193216 Aug 2011 - BBC Radio 4 - The First 1000 Days: A Legacy for Life - Part 1: In the wombThe First 1000 Days: A Legacy for LifePresented by Dr Mark Porter (Produced by Erika Wright)16/08/2011
Part 1: In the Womb
Imagine if your health as an adult is partly determined by the nutrition and environment you were exposed to in the first 1000 days of life. Or even further back; that the lifestyle of your grandparents during their children's first 1000 days, has programmed your adult health. A strong body of scientific evidence supports this explosive idea, and is gradually turning medical thinking on its head. To understand the cause of chronic adult disease, including ageing, heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, obesity and lung problems we need to look much further back than adult lifestyle - but to the first 1000 days.
In this groundbreaking three part series Dr Mark Porter talks to the scientists who now believe that this 'lifecourse' approach, will find the cause of many adult diseases. "Chronic disease is going up in leaps and bounds, this is not a genetic change" says Kent Thornburg, Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine in Oregon, America "it's because the environment in the womb is getting worse. We know now that the first 1000 days of life is the most sensitive period for determining lifelong health'.
But it's not just down to mothers or grandmothers, there is growing evidence that diet and lifestyle along the paternal line matters too. 'You are what your dad ate,' argues Professor Anne Ferguson-Smith of Cambridge University.
"Growth has a pattern," continues Alan Jackson, Professor of Nutrition at Southampton University "everything has a time and a place and if that gets interrupted then you can catch up, but there are consequences".
So where does that leave us as adults? Good diet and lifestyle is very important, but scientists know that some individuals are more vulnerable to disease than others, and that's not just down to genetics. "All diseases may be expressions of key developments in the womb" explains Professor David Barker, "That does not mean you are doomed, it means you are vulnerable. Understanding that challenges the way medicine is structured".
Mark Porter sets out to investigate his own birth history and meets families to debate these overwhelming ideas. He talks to world leading scientists about how this approach to adult disease can help make us healthier and learns top tips for the first 1000 days.
1949Bloch & Qawasmi 2011 - Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Children with ADHD: Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisOmega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation for the Treatment of Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptomatology: Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisOmega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation for the Treatment of Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptomatology: Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisBloch MH, Qawasmi A16/08/2011Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry50(10):991-1000. EPub Aug 12
Several studies have demonstrated differences in omega-3 fatty acid composition in plasma and in erythrocyte membranes in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with unaffected controls. Omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and can alter central nervous system cell membrane fluidity and phospholipid composition. Cell membrane fluidity can alter serotonin and dopamine neurotransmission. The goal of this meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in children with ADHD.
PubMed was searched for randomized placebo-controlled trials examining omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in children with ADHD symptomatology. The primary outcome measurement was standardized mean difference in rating scales of ADHD severity. Secondary analyses were conducted to determine the effects of dosing of different omega-3 fatty acids in supplements.
Ten trials involving 699 children were included in this meta-analysis. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation demonstrated a small but significant effect in improving ADHD symptoms. Eicosapentaenoic acid dose within supplements was significantly correlated with supplement efficacy. No evidence of publication bias or heterogeneity between trials was found.
Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, particularly with higher doses of eicosapentaenoic acid, was modestly effective in the treatment of ADHD. The relative efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation was modest compared with currently available pharmacotherapies for ADHD such as psychostimulants, atomoxetine, or α2 agonists. However, given its relatively benign side-effect profile and evidence of modest efficacy, it may be reasonable to use omega-3 fatty supplementation to augment traditional pharmacologic interventions or for families who decline other psychopharmacologic options.
These findings confirm that dietary supplementation with omega-3 from fish oils can help to reduce symptoms of 'ADHD' in children - i.e. inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity.
Importantly, they show that the benefits do not depend on a 'clinical diagnosis' of ADHD, as many of the trials included in this meta-analysis involved children recruited from non-clinical populations, and/or selected for other conditions such as dyslexia or dyspraxia.
The findings also indicate that of the two main long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in fish oils, EPA rather than DHA may be more effective for these purposes, although further studies would be needed to confirm this. A similar advantage of EPA over DHA has also been noted in studies of omega-3 for depression. (see Martins et al 2009)
ADHD, PUFA, LC-PUFA, omega-3, treatment, RCT, children, systematic review, meta-analysis http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21961774View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
3691Ladesich et al 2011 - Membrane level of omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid is associated with severity of obstructive sleep apnea.Membrane level of omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid is associated with severity of obstructive sleep apnea.Membrane level of omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid is associated with severity of obstructive sleep apnea.Ladesich JB1, Pottala JV, Romaker A, Harris WS.15/08/2011J Clin Sleep Med. 7(4)391-6. doi: 10.5664/JCSM.1198.
Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a major component of neural tissues, and supplementation with fish oils improves autonomic tone and reduces risk for CVD. A link between low DHA status and less mature sleep patterns was observed in newborns.
We investigated the relations between red blood cell (RBC) levels of DHA and OSA severity in 350 sequential patients undergoing sleep studies. Severity categories were defined as none/mild, moderate, and severe, based on apnea hypopnea index (AHI) scores of 0 to 14, 15 to 34, and > 34, respectively.
After controlling for age, sex, race, smoking, BMI, alcohol intake, fish intake, and omega-3 supplementation, RBC DHA was inversely related with OSA severity. For each 1-SD increase in DHA levels, a patient was about 50% less likely to be classified with severe OSA. The odds ratios (95% CI) were 0.47 (0.28 to 0.80) and 0.55 (0.31 to 0.99) for being in the severe group versus the none/mild or moderate groups, respectively.
These findings suggest that disordered membrane fatty acid patterns may play a causal role in OSA and that the assessment of RBC DHA levels might help in the diagnosis of OSA. The effects of DHA supplementation on OSA should be explored.
