Mail). You are giving "X" and measuring change "Y". Every write-up describes it as research. The Equazen press release, for God's sake, calls it a "trial". This is a trial, a stupid trial, and simply saying "ah but this is not a trial" is not an adequate - nor indeed a particularly adult - defence.
We do not have good evidence that omega-3 will improve normal children's behaviour and intellect. We need proper research. It is clearly of burning interest to the nation. You could take this rubbish Eye-Q "trial" (yes: trial) and give half the kids placebo, and you'd have a perfectly serviceable bit of research, giving useful data.
Add in a couple of baseline and endpoint tests, maybe shave off some of these thousands of children, and it would cost no more than this foolish promotional sham. You'd be sitting on a huge, definitive study. The very thing that is needed. The very thing that mainstream academics are struggling to get funding for. It might well be positive. But what if the result is negative? Scary huh, Equazen?
So I asked the director: "Would you give a million pounds' worth of free supplements (and dummy pills without the active ingredient) to a research team who were doing a methodologically meticulous randomised double blind placebo controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acids in mainstream children?" And he said yes. Let me know if they tell you no, at the usual email address.
Please send your bad science to email@example.com
by Dr Alex Richardson
So when is a trial not a trial? Thank goodness that someone in the media has exposed this non-story for what it really is.
For those of us trying to get proper scientific research done in this area, it is more than frustrating to see the media promoting this sort of nonsense yet again. (I long ago lost count of the number of supposed 'Durham Trials' I have been asked to comment on by the media. In fact the only published, peer-reviewed and properly controlled trial from there is our own Oxford-Durham study)
Ben Goldacre has done a fine job here (as he usually does). For additional commentary and responses on this topic, and other pseudo-science he has exposed, see his excellent column Bad Science - The Trial That Ate Itself.
1011The British Psychological SocietyThe British Psychological SocietyPsychology is the scientific study of people, the mind and behaviour. It is both a thriving academic discipline and a vital professional practice. Psychologists and psychological research have a big impact on all aspects of public life, particularly in areas such as education, health, the economy, industry and social justice. 21/08/2006
The British Psychological Society is the representative body for psychology and psychologists in the UK. The Society was formed in 1901 and now has approximately 43,000 members. By its Royal Charter, granted in 1965, the Society is charged with national responsibility for the development, promotion and application of pure and applied psychology for the public good, and with promoting the efficiency and usefulness of Society members by maintaining a high standard of professional education and knowledge. The Society's main aims are:
To encourage the development of psychology as a scientific discipline and an applied profession
To raise standards of training and practice in the application of psychology
To raise public awareness of psychology and increase the influence of psychological practice in society
Conferences & Events
The Society hosts around 100 conferences and events each year. Many of these are organised by individual Subsystems. In addition there are flagship BPS events organised by the Conference Office of the Society. If you are looking for a specific event, you can search their events listing on the link below.
http://www.bps.org.uk/conferences-%26-events/events-home.cfm?&redirectCount=0Visit The British Psychological Society's Website and Events page herelogo_bps.jpgBPS logo
966Nemets et al 2006 - Omega-3 treatment of childhood depression: a controlled, double-blind pilot study.Omega-3 treatment of childhood depression: a controlled, double-blind pilot study.Omega-3 treatment of childhood depression: a controlled, double-blind pilot study.Nemets H, Nemets B, Apter A, Bracha Z, Belmaker RH. 01/07/2006American Journal of Psychiatry. 163(6):1098-100
OBJECTIVE: Major depressive disorder in children may be more common than previously thought, and its therapeutics are unclear. Because of success in a previous study on omega-3 fatty acids in adult major depressive disorder, the authors planned a pilot study of omega-3 fatty acids in childhood major depression. METHOD: Children who entered the study were between the ages of 6 and 12. Ratings were performed at baseline and at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks using Children's Depression Rating Scale (CDRS), Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), and Clinical Global Impression (CGI). Children were randomized to omega-3 fatty acids or placebo as pharmacologic monotherapy. Twenty-eight patients were randomized, and 20 completed at least 1 month's ratings. RESULTS: Analysis of variance showed highly significant effects of omega-3 on symptoms using the CDRS, CDI, and CGI. CONCLUSIONS: Omega-3 fatty acids may have therapeutic benefits in childhood depression.
