1575Martins 2009 - EPA but not DHA appears to be responsible for the efficacy of omega-3 LC-PUFA supplementation in depression: evidence from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsEPA but not DHA appears to be responsible for the efficacy of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in depression: evidence from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials EPA & depression; depressionMartins JG01/10/2009J Am Coll Nutr. 28(5)525-42.
Epidemiologic and case-control data suggest that increased dietary intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega3 LC-PUFAs) may be of benefit in depression. However, the results of randomized controlled trials are mixed and controversy exists as to whether either eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or both are responsible for the reported benefits.
The aim of the current study was to provide an updated meta-analysis of all double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trials examining the effect of omega3 LC-PUFA supplementation in which depressive symptoms were a reported outcome. The study also aimed to specifically test the differential effectiveness of EPA versus DHA through meta-regression and subgroup analyses.
Studies were selected using the PubMed database on the basis of the following criteria: (1) randomized design; (2) placebo controlled; (3) use of an omega3 LC-PUFA preparation containing DHA, EPA, or both where the relative amounts of each fatty acid could be quantified; and (4) reporting sufficient statistics on scores of a recognizable measure of depressive symptoms.
Two hundred forty-one studies were identified, of which 28 met the above inclusion criteria and were therefore included in the subsequent meta-analysis. Using a random effects model, overall standardized mean depression scores were reduced in response to omega3 LC-PUFA supplementation as compared with placebo (standardized mean difference = -0.291, 95% CI = -0.463 to -0.120, z = -3.327, p = 0.001). However, significant heterogeneity and evidence of publication bias were present. Meta-regression studies showed a significant effect of higher levels of baseline depression and lower supplement DHAEPA ratio on therapeutic efficacy. Subgroup analyses showed significant effects for: (1) diagnostic category (bipolar disorder and major depression showing significant improvement with omega3 LC-PUFA supplementation versus mild-to-moderate depression, chronic fatigue and non-clinical populations not showing significant improvement); (2) therapeutic as opposed to preventive intervention; (3) adjunctive treatment as opposed to monotherapy; and (4) supplement type. Symptoms of depression were not significantly reduced in 3 studies using pure DHA (standardized mean difference 0.001, 95% CI -0.330 to 0.332, z = 0.004, p = 0.997) or in 4 studies using supplements containing greater than 50% DHA (standardized mean difference = 0.141, 95% CI = -0.195 to 0.477, z = 0.821, p = 0.417). In contrast, symptoms of depression were significantly reduced in 13 studies using supplements containing greater than 50% EPA (standardized mean difference = -0.446, 95% CI = -0.753 to -0.138, z = -2.843, p = 0.005) and in 8 studies using pure ethyl-EPA (standardized mean difference = -0.396, 95% CI = -0.650 to -0.141, z = -3.051, p = 0.002). However, further meta-regression studies showed significant inverse associations between efficacy and study methodological quality, study sample size, and duration, thus limiting the confidence of these findings.
The current meta-analysis provides evidence that EPA may be more efficacious than DHA in treating depression. However, owing to the identified limitations of the included studies, larger, well-designed, randomized controlled trials of sufficient duration are needed to confirm these findings.
omega-3, fatty acids, EPA, DHA, depression, treatment, human clinical trials, RCT, meta-analysis, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20439549View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1440Reichelt & Knivsberg 2009 - The possibility and probability of a gut-to-brain connection in autism.The possibility and probability of a gut-to-brain connection in autism.The possibility and probability of a gut-to-brain connection in autism.Reichelt KL, Knivsberg AM.01/10/2009Ann Clin Psychiatry. 21(4)205-11.
BACKGROUND: We have shown that urine peptide increase is found in autism, and that some of these peptides have a dietary origin. To be explanatory for the disease process, a dietary effect on the brain must be shown to be possible and probable.
METHODS: Diagnosis was based on DSM-III and DSM-IV criteria. We ran first morning urine samples equivalent to 250 nm creatinine on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) reversed phase C18 columns using trifluoroacetic acid acetonitrile gradients. The elution patterns were registered using 215 nm absorption for largely peptide bonds, 280 nm for aromatic groups, and 325 nm for indolyl components. We referred to a series of published ability tests, including Raven's Progressive Matrices and the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Ability, which were administered before and after dietary intervention. The literature was also reviewed to find evidence of a gut-to-brain connection.