Low tissue levels of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids such as DHA may form part of the syndrome of sleep disordered breathing, inflammation, autonomic nervous system dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. This study was done to examine the extent to which omega-3 fatty acids in red blood cells were associated with the severity of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA).
Summary and Conclusions
We found an inverse relationship between omega-3 DHA levels in red blood cells and the severity of OSA. This suggests that membrane fatty acid composition could make a contribution to the development of this disease. It therefore lays the groundwork for a clinical trial to determine if dietary supplementation with long-chain omega-3 could have benefits for patients with sleep disordered breathing.
omega-3, fatty acids, DHA, sleep apnoea, sleep disordered breathing, blood biochemistry, RBCFA, human study, experimental study, blood biochemical study, Free Full Texthttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21897776View this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text of this article is available online.
1951Politi et al 2011 - Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Psychiatric Disorders: a Review of Current LiteratureRandomized Placebo-Controlled Trials of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Psychiatric Disorders: a Review of Current LiteratureRandomized Placebo-Controlled Trials of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Psychiatric Disorders: a Review of Current LiteraturePoliti P, Rocchetti M, Emanuele E, Rondanelli M, Barale F15/08/2011Curr Drug Discov Technol. 2011 Aug 15
Growing evidence suggests the clinical usefulness of omega (ω)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in patients with psychiatric disorders.
In the present review, we summarize the findings of randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials focusing on the potential therapeutic utility of omega-3 PUFA in mental illnesses. We searched the Pubmed databese for placebo-controlled clinical trials utilizing the keywords PUFA, omega 3, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid in combination with the following terms: anxiety disorders, autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), personality disorders, and schizophrenia.
The literature review indicated that personality disorders, autism, and anxiety disorders have been less investigated than mood disorder, schizophrenia, and ADHD. While no definite conclusions can be drawn on the therapeutic efficacy of ω-3 PUFA in the majority of psychiatric illnesses examined herein, evidence suggests the potential preventive role of this molecules in subjects at ultra-high risk for developing psychosis. Hopefully, future studies in the field should examine the turnover of ω-PUFA in the neural membranes. Moreover, special attention should be paid to potential confounders such as dietary or smoking habits.
Back in 2006, the American Psychiatric Association reviewed the evidence from randomised controlled clinical trials (RCT) of omega-3 for psychiatric disorders, and found that there was already sufficient evidence to make treatment recommendations, especially for clinical depression, but also for other psychiatric disorders. (See Freeman et al 2006.)
Since then, evidence from many more RCTs has confirmed the benefits of long-chain omega-3 for depression (see Martins 2009, Davis et al 2010).
Similarly, results from trials of omega-3 for ADHD also show an overall benefit from dietary supplementation (see Bloch & Quawasmi, 2011)
And as highlighted by the authors of the current review, there is also extremely promising evidence for omega-3 in the prevention of schizophrenia (see Amminger et al 2010)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21838664View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1952Milte et al 2011 - Polyunsaturated fatty acids, cognition and literacy in children with ADHD with and without learning difficultiesPolyunsaturated fatty acids, cognition and literacy in children with ADHD with and without learning difficultiesPolyunsaturated fatty acids, cognition and literacy in children with ADHD with and without learning difficultiesMilte CM, Sinn N, Buckley JD, Coates AM, Young RM, Howe PR09/08/2011J Child Health Care. 2011 Aug 9
Suboptimal omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) levels may contribute to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and related developmental problems.
Associations between n-3 and omega-6 (n-6) PUFA levels in red blood cells (erythrocytes) and learning and behaviour were investigated in 75 children aged 7-12 with ADHD. Children provided blood samples and underwent cognitive assessments. Parents completed questionnaires and Conners' Rating Scales.
Controlling for covariates, higher n-3 PUFA predicted lower anxiety/shyness (β = -.27), higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) better word reading (β = .22), and higher n-6 PUFA poorer reading (β = -.34), vocabulary (β = .-.26), spelling (β = -.30) and attention (β = -.30). Thirty-six per cent of the sample with learning difficulties had lower DHA than those without (M = 3.26 ± 0.54 vs M = 3.68 ± 0.76, p = .02).
This study is the first to compare erythrocyte PUFAs (a measure of PUFA status) in children who have ADHD with and without learning difficulties, and supports emerging indications that the former may be more likely responders to n-3 PUFAs.
adhd; omega 3; omega 6http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21828168View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
19302 Aug 2011 - Wall Street Journal - Progress, Not Perfection, on Reducing Kids' Exposure to Ads for Unhealthful Foodsfood advertising, fast food, tv advertising, tv ads, food marketingKids are seeing fewer ads for foods and drinks high in saturated fat, sugar and sodium, a new study shows.08/08/2011by Katherine Hobson
Researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago crunched Nielsen Media Research ratings data and found that exposure to ads for less healthful foods and drinks fell 38% for kids aged 2 to 5 and 28% for kids 6 to 11 between 2003 and 2009. Overall exposure to food-related ads in general fell, too, as kids saw fewer ads for cereals, sweets, beverages and snacks.
“Things are moving in the right direction,” says Lisa Powell, lead author of the study and a senior research scientist at UIC’s Institute for Health Research and Policy. But she notes that in 2009, 86% of the food and drink ads seen by kids were for foods high in saturated fats, sugar or sodium — still an awfully large proportion, though it’s down from 94% in 2003.
The study, published online in Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, notes that given that last stat, the food industry’s self-regulation efforts still need beefing up, including greater participation by fast-food companies in the Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative, a project of the Council of Better Business Bureaus. CFBAI’s food and beverage company members pledge to eliminate or restrict their ads directed at kids.