This is only a small pilot study, and clearly requires replication, but given recent concerns about the use of anti-depressant medications in children and adolescents, the results should be of interest to all clinicians dealing with this agegroup.
96322 June 2006 - Reuters - Omega-3 fatty acids may help kids with depressionOmega-3 fatty acids, children, depression
22/06/2006NEW YORK (Reuters Health)
Treatment with omega-3 fatty acids, the type found in fish oils, appears to benefit children suffering from clinical depression, according to a pilot study conducted in Israel.
The results of some studies in adults with major depressive disorder have suggested that omega-3 fatty acids may be an effective add-on therapy. However, the effects of this supplement in children with the disorder are unknown, researchers explain in the American Journal of Psychiatry.
Dr. R. H. Belmaker, of Ben Gurion University of the Negev, and colleagues conducted a trial in which 28 depressed children between the ages of 6 and 12 years old were randomly assigned to omega-3 fatty acids or placebo.
Standardized depression scores were used to assess the children at the start of the study and throughout the 16-week trial.
Twenty children who remained in the study for at least 1 month were included in the analysis. Seven out of 10 children in the active treatment group and none of the children in the placebo group had a reduction in depression scores of more than 50 percent. Four children in the omega-3 group achieved remission.
No clinically relevant side effects were reported, the researchers say.
The omega-3 fatty acid supplement used in the study was "a combination of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid that is commonly available as an over-the-counter preparation," the researchers note.
Belmaker and colleagues conclude that the effects of omega-3 fatty acids are "highly significant." This is the first such study, they believe, that has been conducted in children.
SOURCE: American Journal of Psychiatry, June 2006.
This is only a small pilot study, but given 1) the relative lack of safe, effective treatments for depression in children and adolescents, and 2) the positive results from the few controlled trials to date of omega-3 for mood disorders in adults these results clearly deserve to be followed up promptly with large-scale clinical trials.
1007Lucas et al 2006 - Is the current public health message on UV exposure correct?Is the current public health message on UV exposure correct?Is the current public health message on UV exposure correct?Lucas RM, Repacholi MH, McMichael AJ. 21/06/2006Bull World Health Organ.84(6):485-91.
Current sun safety messages stress the importance of sun protection in avoiding the consequences of excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), such as skin cancers, cataracts and other eye diseases, and viral infections caused by UV-induced immunosuppression.
However, adequate exposure to UVR has an important role in human health, primarily through UV-induced production of vitamin D, a hormone essential to bone health.
Vitamin D insufficiency may be associated with increased risks of some cancers, autoimmune diseases and mental health disorders such as schizophrenia.
Here, we review the evolution of current sun exposure practices and sun-safe messages and consider not only the benefits, but also the detrimental effects that such messages may have.
UVR-induced vitamin D production can be inhibited by factors such as deep skin pigmentation, indoor lifestyles, older age, sun avoidance behaviours and clothing habits that limit skin exposure, with deleterious consequences for health.
There is some early evidence that sun-safe messages are beginning to cause a decrease in skin cancer rates in young people. After the widespread promotion of sun safety, it may now be appropriate to refine public health messages to take better account of variations between groups and their susceptibility to the dangers and benefits of sun exposure.
Vitamin D, brain function, physical health, mental health, sun exposure, UV, public health, review, Vit-D, free full texthttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16799733&query_hl=5&itool=pubmed_docsumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text of this paper is available onlineLucas et al 2006 - WHO Bulletin - Vitamin D and Public Health Messages on UV exposure.pdfView or download the free full text of this article here (pdf file)
1496Dr Alex Richardson - They Are What You Feed Them Book by Dr Alex Richardson explaining what every parent and professional caring for children needs to know about diet.19/06/2006
They Are What You Feed Them by Dr Alex Richardson
Food and diet affect children's brains and behaviour as well as their physical health. What your child eats can have a profound effect on his or her ability to read, write, concentrate and remember things. Scientific evidence shows that certain dietary changes can actually improve some children's general ability and mood. Controlled trials have also shown that nutritional approaches can improve behaviour and learning in many children with dyslexia, dyspraxia, ADHD or related conditions.