RESULTS: In autistic syndromes, we can show marked increases in UV 215-absorbing material eluting after hippuric acid that are mostly peptides. We also show highly significant decreases after introducing a gluten- and casein-free diet with a duration of more than 1 year. We refer to previously published studies showing improvement in children on this diet who were followed for 4 years and a pairwise matched, randomly assigned study with highly significant changes. The literature shows abundant data pointing to the importance of a gut-to-brain connection.
CONCLUSIONS: An effect of diet on excreted compounds and behavior has been found. A gut-to-brain axis is both possible and probable.
diet, autism, gut, brain, opioid peptides, gluten, casein, GFCF diet, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19917211View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
2050Sánchez-Villegas et al 2009 - Association of the Mediterranean dietary pattern with the incidence of depression: the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra/University of Navarra follow-up (SUN) cohortAssociation of the Mediterranean dietary pattern with the incidence of depression: the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra/University of Navarra follow-up (SUN) cohortMediterranean diet and depressionSánchez-Villegas A, Delgado-Rodríguez M, Alonso A, Schlatter J, Lahortiga F, Serra Majem L, Martínez-González MA01/10/2009Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009 Oct;66(10):1090-8.
CONTEXT: Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) is thought to reduce inflammatory, vascular, and metabolic processes that may be involved in the risk of clinical depression.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between adherence to the MDP and the incidence of clinical depression.
DESIGN: Prospective study that uses a validated 136-item food frequency questionnaire to assess adherence to the MDP. The MDP score positively weighted the consumption of vegetables, fruit and nuts, cereal, legumes, and fish; the monounsaturated- to saturated-fatty-acids ratio; and moderate alcohol consumption, whereas meat or meat products and whole-fat dairy were negatively weighted.
SETTING: A dynamic cohort of university graduates (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra/University of Navarra Follow-up SUN Project).
PARTICIPANTS: A total of 10 094 initially healthy Spanish participants from the SUN Project participated in the study. Recruitment began on December 21, 1999, and is ongoing.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Participants were classified as having incident depression if they were free of depression and antidepressant medication at baseline and reported a physician-made diagnosis of clinical depression and/or antidepressant medication use during follow-up.
RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 4.4 years, 480 new cases of depression were identified. The multiple adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of depression for the 4 upper successive categories of adherence to the MDP (taking the category of lowest adherence as reference) were 0.74 (0.57-0.98), 0.66 (0.50-0.86), 0.49 (0.36-0.67), and 0.58 (0.44-0.77) (P for trend
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a potential protective role of the MDP with regard to the prevention of depressive disorders; additional longitudinal studies and trials are needed to confirm these findings.
Depression, diet, human study, prospective studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19805699View this and related abstracts on PubMed here - full free text available online
138730 Sep 2009 - The Telegraph - EU rules on health foods could fool consumersomega-3 EFSA regulation on nutrition health claims30/09/2009By Kate Devlin, Medical Correspondent
Consumers will be fooled into thinking food and supplements containing Omega 3 are healthier than they really are under new European rules, a group of leading scientists warns.
The proposals, designed to regulate what health claims can be made for foods and supplements, could actually harm public health, they said.
The new rules will set out which products can call themselves “high” in or a “source of” Omega 3. But the scientists warn that this will allow manufacturers to use plant oils containing a particular form of Omega 3, for which there are fewer proven health benefits, instead of more expensive fish oils which contain the most beneficial, longer-chain omega-3, called EPA and DHA.
The new rules would also allow claims that a food is “high in polyunsaturates”, without any recognition that these can include also include high levels of Omega 6 oils, which can limit the benefits of Omega 3.
A petition, signed by 20 scientists from seven countries, including Britain, calls on the European Commission to halt the progress of the regulations and set up a scientific committee to recommend new proposals.
The scientists warn that the new rules could allow manufacturers to deceive consumers.
“They would be able to pour in cheap plant oils, but imply that they deliver the same health benefits as fish oils,” said John Stein, Professor of Neurophysiology at Oxford University. “This exploits consumers’ faith in omega-3s”.