In contrast to the trend seen for other types of foods, younger kids saw 21% more fast food ads between 2003 and 2009 and older kids saw 31% more. In a statement, National Restaurant Association Director of Nutrition and Healthy Living Joy Dubost said the study “did not address the nutritional content of the advertisements and failed to establish whether the ads met the nutritional standards set by the authors.” Many fast-food ads are also for the restaurant itself rather than a specific product, Dubost said.
Changing the way companies market food to kids is a hot topic, and the landscape has shifted since the end of the study.
Last September, CFBAI members said they had harmonized their definition of child-directed programming, and now no participant will advertise on shows where 35% or more of the audience consists of kids aged 2 to 11, according to Elaine Kolish, director of CFBAI. She takes issue with the study’s focus on all ads kids are exposed to rather than just those directed at them.
Meantime, on the question of what constitutes a healthful or unhealthful food, the Obama administration in April proposed voluntary nutritional standards for foods marketed at kids and teens, both in terms of what to avoid (the usual baddies: saturated fat, added sugar and too much sodium) and what to include (fruits, vegetables, whole grains and lean protein).
CFBAI members responded with their own uniform food-specific guidelines for food marketing, replacing criteria from individual companies. The new standards include caps on calories, saturated fat, sugar and sodium, depending on the food item — though the New York Times noted that only one-third of the companies’ advertised products would have to be reformulated to meet the standards.
All of these changes might lead to further improvements, says Powell.
http://blogs.wsj.com/health/2011/08/02/progress-not-perfection-on-reducing-kids-exposure-to-ads-for-unhealthful-foods/?KEYWORDS=Progress+Not+Perfection+on+Reducing+Kids%E2%80%99+Exposure+to+Ads+for+Unhealthful+FoodsRead this article in The Wall Street Journal here
192921 July 2011 - BBC News - Teens 'not getting enough fruit and vegetables'teen diet; 5-a-day; fruit and veg portions; Just one in 13 teenage girls is getting their recommended five portions of fruit and vegetables a day, official government data shows.08/08/2011by Nick Triggle - Health Correspondent
But boys in the 11 to 18 age group did little better, with just one in eight eating the right amount, the National Diet and Nutrition Survey found.
Adults ate more on average, with a third getting their five-a-day.
The poll of more than 2,000 adults and children also raised concerns about other areas of diet.
Consumption of saturated fats for adults aged 19 to 64 was a tenth above recommended levels, while the majority of participants were found to be not getting enough oily fish.
But it was the diet of teenagers that raised the most concern.
The average consumption of fruit and vegetables for girls aged 11 to 18 was 2.7 portions with just 7% getting five-a-day. Nearly half of them are not getting enough iron in their diet either.
For boys, the average was 3.1 portions with just 13% getting five-a-day.
Long way to go
Chief Medical Officer Professor Dame Sally Davies said she was concerned about the figures for teenagers.
"Eating and being active can help prevent serious illnesses such as cancer and heart disease later in life," she added
The survey drew on findings from interviews, diaries and blood and urine samples taken during 2008 and 2010. It marks the start of an ongoing programme of research which will inform government policy..
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-14234454Read the full article and related stories on the BBC News website here
1931Powell et al 2011 - Trends in the Nutritional Content of Television Food Advertisements Seen by Children in the United States: Analyses by Age, Food Categories, and CompaniesTrends in the Nutritional Content of Television Food Advertisements Seen by Children in the United States: Analyses by Age, Food Categories, and CompaniesTrends in the Nutritional Content of Television Food Advertisements Seen by Children in the United States: Analyses by Age, Food Categories, and CompaniesPowell LM, Schermbeck RM, Szczypka G, Chaloupka FJ, Braunschweig CL08/08/2011Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011 Aug 1. [Epub ahead of print]
To examine trends in children's exposure to food-related advertising on television by age, product category, and company.
Nutritional content analysis using television ratings data for 2003, 2005, 2007, and 2009 for children.
Annual age-specific television ratings data captured children's exposure to broadcast network, cable network, syndicated, and spot television food advertising from all (except Spanish-language) programming.
Children aged 2 to 5 and 6 to 11 years. Main Exposure Television ratings.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Children's exposure to food-related advertising on television with nutritional assessments for food and beverage products for grams of saturated fat, sugar, and fiber and milligrams of sodium.
Children aged 2 to 5 and 6 to 11 years saw, respectively, on average, 10.9 and 12.7 food-related television advertisements daily in 2009, down 17.8% and 6.9% from 2003. Exposure to food and beverage products high in saturated fat, sugar, or sodium fell 37.9% and 27.7% but fast-food advertising exposure increased by 21.1% and 30.8% among 2- to 5- and 6- to 11-year-olds, respectively, between 2003 and 2009. In 2009, 86% of ads seen by children were for products high in saturated fat, sugar, or sodium, down from 94% in 2003.
Exposure to unhealthy food and beverage product advertisements has fallen, whereas exposure to fast-food ads increased from 2003 to 2009. By 2009, there was not a substantial improvement in the nutritional content of food and beverage advertisements that continued to be advertised and viewed on television by US children.
food advertising, fast food, tv advertising, tv ads, food marketinghttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Trends%20in%20the%20Nutritional%20Content%20of%20Television%20Food%20Advertisements%20Seen%20by%20Children%20in%20the%20United%20StatesView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1928Swanson et al 2011 - Maternal feeding behaviour and young children's dietary quality: A cross-sectional study of socially disadvantaged mothers of two-year old children using the Theory of Planned BehaviourMaternal feeding behaviour and young children's dietary quality: A cross-sectional study of socially disadvantaged mothers of two-year old children using the Theory of Planned BehaviourMaternal feeding behaviour and young children's dietary quality: A cross-sectional study of socially disadvantaged mothers of two-year old children using the Theory of Planned BehaviourSwanson V, Power KG, Crombie IK, Irvine L, Kiezebrink K, Wrieden W, Slane PW08/08/2011Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011, Jun 238:65.