In this cutting-edge book, Dr Alex Richardson, internationally known for her scientific research into how nutrition can affect behaviour, learning and mood, explains what every parent and professional caring for children needs to know about diet. She exposes the truth about what UK children are eating - or failing to eat. She explains why many common foods and drinks can be so damaging - and so irresistible - and shows how to bring the best choices into any child's diet. A few simple changes can be all it takes to make the world of difference.
The best - and the worst - foods revealed
Easy steps to free your child from food traps
Simple, child-friendly recipes
Practical tips to help your child make the best food choices
Advice on key lifestyle factors, including exercise and sleep
All author royalties from the sale of this book have been donated to FAB Research to support further work in this area.
http://www.fabresearch.org/962Purchase a copy hereex_they_are_what_you_feed_them_richardson.pdfExtract from They Are What You Feed Them - by Dr Alex RichardsonThey Are What You Feed Them.jpgfront cover of book
95215 June 2006 - Diet and Depression - Camden, LondondepressionPavilion15/06/200615/06/2006
About the conference
Depression has increased twenty-fold since 1945 and is predicted to be the second highest cause of the global disease burden by 2020. The costs to the individual sufferer, society and economy are profound.
This national conference examines the links between diet, nutrition and mental and emotional health. It will focus on the latest research into the effects of diet and environment on mild to moderate depression, and provides practical solutions by leading award-winning clinicians on how to manage symptoms within an integrated, holistic framework.
Aims of the conference
The conference aims to:
Present the latest scientific evidence on how diet, lifestyle and environment can influence mood and behaviour
Show how dietary intervention has been successfully employed in improving some mood disorders
Demonstrate cost-effective new ways in which nutritonal and lifestyle strategies can be successfully implemented by carers and health care services as a viable add-on treatment to traditional drug regimes
Encourage discussion between participants and presenters and develop networking opportunities between the private and public sectors
Chair: Dr Alex Richardson, Senior Research Fellow, Dept of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford and Director of Food and Behaviour Research
Feeding Minds - The impact of food on mental health - Dr Andrew McCulloch, Chief Executive, Mental Health Foundation
The effects of micro and macronutrients on mood - Professor David Benton, Department of Psychology, University of Wales, Swansea
Keynote Presentation: The complex interplay between gut function and mental health - Michael Ash, Nutritionist, Osteopath, Naturopath, Director Eldon Health Clinic
Parallel Plenary Sessions:
Food as therapy - Dr Natasha Campbell McBride, Cambridge Nutrition Clinic
Green exercise as therapy - Joanna Peacock, Researcher in Green Exercise, Dept of Biological Sciences, University of Essex
The role of omega-3 fatty acids on behaviour, learning and mood - Dr Alex Richardson, Senior Research Fellow, Dept of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford and Director of Food and Behaviour Research
Eat Yourself Happy: Nutritional Therapy in practice at Doncaster and South Humber Healthcare NHS Trust - Based on work carried out with Professor Malcolm Peet, Consultant Psychiatrist - Caroline Stokes, Research Scientist, Medical Research Council
One dayCamden, LondonORT House Conference CentreGraham Hoaregrahamh@pavpub.com0870 890 1080http://www.pavpub.com/pavpub/conferences/showfull.asp?Conference=551Book online here
9557 June 2006 - The Daily Mail - Which fish oil brands are best for children? Fish oils, omega-3, children, behaviour and learningResearch proves fish oil tablets can boost your child's brainpower - but how do you persuade fussy youngsters to take them? Here, an expert rates the top brands...and our junior panel give their taste verdict:07/06/2006
Fish oils are the new health 'wonder' food - not a week goes by, it seems, without yet more research confirming how good they are for you.
Not only do they help children with learning difficulties such as dyslexia, ADHD and dyspraxia, and adults with conditions as schizophrenia and depression, fish oils protect the heart and reduce the pain of arthritis.
Then last week a study, funded by Boots, found that regular doses of fish oils dramatically boosted young children's performance at school. Nearly three quarters of the youngsters - who were of mixed academic ability - showed improvements in numeracy, reading and writing after taking fish oil supplements for nine months.
"With no placebo group, we don't know what progress they would have have made anyway" says Dr Alex Richardson, a Senior Research Fellow from Oxford University. "But these findings are in line with other evidence that fish oils really can improve behaviour and learning in some children."