“This is a public health issue,” said Prof Jack Winkler, director of the Nutrition Policy Unit at London Metropolitan University, who has co-ordinated the petition. “We know that Britons do not eat enough fish to get high enough levels of Omega 3 EPA and DHA, so the only way is through fortified food. We are in favour of regulation, we just want it to be based on the proven health benefits.”
He added: “This is a classic piece of euro-madness. It will legalise the deception of consumers”.
The most important omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA), present in oily fish like salmon, sardines, trout, herring, have been shown to protect against heart attacks and are also believed to be crucial for the development of the brain.
The body does not produce its own essential fatty acids and they must be obtained from the diet.
The experts warn that some fats which could be included in foods “high in polyunsaturates” could actually be bad for health.
“(These regulations) would allow companies to fill products with cheap vegetable oils, such as sunflower and corn, that are high in omega-6s”, said Dr Alex Richardson, also of Oxford and Director of Food and Behaviour Research. “We already eat a disproportionate amount of omega-6s. This regulation would make that imbalance worse. It would actually harm public health.”
A standing committee of the European Commission will vote on whether to approve the draft proposals on Thursday. These will then be considered by the European Parliament for three months until January next year, when all existing claims about omega-3s will become illegal and only those covered by the regulations will be allowed.
Last month doctors said that there was “compelling” evidence that the Omega 3 fatty acids EPA and DHA could help protect against heart attacks and warned that they should be taken by everyone.
A spokesman for the Food Standards Agency, which will have a representative on the European Commission committee, said: "Oily fish is the only significant dietary source of long chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA and consumers are recommended to eat two portions of fish per week of which one should be oily.
"Plant derived short chain fatty acids (ALA) offer no significant cardiovascular benefit to consumers.
"We want any claims agreed at EU level to be supportive of Government dietary advice, and not mislead consumers into believing they can achieve their recommended dietary intakes from foods other than oily fish."
Leading scientists are urgently calling on the EU to amend their proposed nutrition regulations because there are different kinds of 'Omega-3' fats - and they do NOT all have the same effects on health.
This article conveys that basic fact, but unfortunately the original version does not mention the key terms 'EPA and 'DHA'. These are the only forms of omega-3 for which there is good evidence of health benefits. To clarify the all-important distinction between EPA/DHA and ALA, words in bold type have therefore been inserted into the article below.
Consumers deserve to know the difference between EPA/DHA (the main omega-3 found in fish oils) and ALA (cheaper, plant-derived omega-3 that do not have the same health benefits). Until they do, the kind of deception and exploitation already practised by many food and supplement companies will continue - and the EU's proposals will legalise this.
For the latest evidence on the non-equivalence of plant-based omega-3 (ALA) and the long-chain omega-3 found in fish and seafood (EPA and DHA) see:
137825 September 2009 - FAB CONFERENCE - OXFORD - Nutrition for Behaviour, Learning and Mood25/09/200925/09/2009
An exceptional opportunity to hear from a panel of top UK experts, researchers and practitioners about how nutrition affects behaviour, learning and mood.
Who should attend:
Educational Professionals | Health Professionals | Local Authority Staff | Social Workers | Professionals working in the Criminal Justice System | Policy Makers | Caterers | Food Manufacturers | Food Marketing Representatives | Voluntary Organisations | Parents | Carers | Media
Topics to be addressed:
How does what we eat affect the way we feel, think and behave?
What's happened to our diet since Victorian times? And what are the well-documented consequences for our brains and bodies?
Depression, dyslexia, ADHD and related conditions - what's the evidence that nutrition can make a difference?
Media reporting of medical research - public service or public menace? Debunking myths - and how to spot pseudoscience and quackery
Can improving nutrition really reduce anti-social behaviour or boost children's learning? What do the properly controlled trials show?