Having breakfast, eating food 'cooked from scratch' and eating together as a family have health and psychosocial benefits for young children. This study investigates how these parentally determined behaviours relate to children's dietary quality and uses a psychological model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), to investigate socio-cognitive predictors of these behaviours in socially disadvantaged mothers of young children in Scotland.
Three hundred mothers of children aged 2 years (from 372 invited to participate, 81% response rate), recruited via General Practitioners, took part in home-based semi-structured interviews in a cross-sectional survey of maternal psychological factors related to their children's dietary quality. Regression analyses examined statistical predictors of maternal intentions and feeding behaviours.
Mothers of children with poorer quality diets were less likely than others to provide breakfast every day, cook from 'scratch' and provide 'proper sit-down meals'. TPB socio-cognitive factors (intentions, perceived behavioural control) significantly predicted these three behaviours, and attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted mothers' intentions, with medium to large effect sizes.
Interventions to improve young children's dietary health could benefit from a focus on modifying maternal motivations and attitudes in attempts to improve feeding behaviours.
feeding behaviour, diet, eating together, socially disadvantaged, cross-sectional study, theory of planned behaviour, TPBhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21699714View this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text of this paper is available online
2014Ramsden CE et al 2011 - All PUFAs are not created equal: absence of CHD benefit specific to linoleic acid in randomized controlled trials and prospective observational cohortsAll PUFAs are not created equal: absence of CHD benefit specific to linoleic acid in randomized controlled trials and prospective observational cohortsAll PUFAs are not created equal: absence of CHD benefit specific to linoleic acid in randomized controlled trials and prospective observational cohortsRamsden CE, Hibbeln JR, Majchrzak-Hong SF05/08/2011World Rev Nutr Diet. 2011;102:30-43. Epub 2011 Aug 5.
Advice to maintain or increase consumption of the omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n–6 PUFA) linoleic acid (LA) should be derived from interventional and observational trials evaluating the specific effects of dietary LA, rather than effects of n–3 PUFAs or total PUFAs. Failure to make a clear distinction among PUFA species may result in inadvertently attributing health effects of n–3 PUFAs to linoleic acid. Pooled analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of clinical CHD events
and intermediate risk factors
and pooled analyses of nonrandomized prospective observational trials of clinical CHD events
are often cited as providing strong concordant evidence
that LA is cardioprotective. These pooled analyses
form the primary basis for recent population-wide advice to maintain or increase n–6 PUFA
. However, total PUFA rather than n–6 LA, was defined as the independent variable for statistical calculations in all three pooled analyses
(table 1), then interpreted as attributable to LA
. In this paper we: (1) establish that a clear distinction was not made between n–3 and n–6 PUFAs in pooled analyses of randomized and nonrandomized trials (tables 2, ?,3),3), (2) report whether a clear distinction was made between n–3 and n–6 PUFAs in each individual trial before pooling, (3) assess strengths and limitations of randomized and nonrandomized study designs for disentangling respective intakes of n–6 and n–3 PUFA species, and (4) highlight the necessity of making a clear distinction between PUFA species for interpreting the results of clinical trials and formulating dietary guidelines.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21865817Available as a free PMC Article - access from PubMed here
3149Kamphuis et al 2011 - Effect of a medical food on BMI and activities of daily living in patients with Alzheimer's disease: secondary analyses from a RCTEffect of a medical food on body mass index and activities of daily living in patients with Alzheimer's disease: secondary analyses from a randomized, controlled trial.Medical food for Alzheimers disease - secondary analyses of a RCTKamphuis PJ, Verhey FR, Olde Rikkert MG, Twisk JW, Swinkels SH, Scheltens P.01/08/2011J Nutr Health Aging. 15(8)672-6.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of a medical food (Souvenaid) on body mass index (BMI) and functional abilities in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD).
DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/INTERVENTION /MEASUREMENTS: These analyses were performed on data from a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, controlled, multicenter, proof-of-concept study with a similarly designed and exploratory 12-week extension period. Patients with mild AD (Mini-Mental State Examination score of 20-26) were randomized to receive either the active product or an iso-caloric control product. While primary outcomes included measures of cognition, the 23-item Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-ADL) scale was included as a secondary outcome. Both ADCS-ADL and BMI were assessed at baseline and Weeks 6, 12 and 24. Data were analyzed using a repeated-measures mixed model.
RESULTS: Overall, data suggested an increased BMI in the active versus the control group at Week 24 (ITT: p = 0.07; PP: p = 0.03), but no treatment effect on ADCS-ADL was observed. However, baseline BMI was found to be a significant treatment effect modifier (ITT: p = 0.04; PP: p = 0.05), and an increase in ADCS-ADL was observed at Week 12 in patients with a 'low' baseline BMI (ITT: p = 0.02; PP: p = 0.04).
CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that baseline BMI significantly impacts the effect of Souvenaid on functional abilities. In addition, there was a suggestion that Souvenaid increased BMI.
Alzheimer's disease, RCT, human studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21968863View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
3148Kamphuis et al 2011 - Efficacy of a medical food on cognition in Alzheimer's disease: results from secondary analyses of a RCT.Efficacy of a medical food on cognition in Alzheimer's disease: results from secondary analyses of a randomized, controlled trial.Efficacy of a medical food on cognition in Alzheimer's disease: results from secondary analyses of a randomized, controlled trial.Kamphuis PJ, Verhey FR, Olde Rikkert MG, Twisk JW, Swinkels SH, Scheltens P.01/08/2011J Nutr Health Aging.15(8)720-4.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the extent that baseline cognitive impairment and intake adherence affected the 13-item Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) intervention response of a medical food in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients.
DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS /INTERVENTION/MEASUREMENTS: This analysis was performed on data from a proof-of-concept study, consisting of a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, controlled, multicenter trial, followed by a similarly designed 12-week extension study. Patients with mild AD (Mini-Mental State Examination
score of 20-26) were randomized to receive active or control product as a 125 ml daily drink. One of the co-primary outcome measures was the 13-item ADAS-cog. In this analysis, the study population was divided into two subgroups: patients with 'low' baseline ADAS-cog scores (<25.0) and patients with 'high' baseline ADAS-cog scores (≥25.0). Repeated Measures Models (RMM) were used to determine the relationship between ADAS-cog score and intervention.
RESULTS: A significant treatment effect (F
=4.0, p=0.046) was shown in patients with 'high' baseline ADAS-cog, but not in patients with 'low' baseline ADAS-cog (F
=1.25, p=0.265). Overall, intake adherence was significantly correlated with ADAS-cog improvement in the active product group (correlation coefficient=-0.260; p=0.019), but not the control group.
CONCLUSION: These data indicate that baseline ADAS-cog significantly influenced the effect of Souvenaid intervention on ADAS-cog outcome. A higher intake of active study product was also associated with greater cognitive benefit. These findings highlight the potential benefits of Souvenaid in AD patients and warrant confirmation in larger, controlled studies.
Alzheimer's disease, nutrition, intervention study, human study, RCThttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21968871View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
3178Solfrizzi et al 2011 - Mediterranean diet in predementia and dementia syndromes.Mediterranean diet in predementia and dementia syndromes.Mediterranean diet in predementia and dementia syndromes.Solfrizzi V, Frisardi V, Seripa D, Logroscino G, Imbimbo BP, D'Onofrio G, Addante F, Sancarlo D, Cascavilla L, Pilotto A, Panza F.01/08/2011Curr Alzheimer Res. 8(5)520-42.
There is a critical need to potentially individualize new strategies able to prevent and to slow down the progression of predementia and dementia syndromes.
Only recently higher adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet was associated with decreased cognitive decline although the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) combines several foods, micro- and macronutrients already separately proposed as potential protective factors against dementia and predementia syndromes. In fact, elevated saturated fatty acids could have negative effects on age-related cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
Furthermore, at present, epidemiological evidence suggested a possible association among fish consumption, monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (particularly, n-3 PUFA) and reduced risk of cognitive decline and dementia.
Light to moderate alcohol use may be associated with a reduced risk of incident dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD), while for vascular dementia, cognitive decline, and predementia syndromes the current evidence is only suggestive of a protective effect.
Finally, the limited epidemiological evidence available on fruit and vegetable consumption and cognition generally supported a protective role of these macronutrients against cognitive decline, dementia, and AD.
Moreover, recent prospective studies provided evidence that higher adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet could be associated with slower cognitive decline, reduced risk of progression from MCI to AD, reduced risk of AD, and decreased all-causes mortality in AD patients.
These findings suggested that adherence to the MeDi may affect not only the risk for AD, but also for predementia syndromes and their progression to overt dementia. Nonetheless, at present, no definitive dietary recommendations are possible.
However, high levels of consumption of fats from fish, vegetable oils, non-starchy vegetables, low glycemic fruits, and diet low in foods with added sugars and with moderate wine intake should be encouraged. In fact, this dietary advice is in accordance with recommendations for lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, and hypertension and might open new ways for the prevention and management of cognitive decline and dementia.
Diet, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, ARCD, MCI, nutrients, nutrition, cognitive function, review http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21605047View this and related abstracts via PubMed here.
2074Gomez-Pinilla F 2011 - Collaborative effects of diet and exercise on cognitive enhancementCollaborative effects of diet and exercise on cognitive enhancement.Collaborative effects of diet and exercise on cognitive enhancement.Gomez-Pinilla F31/07/2011Nutr Health. 2011;20(3-4):165-9.
Certain dietary factors, such as omega-3 fatty acids and curcumin, are reviewed in their context of stimulating molecular systems that serve synaptic function, while diets rich in saturated fats do the opposite. In turn, exercise, using similar mechanisms as healthy diets, displays healing effects on the brain such as counteracting the mental decline associated with age and facilitating functional recovery resulting from brain injury and disease. Diet and exercise are two noninvasive approaches that used together may enhance neural repair. Omega 3 fatty acids and curcumin elevate levels of molecules important for synaptic plasticity such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), thus benefiting normal brain function and recovery events following brain insults.
fatty acids; curcuminhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22141190View this and related abstracts on PubMed here. Free full text available online
2122Roseboom et al 2011 - Hungry in the womb: what are the consequences?Hungry in the womb: what are the consequences? Lessons from the Dutch famineHungry in the womb: what are the consequences? Lessons from the Dutch famineRoseboom TJ, Painter RC, van Abeelen AF, Veenendaal MV, de Rooij SR.28/07/2011Maturitas. 70(2)141-5. Epub 2011 Jul 28.
An increasing body of evidence suggests that poor nutrition at the very beginning of life - even before birth - leads to large and long term negative consequences for both mental and physical health.
This paper reviews the evidence from studies on the Dutch famine, which investigated the effects of prenatal undernutrition on later health. The effects of famine appeared to depend on its timing during gestation, and the organs and tissues undergoing critical periods of development at that time.
Early gestation appeared to be the most vulnerable period. People who were conceived during the famine were at increased risk of schizophrenia and depression, they had a more atherogenic plasma lipid profile, were more responsive to stress and had a doubled rate of coronary heart disease. Also, they performed worse on cognitive tasks which may be a sign of accelerated ageing. People exposed during any period of gestation had more type 2 diabetes.