It is the Omega-3 fatty acids - specifically EPA and DHA - they contain that make fish oils so beneficial. Unfortunately the body can't make Omega-3s; the best source is oily fish. But the problem, as most parents know, is that children don't like it, so Omega-3 supplements are becoming a popular option.
Traditional cod liver oil is not particularly rich in EPA and DHA; it also contains the fat-soluble vitamins A and D, that can be toxic in excess, so high doses are not advisable in the long-term.
Some fish oil supplements also contain these vitamins, so ask your GP before attempting to increase dosage. There is no clear rule about how much EPA and DHA your child should take. "About 450-500mg per day combined EPA/DHA is a reasonable target for both adults and children" says Dr Richardson.
"Some may need even more to see real benefits - but I wouldn't recommend more than 1,000mg without expert supervision." There should be no serious danger of your child over-dosing on fish oils, but an excess can cause a stomach upset, and some people may be allergic to them, so discuss any worries with your doctor.
Taste is a key factor, you need to choose a supplement that is palatable. "Many of the supplements contain artificial sweeteners, colourings and flavourings which should not be necessary" says Dr Richardson, "Xylitol and mannitol are two of the better sweeteners as they are good for the teeth."
To help you choose the right fish oil supplement from the bewildering range available, we asked Dr Richardson to analyse their content, while Alex Morrison, 13, his sister Anoushka 11 and brother Joshua, six offer their verdicts on the taste on a five star rating.
Daily costs quoted are given both for the manufacturers' recommendations and for the dose needed to provide at least 450-500mg of EPA and DHA:
Chewable strawberry flavour capsules for children three years and over. Recommended daily dose: (two capsules) provides 150mg DHA, 24mg EPA, cost 33p. Sweeteners: acesulfame-K, saccharin. Colourings: carmine, iron oxide, titanium dioxide.
Dr Richardson says: You need to give six capsules to get the required amount (450-500mg cost 99p) rather than the recommended two, so it works out quite expensive. Also contains Omega-6 fats and might help eczema.
TASTE: Alex: Weird - tastes like a jammy cake. Anoushka: Sweet and fruity but there's still a little bit of a fishy aftertaste. Joshua: Mmmm, delicious. Nice and sweet. Can I have more?
BOOTS SMART OMEGA 3 FISH OIL CHEWABLE CAPSULES £6.50 for 60 capsules. Stockists: Boots nationwide www.boots.com
Chewable orange flavour capsules suitable for children over three. Recommended daily dose: (two capsules) provides EPA 14mg, DHA 100mg, cost 22p. Sweeteners: mannitol, xylitol, aspartame. Colourings: iron oxides
Dr Richardson says: You would have to take eight rather than two capsules per day, so the daily cost to provide 450-500mg is 87p. This one also contains Vitamins A and D, so consult your GP before increasing the dose.
TASTE: Alex: Initially too sweet but not too overpowering afterwards. Anoushka: Too strong and sickly. Joshua: Disgusting.
TESCO CHILDREN'S OMEGA 3 CHEWBURST
£2.48 for pack of 30 capsules. Stockists: 0800 505 555; www.tesco.com. Chewable orange flavour capsules for children over three. Recommended daily dose: (two capsules) provides 200mg DHA, cost 16p. Sweeteners: mannitol, aspartame. Colourings: yellow iron oxide, red iron oxide.
Dr Richardson says: Again not enough Omega-3 in the recommended dose and they do not specify the EPA content. You would need to take five tablets (cost 41p) rather than two to get the recommended amount. Also contains A and D vitamins so check with GP before increasing the dose.
Alex: Urrgh that's horrible. Far too sweet and sickly. Give me some water! Anoushka: I actually liked these as they have a nice fruity taste. Joshua: Nice first taste and no nasty taste afterwards.
MorEPA MINI JUNIOR
£13.99 for 60 softgels. Stockists: Mail order: 0870 053 6000; www.healthyand essential.co.uk Natural strawberry flavour softgel capsules for children and adolescents. Recommended daily dose: (two capsules) provides 490mg EPA and 70mg DHA, cost 47p. Sweeteners: none. Colourings: none.