How can you encourage healthy food choices - for your children and yourself? Dealing with food culture, 'fussy eating' and food cravings
Food and Behaviour: An Overview by Dr Alex Richardson, (Founder/Trustee of FAB Research; Senior Research Fellow, University of Oxford; Author of 'They Are What You Feed Them')
'Back to the future' - lessons from the Victorian diet by Dr Paul Clayton, (Chair of Forum on Food & Health; Author of 'Health Defence' and 'Pharmageddon')
Implications of modern-day diets for human brains (what's gone wrong, and how we can put it right) by Prof Michael Crawford, (Director, Institute of Brain Chemistry and Human Nutrition, London Metropolitan University)
Attention, perception and action in dyslexia and related conditions: genes, brains and the nutritional environment by Prof John Stein, (Professor of Neurophysiology, University of Oxford; Chair of Dyslexia Research Trust)
Nutrition - is it all 'Bad Science'? by Dr Ben Goldacre, (Writer, broadcaster and medical doctor)
Dietary factors in depression and other mental health conditions: a review of the evidence by Prof Malcolm Peet, (Senior NHS Consultant Psychiatrist, Rotherham, Doncaster and South Humber NHS Foundation Trust)
Omega-3 for child behaviour and learning - randomised controlled trials by Dr Paul Montgomery, (Director of the Centre for Evidence-Based Intervention, University of Oxford; Co-Director of FAB Research) with Dr Alex Richardson
Causes of Crime? The Role of Nutrition in Antisocial Behaviour by Bernard Gesch, (Senior Research Scientist at Oxford University and Director of the research charity Natural Justice which investigates causes of criminal antisocial behaviour)
The Psychology of Food Choices: Putting theory into practice by David Rex, (Child Health Dietitian, NHS Highland; & Healthy Eating in Schools Coordinator. Provides Scotland's only specialist NHS dietetic clinic dealing with Autistic Spectrum Disorder, ADHD and children with additional support needs)
HOW TO REGISTER AND PAY:
THIS EVENT IS NOW FULLY BOOKED. PLEASE CALL US ON 01463 667318 IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE ADDED TO THE RESERVE LIST.
Category 1 - Central Govt and Private Sector: Early Bird £165 if booked and paid by 31 Aug 09 Full rate £225
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FAB RESEARCH - GALA DINNER
A unique chance to hear Dr Ben Goldacre, the 'Bad Science' Guardian columnist, and Dr Paul Clayton, nutrition scientist and author, speaking after dinner.
Food and Behaviour Research is hosting a Gala Dinner in the Banqueting Hall at Magdalen College on the evening of 24th September, to which all are welcome. Delegates attending the conference on the next day, Fri, 25th Sept, and their families and guests are warmly invited to attend at a reduced rate. The dinner will provide a superb opportunity to meet world-class researchers in the truly magnificent setting of the 15th century Banqueting Hall and a unique chance to hear Dr Ben Goldacre and Dr Paul Clayton speaking after the dinner.
Gala Dinner Tickets for conference delegates and their guests:
Individual ticket - £105 (save £20) 2 people - £205 (save £45) 3 people - £305 (save £70) 4 people - £405 (save £95)
Further details of the Gala Dinner and where you may also book and pay for tickets can be found here FAB Research - GALA DINNER - 24 September 2009. A booking form is also included with the conference flyer and booking form downloadable below, should you wish to attend the dinner.
9am - 4.30pmOxfordMagdalen College, University of OxfordFiona O'Feeadmin@fabresearch.org01463 667318FAB Oxford National Flyer V20.07.pdfFAB Oxford Flyer FAB Oxford Booking Form only.docFAB Oxford Booking Form onlyFAB_folder2 (2).jpgOxford uni
136924 September 2009 - GALA DINNER - Magdalen College, OxfordHosted by Dr Alex Richardson and the Board of FAB Research24/09/200924/09/2009
Dr Alex Richardson and the Board of Food and Behaviour Research extend a warm invitation to you to attend a Gala Dinner in the magnificent 15th Century Magdalen College Banqueting Hall, on Thursday 24th September, at 7 for 7.30pm.
The dinner will be co-hosted by Professor John Stein, Chair of the Dyslexia Research Trust, and the after-dinner speakers are Dr Ben Goldacre, Guardian columnist and author of 'Bad Science' (Harper Collins 2008), and Dr Paul Clayton, author of 'Health Defence' (ALS Ltd 2004) and 'Pharmageddon' (to be published 2009).
Individual tickets for the evening are £125, (group bookings of 4 or more £112.50 each), to include a drinks reception and three courses with wines, and may be purchased by debit/credit card using the form below. Please complete and proceed to the payment page. Alternatively, you may download a booking form from the link below, and send a cheque payment made payable to FAB Research.