Future investigation will expand on the finding that the effects of prenatal famine exposure may reach down across generations, possibly through epigenetic mechanisms.
Recent evidence suggests that similar effects of prenatal undernutrition are found in Africa, where many are undernourished. Hunger is a major problem worldwide with one in seven inhabitants of this planet suffering from lack of food. Adequately feeding women before and during pregnancy may be a promising strategy in preventing chronic diseases worldwide.
Nutritional programming, Dutch Famine, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21802226View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
193922 July 2011 - Medscape - Omega-3 Supplements May Lower AnxietyOmega-3 and anxiety, immune system functioning22/07/2011by Deborah Brauser
Increasing omega-3 intake may lower both anxiety symptoms and proinflammatory cytokines in healthy young adults, new research suggests.
In a small randomized controlled trial of medical students, those who received omega-3 supplements for 3 months showed a 20% reduction in anxiety scores and a 14% reduction in stimulated interleukin 6 (IL-6) production.
According to the investigators, the study "provides the first evidence that omega-3 may have potential anxiolytic benefits for individuals without an anxiety disorder diagnosis."
"We were impressed by the magnitude of the anxiety effect and the evidence for its anti-inflammatory effects, suggesting that it might have broader benefits," lead study author Janice Kiecolt-Glaser, PhD, professor of psychiatry and psychology and S. Robert David Chair of Medicine at the Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research at Ohio State University College of Medicine (OSUMC) in Columbus, told Medscape Medical News.
She noted that the significant reduction in IL-6 is especially important because the young study population had low rates to begin with.
"So our findings could possibly be much more significant in a group that was older and had more health problems."
The study was published online July 19 in Brain, Behavior and Immunity.
Fish Oil Benefits the Body
"Chronic inflammation has been linked to a broad spectrum of health problems, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, and rheumatoid arthritis," write the researchers.
"Large population studies suggest that greater fish consumption may help control or protect against the onset of these and other inflammatory conditions," they add.
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are 2 key omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) found in fish oil, which may also benefit mood.
In fact, previous research, including a study reported on last year by Medscape Medical News, has suggested that omega-3 can lower depressive symptoms in patients diagnosed as having clinical depression.
Because both depression and anxiety have been found to increase the production of proinflammatory cytokines, the current investigators hypothesized that giving omega-3 PUFA supplementation to healthy subjects would lead to a decrease in this production.
Secondary outcome measures were lowered anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as lowered negative mood symptoms associated with taking stressful exams.
A total of 68 first- and second-year medical students (56% male; mean age, 23.65 years) were enrolled and randomized to receive 3 times daily either omega-3 supplement capsules (consisting of 2085 mg of EPA and 348 mg of DHA, n = 34) or fish-flavored placebo capsules (n = 34) for 12 weeks.
"We chose the 7:1 EPA/DHA balance because of evidence that EPA has relatively stronger anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effects than DHA," explain the investigators.
"The supplement was probably about 4 or 5 times the amount of fish oil you'd get from a daily serving of salmon," added coauthor Martha Belury, PhD, RD, professor of human nutrition at Ohio State University, in a release.
All participants were interviewed 6 times, and serial blood samples were scheduled to be taken during lower-stress days and on the days before major exams.
In addition, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and Beck Anxiety Inventory were administered at all visits.
Reduced Anxiety, Cytokines
Results showed no significant differences between stress and nonstress days across all outcomes for either group.
"Thus, the ability of omega-3 supplementation to dampen stress response could not be tested," write the researchers.
They note that this was probably due to a sudden change in the medical school's curriculum. Instead of distributing the major tests during a 3-day period, as done in the past, the exams were given throughout the year.
"This group was notably unstressed, which was a severe disappointment and a study limitation. We just didn't get the stress effect we had expected," said Dr. Kiecolt-Glaser.
Still, the treatment group showed a significantly greater reduction in anxiety symptoms at 20% than did the placebo group (P = .04). They also had a greater decrease in their amounts of stimulated IL-6 production (0.15 units lower, P = .04).
"Anything we can do to reduce cytokines is a big plus in dealing with the overall health of people at risk for many diseases," said coauthor Ron Glaser, PhD, professor of molecular virology, immunology, and medical genetics at OSUMC.
There were no significant changes in depressive symptoms for either group."Again, this was not a depressed group, and without more severe depression, you may not see an effect," said Dr. Kiecolt-Glaser.
"Overall, that both anxiety and inflammation were altered is notable, especially in a group that was not clinically anxious," she added.
Even so, the investigators are not yet ready to suggest that everybody should start taking fish oil pills. "It may be too early to recommend a broad use of omega-3 supplements throughout the public, especially considering the cost and the limited supplies of fish needed to supply the oil. Instead, people should just consider increasing their omega-3 through their diet," said Dr. Belury.
Dr. Kiecolt-Glaser reported that the investigators have just finished another trial that examined the effects of increasing omega-3 in a population between the ages of 40 and 85 years who have an average body mass index of 30.
Omega-3 for All Psychiatric Disorders?
"This study reveals 2 remarkable, clinically solid findings," Capt. Joseph R. Hibbeln, MD, acting chief, Section on Nutritional Neurosciences at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, told Medscape Medical News.
The first, "which cannot be understated," is the reduction of anxiety scores in a normative population, said Dr. Hibbeln, who was not involved with this study.
"Many trials of omega-3 fatty acids in depression have confused the field because it's very difficult to reduce depression in people who don't have the disorder. And it's also very difficult to reduce anxiety in those who don't have clinically manifest anxiety," he explained.
"The second was that they probed the question of whether or not omega-3 fatty acids at least work in part through changes in the immune system and neural-immune interactions by measuring the effects of cytokine release in the patients' white blood cells ex vivo."