Dr Richardson says: A daily dose of this gives you 560mg EPA/ DHA which is around the level used in trials that showed improvements in children's behaviour and learning. Extra marks for the lack of artificial sweeteners and colourings.
Alex: I prefer these as you just swallow them and don't have to chew. Anoushka: I don't like swallowing capsules but these weren't too bad and there was no aftertaste. Joshua: Fine. Easy to swallow.
£18.88 for 90 chewable soft gels. Stockists: 08704 054 002; www.nutri-linkltd.co.uk Natural lemon-flavoured chewable softgels for children from three years to teens. Recommended daily dose: (two softgels) provides 148mg EPA, 98mg DHA, 36mg GLA, cost 42p. Sweeteners: none. Colourings: none.
Dr Richardson says: You would need six (at a cost of £1.26) rather than the recommended two capsules to reach the target dose. Extra marks for no sweeteners or colourings.
Alex: Doesn't taste of much at all, but is quite fishy. Anoushka: Not bad at first, like lemony water. Horrible rubbery aftertaste though. Joshua: Beginning is not nice - just like water and fish - but afterwards tastes OK.
HEALTHSPAN BRAIN BOOSTERS
£8.95 for 120 capsules. Stockists: Mail order: 0800 731 2377; www.omega3 forchildren.co.uk Chewy orange fruit bursts for children over three. Recommended daily dose: (two capsules) provides 180mg DHA and 120mg EPA, cost 15p. Sweeteners: sucralose, mannitol and sodium saccharin Colourings: yellow iron oxide paste
Dr Richardson says: If you are on a tight budget this is worth considering. You need only three capsules (22p) to get a 450mg dose. Shame they added sweeteners and colourings. May not be suitable for children with asthma as it contains sulphur dioxide.
TASTE: Alex: Disgusting aftertaste. Anouschka: Nice first taste but fishy aftertaste lingers. Joshua: Mmmm. Nice orange taste.
EYE Q CHEWS
£22.99 for 180 capsules. Stockists: Boots and superdrug 0870 241 5621; www.equazen.com Chewy strawberry flavoured capsules for children over three. Recommended daily dose: (six capsules to start), cost 77p, then two capsules thereafter, provides 186mg EPA, 58mg DHA, 20mg GLA, costs 25p. Sweeteners: xylitol, strawberry flavour. Colourings: carmine.
Dr Richardson says: Instructions say six capsules per day for 12 weeks, reducing to two. To achieve the target dose you really need a minimum four capsules a day (51p) long-term. Uses tooth-friendly sweetener xylitol.
Alex: Very watery, doesn't taste of much at all. Anoushka: Bitter and slightly fishy. Joshua: Tastes of water and a bit of cherry. OK.
£14.99 for 28 Sachets. Stockists: 0870 066 4137; www.higher nature.co.uk Lemon or orange flavour sachets suitable for children over six months old. Recommended daily dose: (one sachet) provides EPA 340mg DHA 225mg, Omega-6 50mg, cost 53p. Sweeteners: tooth friendly xylitol. Colourings: natural.
Dr Richardson says: One sachet provides a good dose of over 500mg. Sachets are a convenient alternative for children who do not like swallowing capsules.
Alex: Urrgh. Sickly with a bitter aftertaste. Anoushka: OK. Tastes at first a bit like lemon mousse but then creates a weird feeling at the roof of my mouth. Joshua: Too fishy in beginning, very sour at the end.
VALUPAK SMART OMEGA 3 IN HONEY
£3.99 for 150ml (15x10ml doses). Stockists: From independent pharmacies and Lloyds Pharmacy. Honey flavoured liquid formulation for children over three years old. Recommended daily dose: (10ml) provides 200mg DHA, 40mg EPA, cost 27p Sweeteners: none. Colourings: none.
Dr Richardson says: You would have to take 20ml (cost 53p) to get the required amount. It flags up that it contains no added sugar but the main ingredient is honey. Although it suits some children, liquid formulations do not keep as well as capsules and sachets. Store away from sunlight.
TASTE: Alex: Not too bad if you like honey. Anoushka: Gross! The lemony honey flavour does not mask the flavour of fish. Joshua: Rich honey taste. A little bit oily at the end.