If you are a delegate attending either the FAND 2009 Research Workshop on Thursday 24th September, or the FAB Research Conference on 'Learning, Behaviour and Mood' on the following day, Friday 25th September, please select the appropriate discounted rate on the booking form below. If you wish to pay by cheque, please use the Gala Dinner booking form included with your Workshop or Conference booking form.
Please call Fiona O'Fee on 01463 667318 if you have any queries and she will be delighted to be of assistance to you.
There are a limited number of rooms available within the college for those who would like to stay overnight. If you would like to take advantage of this unique opportunity to stay at Magdalen College, please email firstname.lastname@example.org with 'Oxford Accommodation' as the message title, and we will send you further details.
Individual booking - £125 2 people - £250 3 people - £375 Group bookings (4 or more) - £112.50 each
If you are a FAB Associate Member, or a delegate attending the FAND Research Academic Workshop (24 Sept 09) and/or the FAB Research Conference on Learning, Behaviour and Mood (25 Sept 09), the following rates apply to you and your guests:
Individual booking - £105 (save £20) 2 people - £205 (save £45) 3 people - £305 (save £70) 4 people - £405 (save £95)
For larger groups, please contact Fiona O'Fee on 01463 667318 for more savings.
Dress code: Smart
7 for 7.30 pm to midnightOxfordMagdalen College, University of OxfordFiona O'Feeadmin@fabresearch.org01463 667318FAB Gala Dinner Flyer and Booking Form 1.pdfDownload Gala Dinner Invitation and Booking Form hereFAB Gala Dinner Booking Form Only.docDownload Gala Dinner Booking Form only heremagdalen dining room - resized.jpgGala Dinner - 1 person125Gala Dinner - 2 people250Gala Dinner - 3 people375Gala Dinner - group of 4 (save £50)450FAB Associate Members/FAND delegates (24.09.09) and/or National Conference delegates (25.09.09) - 1 person (save £20)105FAB Associate Members/FAND delegates (24.09.09) and/or National Conference delegates (25.09.09) - 2 people (save £45)205FAB Associate Members/FAND delegates (24.09.09) and/or National Conference delegates (25.09.09) - 3 people (save £70)305FAB Associate Members/FAND delegates (24.09.09) and/or National Conference delegates (25.09.09) - 4 people (save £95)405
1386PROGRAMME for FAND 2009 - 24 September 2009 - Magdalen College, OxfordFood and Behaviour Research24/09/200924/09/2009
Fatty Acids And Neurodevelopmental Disorders Research Workshop (FAND 2009) - Thursday, 24th September 2009 - Magdalen College, University of Oxford
PROGRAMME (downloadable in PDF below)
Increasing evidence indicates that dietary fatty acids (and particularly the omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturates) play a role in a wide range of neurodevelopmental, psychiatric and neurological disorders, and may also affect mood, behaviour and learning in the general population. The aim of this multi-disciplinary workshop is to bring together researchers, practitioners, policymakers and others with an active interest in this area, to share the latest research findings and their implications.
Omega-3 and omega-6 fats are essential for normal brain development and function, but they must be obtained from the diet. These fatty acids help to regulate cardiovascular, hormonal and immune systems. They also influence gene expression, so along with other essential nutrients, they are key elements of the interface between 'nature' and 'nurture'. Official dietary intakes have not yet been established in Europe or the US, partly because different forms of omega-3 and omega-6 have different effects, and because their relative balance is also important. It is now widely accepted, however, that relative omega-3 deficiencies can contribute to many systemic physical health disorders, and in some cases this has led to treatment recommendations. The role of dietary fatty acids in mental health and performance may prove to be even more important, but further research is needed to inform policy and practice in these areas.
The term 'Neurodevelopmental Disorders' is broadly interpreted here, including conditions first evident in childhood (such as ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia and autism) and others that usually manifest later in life (including depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and some neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease). These are all complex disorders, with no single cause. In some cases, genetic and psychosocial risk factors have been clearly identified, although there still remain few effective treatments. By contrast, nutritional approaches have been relatively neglected in both research and clinical practice, despite their potential benefits in the management - and possibly the prevention - of these conditions, which impose huge costs not only on those directly affected, but on society as a whole.