He noted that the "very marked decrease" in cytokine production in the treatment group was impressive.
"This is absolutely consistent with the hypothesis that one of the mechanisms of action for omega-3 fatty acids is not necessarily central but is through down-regulating the immune system. The study begs the question: is increased anxiety a manifest symptom of omega-3 fatty acid deficiencies? And their answer is yes."
Dr. Hibbeln said that the current 2010 US Department of Agriculture Dietary Guidelines recommend omega-3 PUFAs for the protection of heart disease and for pregnant mothers to prevent deficiencies in their offspring.
In 2006, the treatment committee for the American Psychiatric Association (APA), of which he was a member, issued recommendations that all patients with a psychiatric disorder should take at least 1 gram a day of omega-3 PUFAs to prevent the medical complications that often co-occur for them, such as cardiovascular disease and metabolic problems.
"This paper should be another signal that the practicing psychiatrist should follow the 2006 APA recommendations," concluded Dr. Hibbeln.
The study was funded in part by a grant from the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, which is part of the NIH. The study authors and Dr. Hibbeln have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.
Brain Behav Immun. Published online July 19, 2011. Abstract
This study is important for two reasons.
First - it shows that anxiety can be reduced in healthy young adults by supplementing their diets with the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids found in fish and seafood. These students did not have particularly high levels of anxiety to begin with, so to show a symptom reduction in this group is all the more impressive.
Second - it shows a clear link between the observed reductions in anxiety and down-regulation of the immune system. This is consistent with previous work suggesting that the well-known anti-inflammatory effects of long-chain omega-3 may help to explain their benefits for stress, anxiety and depression.
1938Kiecolt-Glaser et al 2011 - Omega-3 supplementation lowers inflammation and anxiety in medical students: A randomized controlled trialOmega-3 supplementation lowers inflammation and anxiety in medical students: A randomized controlled trialomega-3, stress, anxiety, randomised controlled trialKiecolt-Glaser JK, Belury MA, Andridge R, Malarkey WB, Glaser R.19/07/2011Brain Behav Immun. Jul 19. [Epub ahead of print]
Observational studies have linked lower omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and higher omega-6 (n-6) PUFAs with inflammation and depression, but randomized controlled trial (RCT) data have been mixed.
To determine whether n-3 decreases proinflammatory cytokine production and depressive and anxiety symptoms in healthy young adults, this parallel group, placebo-controlled, double-blind 12-week RCT compared n-3 supplementation with placebo. The participants, 68 medical students, provided serial blood samples during lower-stress periods as well as on days before an exam. The students received either n-3 (2.5g/d, 2085mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 348mg docosahexanoic acid) or placebo capsules that mirrored the proportions of fatty acids in the typical American diet.
Compared to controls, those students who received n-3 showed a 14% decrease in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated interleukin 6 (IL-6) production and a 20% reduction in anxiety symptoms, without significant change in depressive symptoms.
Individuals differ in absorption and metabolism of n-3 PUFA supplements, as well as in adherence; accordingly, planned secondary analyses that used the plasma n-6:n-3 ratio in place of treatment group showed that decreasing n-6:n-3 ratios led to lower anxiety and reductions in stimulated IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production, as well as marginal differences in serum TNF-α.
These data suggest that n-3 supplementation can reduce inflammation and anxiety even among healthy young adults. The reduction in anxiety symptoms associated with n-3 supplementation provides the first evidence that n-3 may have potential anxiolytic benefits for individuals without an anxiety disorder diagnosis.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00519779.
For a detailed and accessible review of the findings from this study and their implications, please see the accompanying news article from Medscape: Omega-3 Supplements may Lower Anxiety
stress, anxiety, omega-3, RCT, human study, healthy adultshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21784145View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
182816 July 2011 - EVENT - London - Autism / Asperger's: Medical, Nutritional and Dietary Challenges and TreatmentsAutism Asperger's EventOrganised by: Autism Conferences of America16/07/201116/07/2011
We'd like to tell you about this one day event for parents, professionals and people on the spectrum, being held in London on Saturday, 16th July. The same event will be repeated in Sunderland on Saturday, 23rd July. (Please see separate event listing).
The event will feature Professor James B Adams of Arizona State University
James B. Adams, Ph.D., is a President’s Professor at Arizona State University, where he directs the Autism/Asperger's Research Program. He has conducted many research studies on the causes of autism and how to treat it, including studies of nutritional status (vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids, amino acids), neurotransmitters, glutathione therapy, toxic metals and chelation, gastrointestinal abnormalities and treatments, immune problems/treatments, sleep disorders, and seizures. He is the author of over 20 scientific research papers on autism, and the "Summary of Biomedical Treatments for Autism” published by the Autism Research Institute, He is the President of the Autism Society of Greater Phoenix, and the Co-Leader of the Science Think Tank for the Autism Research Institute and Defeat Autism Now! (DAN!). He is the proud father of a son and two daughters; one is a teen-age daughter with autism.
8:30 – 9:00am - What is Autism? Diagnosis, symptoms, co-occurring medical problems, genetic and environmental risk factors.
9:00 – 10:30 am - Summary of Biomedical Treatments for Autism Overview of 14 research-based medical treatments for autism, including healthy diets, GFCF and other diets, nutritional supplements, digestive supplements, probiotics, melatonin, glutathione, , immunological treatments, and more.
10:45 – 12:00 pm - Nutritional and Metabolic Status in Autism, and How to Improve It This talk reviews the results of a major study of nutritional and metabolic problems in children with autism compared to controls, including vitamins, minerals, amino acids, neurotransmitters, methylation, sulfation, oxidative stress, and toxic metals. Additionally, it discusses the dramatic effect of a customized vitamin/mineral supplement on nutritional and metabolic status.