£19.50 for 300ml. Stockists: 0121 433 3727; www.biocare.co.uk Tropical fruit flavour liquid formulation for children over two. Recommended daily dose: (10ml) provides 500mg EPA, 375mg DHA, cost 65p. Sweeteners: fructose Colourings: none
Dr Richardson says: If you really want to match the type of dose used on many of the big trials, this is an excellent product but again as it is a liquid, be careful of how you store it. One 10ml spoon provides 875mg EPA/DHA so you could actually give your child a little less on the spoon. It is flavoured with fruit purees.
Alex: Not very keen on this one. Much too sour and strong a taste. Anoushka: Disgusting at first but afterwards quite nice and tangy. Joshua: Urgh. Not good. But actually afterwards it's not bad.
They Are What You Feed Them is a new book by Dr Alex Richardson on how diet can affect children's behaviour (HarperThorson £12.99), to be published on June 19. Buy your copy at www.theyarewhatyoufeedthem.com
By Alex Richardson I decided (with some reservations) that it was worth helping this journalist with her (unusually well researched) tabloid article (1) to help parents through the maze of claims that manufacturers often make, some of which can be highly misleading and (2) to promote my newly published book They Are What You Feed Them - from which the FAB Research charity receives all the author royalties. Please read the book - because as you'll find out there, it's always better to get your nutrients from food if you possibly can, rather than from supplements. But anyone who does choose supplements should look very closely at what's actually in them, because unsurprisingly, media hype and boastful claims do not usually mean best value. (And NB, research has not 'proved' that fish oils can 'boost your child's brain power'. The only properly controlled trials to date have involved small groups of children with specific difficulties in behaviour and/or learning - and results so far have been mixed, albeit with some promising indications for at least some children with conditions like dyslexia, dyspraxia and ADHD. What's needed now are large-scale, properly controlled trials before we can know anything about possible benefits for children from the general school population.)
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/health/dietfitness.html?in_article_id=389362&in_page_id=1798&in_a_sourceView the daily mail article hereAdvanced Book Release final.pdfDownload flyer for They Are What You Feed Them by Dr Alex Richardsontaniaalexander060606_228x175.jpg
967Parker et al 2006 - Omega-3 fatty acids and mood disorders.Omega-3 fatty acids and mood disorders.Omega-3 fatty acids and mood disorders.Parker G, Gibson NA, Brotchie H, Heruc G, Rees AM, Hadzi-Pavlovic D. 01/06/2006Am J Psychiatry.163(6)969-78
OBJECTIVE: This article is an overview of epidemiological and treatment studies suggesting that deficits in dietary-based omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may make an etiological contribution to mood disorders and that supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids may provide a therapeutic strategy. METHOD: Relevant published studies are detailed and considered. RESULTS: Several epidemiological studies suggest covariation between seafood consumption and rates of mood disorders. Biological marker studies indicate deficits in omega-3 fatty acids in people with depressive disorders, while several treatment studies indicate therapeutic benefits from omega-3 supplementation. A similar contribution of omega-3 fatty acids to coronary artery disease may explain the well-described links between coronary artery disease and depression. CONCLUSIONS: Deficits in omega-3 fatty acids have been identified as a contributing factor to mood disorders and offer a potential rational treatment approach. This review identifies a number of hypotheses and studies for consideration. In particular, the authors argue for studies clarifying the efficacy of omega-3 supplementation for unipolar and bipolar depressive disorders, both as individual and augmentation treatment strategies, and for studies pursuing which omega-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is likely to provide the greatest benefit.
omega-3, depression, children, adults, epidemiology, biochemistry, treatment, reviewhttp://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/163/6/969Licensed users of Am J Psychiat can view the full text of this article here
1113Sublette et al 2006 - Omega-3 PUFA status as a predictor of future suicide risk.Omega-3 polyunsaturated essential fatty acid status as a predictor of future suicide risk.Omega-3 polyunsaturated essential fatty acid status as a predictor of future suicide risk.Sublette ME, Hibbeln JR, Galfalvy H, Oquendo MA, Mann JJ. 01/06/2006Am J Psychiatry163(6):1100-2
OBJECTIVE: Low levels of docosahexaenoic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, and elevated ratios of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids are associated with major depression and, possibly, suicidal behavior. Predicting risk of future suicidal behaviors by essential fatty acid status merits examination.