In September 2001, the Trustees and Scientific Advisors of FAB Research held a workshop on 'Fatty Acids in Neurodevelopmental Disorders' in Oxford (FAND 2001). That meeting led to several new and highly fruitful collaborations that are still yielding results today. Its rich legacy includes:
Forging links between researchers from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and others at the US National Institutes of Health and Oxford (leading to groundbreaking studies of how dietary omega-3 intakes during pregnancy relate to both child developmental outcomes and mothers' mental health, and new studies focusing on gene-nutrient interactions)
Facilitating the influential 'Oxford-Durham study' by Dr. Alex Richardson and Dr. Paul Montgomery (showing benefits for reading, spelling and behaviour from fatty acid supplementation in children with developmental coordination disorder, and leading to other school studies now ongoing)
Fostering further studies, led by Bernard Gesch and Professor John Stein at Oxford, of the impact of nutrition on antisocial behaviour in prisoners (and other investigations to extend this work into community settings)
The time is now ripe to revisit this theme, and so FAB Research extends a warm welcome to you to join in the workshop at Magdalen College in Oxford on the 24th September. A wide range of interests is represented and all delegates are encouraged to make an active contribution. Options include: submitting abstracts for poster or brief oral presentations; contributing to the question / answer and general discussion at the end of each workshop session; and liaising with other delegates to share information and make new collaborations.
Wednesday 23rd September
6.00-8.00pm - Reception and Poster viewing
Thursday 24th September
9.00-10.30am - Session I: Neurodevelopmental Disorders: An Integrated Approach
Diet and brain development: the role of fatty acids in mental health and performance
Diagnostic issues in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders
Individual differences: Dimensional and categorical perspectives
Clinical insights into neurodevelopmental disorders: from ADHD to schizophrenia
Perception, attention and action in dyslexia and related conditions
10.30-11.00am - Refreshment Break
11.00-12.30pm - Session II: The Genetics and Neurobiology of Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Nature and Nurture
Genes, brains and behaviour in dyslexia and related conditions: Genetic, immunological and hormonal influences on brain structure and function
Omega-3 and early brain development: Impact of the nutritional environment
Gene-nutrient interactions: Fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genes and their implications
FADS, breastfeeding and children's intelligence
Maternal omega-3 intakes during pregnancy in relation to visual, motor and cognitive development in children, and maternal mental health
12.30-1.30pm - LUNCH
1.30-2.30pm - MAIN POSTER SESSION
2.30-4.00pm - Session III: Clinical Treatment Trials and Other Approaches to Establishing Optimal Fatty Acid Intakes
Clinical trials of fatty acids in infants (visual and cognitive development)
Clinical trials of fatty acids for child behaviour and learning (ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia, the autistic spectrum and general population studies)
Clinical trials of fatty acids for mood, behaviour and cognition in adolescents and adults (antisocial behaviour, depression, bipolar disorder, the schizophrenia spectrum, and age-related cognitive decline)
Beyond fatty acids: other key micronutrients affecting mood, behaviour and learning
Establishing Optimal Fatty Acid Intakes - What evidence do we need?
4.00-4.15pm Refreshment Break
4.15-5.30pm - Session IV: Implications for Research and Practice
Research priorities and methods in the study of FAND
Diagnosis revisited: traits, features, symptoms and the need for 'endophenotypes'
Biomarkers: issues in the assessment of fatty acid status and metabolism
Clinical treatment trials - design and methodology: what questions can we answer?
Dietary intakes of omega-3 and omega-6: implications for current policy and practice
1729Lattka et al 2009 - FADS gene cluster polymorphisms: important modulators of fatty acid levels and their impact on atopic diseasesFADS gene cluster polymorphisms: important modulators of fatty acid levels and their impact on atopic diseasesFADS gene cluster polymorphisms: important modulators of fatty acid levels and their impact on atopic diseasesLattka E, Illig T, Heinrich J, Koletzko B.23/09/2009J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 2(3):119-28. Epub 2009 Sep 23.
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) play an important role in several physiological processes and their concentration in phospholipids has been associated with several complex diseases, such as atopic disease. The level and composition of LC-PUFAs in the human body is highly dependent on their intake in the diet or on the intake of fatty acid precursors, which are endogenously elongated and desaturated to physiologically active LC-PUFAs.