12:00pm – 12:30 pm Mitochondrial Problems in Autism, and Treatments Mitochondria are energy-producing “factories” inside every cell. We will share the results of several new studies by our group on 3 new treatments (carnitine, NADH, ribose) for mitochondrial problems in autism.
1:30pm – 3:00 pm - Toxic Metal Exposure in Autism, and How to Treat It This talk will review many studies which demonstrate that children have a decreased ability to excrete toxic metals due to low glutathione, resulting in an increased body burden of toxic metals. It will also discuss the results of a published study on how to safely and effectively remove toxic metals using DMSA, a FDA-approved medication for treating lead poisoning.
3:15pm – 3:45 pm - Seizure Study This talk reviews a new study of 1000 children and adults with autism, to compare the effectiveness of many different medications and alternative treatments for reducing seizures with minimal side-effects. It will discuss which treatments were most effective in treating seizures with the fewest side-effects.
3:45pm – 4:00pm – Summary: Using Research to Create a Personalized Testing and Treatment Plan
4:00pm – 5:00pm Questions and Discussion
Price: £75.00 £60.00 2nd person
One dayLondonCrown Plaza Kensington, 100 Cromwell Road, SW7 4ER Autism Conferences of America and The Autism Research Instituteautismconferences@gmail.com00 1 480 8312047http://regonline.com/englandautismconferenceRegister online hereAutism-Asperger's Conference 16 July 2011.pdfDownload registration form and further information hereadams.jpgProfessor James B Adams
1891Miyake et al 2011 - Dietary intake of metals and risk of Parkinson's disease: A case-control study in JapanDietary intake of metals and risk of Parkinson's disease: A case-control study in JapanDietary intake of metals and risk of Parkinson's disease: A case-control study in JapanMiyake Y, Tanaka K, Fukushima W, Sasaki S, Kiyohara C, Tsuboi Y, Yamada T, Oeda T, Miki T, Kawamura N, Sakae N, Fukuyama H, Hirota Y, Nagai M; Fukuoka Kinki Parkinson's Disease Study Group.15/07/2011J Neurol Sci. 2011 306(1-2):98-102. Epub 2011 Apr 16.
Metals are involved in several important functions in the nervous system. Zinc and iron are increased and copper is decreased in the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, epidemiological evidence for the association of dietary intake of metals with the risk of PD is limited.
We investigated the relationship between metal consumption and the risk of PD in Japan using data from a multicenter hospital-based case-control study. Included were 249 cases within 6years of onset of PD based on the UK PD Society Brain Bank clinical diagnostic criteria. Controls were 368 inpatients and outpatients without a neurodegenerative disease. Information on dietary factors was collected using a self-administered diet history questionnaire.
Higher intake of iron, magnesium, and zinc was independently associated with a reduced risk of PD: the adjusted OR in the highest quartile was 0.24 (95% CI: 0.10-0.57, P for trend=0.0003) for iron, 0.33 (95% CI: 0.13-0.81, P for trend=0.007) for magnesium and 0.50 (95% CI: 0.26-0.95, P for trend=0.055) for zinc. There were no relationships between the intake of copper or manganese and the risk of PD.
Higher intake of iron, magnesium, and zinc may be protective against PD.
iron, magnesium, zinc, copper, Parkinson's disease, diet, human study, case-control studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21497832View this and related abstracts via Pubmed here
191611 July 2011 - BBC Food Blog - The Trouble with Trans FatsTrans Fats13/07/2011by Sheila Dillon
BBC Food Blog - The Trouble with Trans Fats
by Sheila Dillon
This week’s edition of The Food Programme investigates the issue of trans-fats in our food (artificial fats which are formed during a process called hydrogenation, which turns liquid oil into solid fat). A key part of the government’s public health policies are the Responsibility Deals - voluntary agreements with the food industry on the ‘healthiness’ of their products. Partners include a wide range of big companies, including KFC, Pepsi, Coca Cola, Pret A Manger and McDonalds. One of their aims is to get rid of trans fatty acids in their foods by the end of the year. But is that decision sufficient to get rid of a substance that, according to Professor Simon Capewell on this week’s The Food Programme, kills 35 people in the UK every two days?
Trans fats have long been known to significantly increase risks for heart disease and diabetes. More recent evidence indicates that they also have damaging effects on human brains and behaviour. This is hardly surprising given that trans fats are artificially warped and twisted versions of the natural omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturates that are absolutely required for normal brain development and function.
Denmark was the first country to ban these poisonous fats in 2006. New York and California have followed suit, and bans are now in force or imminent in several European countries. But despite calls from leading public health experts in the UK and US for the UK to ban them too, our government and its agencies continue to claim that 'voluntary agreements' with big players in the food industry are sufficient to protect UK consumers.
In the latest episode of BBC Radio 4's Food Programme, Sheila Dillon exposed the fatal flaws in this argument. And here, she has followed up with a BBC Foodblog on the subject.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/food/2011/07/the-trouble-with-trans-fats.shtmlRead this full blog by Sheila Dillon on the BBC website here
To read pdf documents on this site you may need to download
Adobe Acrobat Reader. Get it here.
Website Glossary If you hover your mouse over words that appear underlined
with a blue, dashed line, a definition of that word will appear as a 'tooltip'. You may find further information about the term in our
Food and Behaviour Research is a registered charity (No SC034604) and a company limited by guarantee (Co No SC 253448).
FAB Research | The Green House | Beechwood Business Park | Inverness | Scotland
| IV2 3BL | Telephone: 01463 667318 Website by Calligrafix
Medical opinion and guidance should always be sought for any symptoms that might
possibly reflect a known or suspected disease, disorder or medical condition. Information
provided on this website (or by FAB Research via any other means) does not in any
way constitute advice on the treatment of any medical condition formally diagnosed