METHOD: Plasma polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in phospholipids were measured in 33 medication-free depressed subjects monitored for suicide attempt over a 2-year period. Survival analysis examined the association of plasma polyunsaturated fatty acid status and pathological outcome.
RESULTS: Seven subjects attempted suicide on follow-up. A lower docosahexaenoic acid percentage of total plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and a higher omega-6/omega-3 ratio predicted suicide attempt.
CONCLUSIONS: A low docosahexaenoic acid percentage and low omega-3 proportions of lipid profile predicted risk of suicidal behavior among depressed patients over the 2-year period. If confirmed, this finding would have implications for the neurobiology of suicide and reduction of suicide risk.
This study shows for the first time that in patients with depression, low blood omega-3 may help to predict future suicide risk. This is an important finding, and replication studies are clearly warranted.
Many studies have already shown that people with depression and other psychiatric disorders often have low blood levels of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oils (EPA and DHA).
Existing evidence also shows that dietary supplementation with these omega-3 can actually help to alleviate depressive symptoms. (see Freeman et al 2006 for the American Psychiatric Association's review and treatment recommendations.)
Findings from the current study suggest that fewer depressed patients might go on to commit suicide if more doctors were to follow these treatment recommendations. Further research is obviously needed to confirm this, but an increased intake of omega-3 is already a safe and relatively simple option for improving general health as well as alleviating depressive symptoms.
omega-3, RBCFA, depression, suicide, human study, observational study, experimental studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16741213&query_hl=2&itool=pubmed_docsumView this abstract via PubMed here. Free full text of this article is available online.
978Hibbeln et al 2006 - Omega-3 fatty acid deficiencies in neurodevelopment, aggression and autonomic dysregulationOmega-3 fatty acid deficiencies in neurodevelopment, aggression and autonomic dysregulation: opportunities for intervention.Omega-3 fatty acid deficiencies in neurodevelopment, aggression and autonomic dysregulation: opportunities for intervention.Hibbeln JR, Ferguson TA, Blasbalg TL. 01/04/2006Int Rev Psychiatry18(2):107-18
Mechanisms by which aggressive and depressive disorders may be exacerbated by nutritional deficiencies in omega-3 fatty acids are considered. Early developmental deficiencies in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) may lower serotonin levels at critical periods of neurodevelopment and may result in a cascade of suboptimal development of neurotransmitter systems limiting regulation of the limbic system by the frontal cortex. Residual developmental deficits may be manifest as dysregulation of sympathetic responses to stress including decreased heart rate variability and hypertension, which in turn have been linked to behavioral dysregulation. Little direct data are available to disentangle residual neurodevelopmental effects from reversible adult pathologies. Ensuring optimal intakes of omega-3 fatty acids during early development and adulthood shows considerable promise in preventing aggression and hostility.
omega-3, depression, aggression, hostility, autonomic responsivity, HRV, serotonin, antisocial behaviourhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16777665&query_hl=1&itool=pubmed_docsumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
968Saugstad 2006 - Are neurodegenerative disorders and psychotic manifestations avoidable with adequate dietary omega-3?Are neurodegenerative disorder and psychotic manifestations avoidable brain dysfunctions with adequate dietary omega-3?Are neurodegenerative disorder and psychotic manifestations avoidable brain dysfunctions with adequate dietary omega-3?Saugstad L.F.01/04/2006Nutr Health18(2)89-101
The present mismatch between what our brain needs, and the modern diet neglects our marine heritage. Last century, the priority in nutrition and food production was to achieve a high protein diet and somatic growth and function. The dietary content of omega-3 (N-3) required by the brain was neglected although evidence for the essentiality of certain fatty acids was published in 1929 and specifically re-affirmed for omega 3 in the brain in the 1970s. Cognitive decline with age and neurodegenerative disorder with dementia are now rising. This review describes signs of N-3 deficit in Alzheimer and Parkinson Disease, where maximum change involves the primary sites: olfactory cortex and the hippocampus. The olfactory agnosia observed in schizophrenia supports an N-3 deficit as does a reduction of key ologodendrocyte- and myelin-related genes in this disorder and affective disorder, where a rise in dementia accords with a deficit of N-3 also in this disorder. N-3 normalizes cerebral excitability at all levels. That the two disorders are localized at the extremes of excitability, is supported by their opposing treatments: convulsant neuroleptics and anti-epileptic anti-depressants. An adequate N-3 diet will probably prevent most psychotic episodes and prove that neurodegenerative disorder with dementia is also to a large extent not only preventable but avoidable.
omega-3, neurodegeneratuive disorders, psychosis, dementiahttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16859172&query_hl=16&itool=pubmed_docsumView this abstract via PubMed here
1331Maes et al 2006 - Lower serum zinc in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): relationships to immune dysfunctions and relevance for the oxidative stress status in CFS.Lower serum zinc in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): relationships to immune dysfunctions and relevance for the oxidative stress status in CFS.Lower serum zinc in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): relationships to immune dysfunctions and relevance for the oxidative stress status in CFS.Maes M, Mihaylova I, De Ruyter M01/02/2006J Affect Disord. 90(2-3)141-7. Epub 2005 Dec 9
The present study examines serum zinc concentrations in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) versus normal volunteers. Serum zinc levels were determined by means of an atomic absorption method. We found that serum zinc was significantly lower in the CFS patients than in the normal controls. There was a trend toward a significant negative correlation between serum zinc and the severity of CFS and there was a significant and negative correlation between serum zinc and the subjective experience of infection. We found that serum zinc was significantly and negatively correlated to the increase in the alpha2 protein fraction and positively correlated to decreases in the expression of mitogen-induced CD69+ (a T cell activation marker) on CD3+ as well as CD3+CD8+ T cells. These results show that CFS is accompanied by a low serum zinc status and that the latter is related to signs of inflammation and defects in early T cell activation pathways. Since zinc is a strong anti-oxidant, the present results further support the findings that CFS is accompanied by increased oxidative stress. The results of these reports suggest that some patients with CFS should be treated with specific antioxidants, including zinc supplements.
zinc, chronic fatigue syndrome, CFS, inflammation, oxidative stresshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16338007?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=1&log$=relatedarticles&logdbfrom=pubmedView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
93930 January 2006 - Diet, Behaviour and the Junk Food Generation Children's Diet, Behaviour and the Junk Food Generation - lessons for education.Organised by Mackay-Hannah in association with FAB Research and Napier University, Edinburgh30/01/200630/01/2006
A one day conference examining the relationships between diet, behaviour and learning in school-aged children.
Peter Peacock MSP, Scottish Minister for Education and Young People
Professor Michael Crawford, Director, Institute of Brain Chemistry and Human Nutrition, London Metropolitan University.
Dr Alex Richardson, Senior Research Fellow, Dept of Physiology, Human Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford
Mary Creagh, Presenter, Children's Food Bill (tbc)
David Rex, Community Dietician, NHS Highland
Lizzie Vann MBE, Founder, Organix Ltd
Mike Marshall, Head Teacher, Greenwards Primary School, Elgin
There is currently wide-ranging concern about the dietary habits and overall fitness of children. Initially discussed in the world of academia and professional journals, the issue is now firmly in the mainstream public consciousness due, in part, to the impact of 'Jamie's School Dinners' on Channel 4.
Much of the debate and Government's response so far has been within the context of the physical health of children and young people. However, a growing body of evidence shows that diet is as important for optimal mental development and functioning. The relationship between diet, learning and behaviour is emerging as a critical issue not only from the perspectives of children who fail to realise their potential, but also for educators and others charged with delivering the education service.
With the 'Hungry for Success' initiative, Scotland has a good story to tell in terms of healthy eating in schools. The Children's Food Bill, recently presented to the UK Parliament, aspires to take the agenda further by regulating the marketing of certain classes of food to children.
This one-day conference will provide an excellent opportunity for educators and others professionally involved with school-aged children to hear from expert opinion and to share best practice in what is becoming a key issue for the future of education.
9:20 - 16:20EdinburghCarlton Hotel, North Bridge30-Jan-2006 MacKay Hannah - FAB Conference.pdfDownload Further Information and Conference Booking Form hereImage4.jpgConcern is growing about the effects of many children's diets
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