The most important enzymes in this reaction cascade are the Delta(5) and Delta(6) desaturase. Several studies in the last few years have revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 2 desaturase encoding genes (FADS1 and FADS2) are highly associated with the concentration of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, showing that beside nutrition, genetic factors also play an important role in the regulation of LC-PUFAs.
This review focuses on current knowledge of the impact of genetic polymorphisms on LC-PUFA metabolism and on their potential role in the development of atopic diseases.
genetics, FADS genes, EFA-HUFA conversion, omega-3, omega-6, fatty acids, atopic diseases, allergies, human studies, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19776639View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1927Uauy & Dangour 2009 - Fat and fatty acid requirements and recommendations for infants and childrenFat and fatty acid requirements and recommendations for infants of 0-2 years and children of 2-18 years.Fat and fatty acid requirements and recommendations for infants of 0-2 years and children of 2-18 years.
Uauy R, Dangour AD.15/09/2009Ann Nutr Metab. 55(1-3):76-96. Epub 2009 Sep 15.
No abstract is available, but free full text of this paper is available online
omega-3, fatty acids, dietary requirements, recommended dietary intakes, infants, children, review, free full texthttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19752537View the citation and related abstracts here. Free full text of this article is available online.
1392Furuhjelm et al 2009 - Fish oil supplementation in pregnancy and lactation may decrease the risk of infant allergyFish oil supplementation in pregnancy and lactation may decrease the risk of infant allergyFish oil, pregnancy, allergyFuruhjelm C, Warstedt K, Larsson J, Fredriksson M, Böttcher MF, Fälth-Magnusson K, Duchén K.01/09/2009Acta Paediatr. 98(9)1461-7. Epub 2009 Jun 1.
Maternal intake of omega-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) during pregnancy has decreased, possibly contributing to a current increased risk of childhood allergy.
Aim: To describe the effects of maternal omega-3 long-chain PUFA supplementation during pregnancy and lactation on the incidence of allergic disease in infancy.
Methods: One hundred and forty-five pregnant women, affected by allergy themselves or having a husband or previous child with allergies, were included in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Daily maternal supplementation with either 1.6 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 1.1 g docosahexaenoic acid or placebo was given from the 25(th) gestational week to average 3-4 months of breastfeeding. Skin prick tests, detection of circulating specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and clinical examinations of the infants were performed.
Results: The period prevalence of food allergy was lower in the omega-3 group (1/52, 2%) compared to the placebo group (10/65, 15%, p < 0.05) as well as the incidence of IgE-associated eczema (omega-3 group: 4/52, 8%; placebo group: 15/63, 24%, p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Maternal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may decrease the risk of food allergy and IgE-associated eczema during the first year of life in infants with a family history of allergic disease.
fish oil, omega-3, LC-PUFA, fatty acids, pregnancy, infants, allergy, atopic disease, eczema, dietary supplementation, RCT, human study, randomised controlled trialhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19489765?itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=3View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1403Leung & Kaplan 2009 - Perinatal depression: prevalence, risks, and the nutrition link--a review of the literature.Perinatal depression: prevalence, risks, and the nutrition link--a review of the literature.Perinatal depression: prevalence, risks, and the nutrition link--a review of the literature.Leung BM, Kaplan BJ.01/09/2009J Am Diet Assoc. 109(9)1566-75.
The purpose of this review is to examine the role of nutrition in perinatal depression. Perinatal (maternal) depression refers to major and minor episodes during pregnancy (termed antenatal) and/or within the first 12 months after delivery (termed postpartum or postnatal). Prevalence of antenatal depression can be as high as 20%, while approximately 12% to 16% of women experience postpartum depression. These are probably conservative estimates, as cases of maternal depression are underreported or underdiagnosed. Risk factors for depression include genetic predisposition and environmental factors, as well as a number of social, psychological, and biological factors. One biological factor given increasing consideration is inadequate nutrition. Credible links between nutrient deficiency and mood have been reported for folate, vitamin B-12, calcium, iron, selenium, zinc, and n-3 fatty acids. For maternal depression, the nutrient that has received the most attention from nutrition researchers has been the n-3 essential fatty acids. Numerous studies, such as randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, and ecological studies, have found a positive association between low n-3 levels and a higher incidence of maternal depression. In addition, nutrient inadequacies in pregnant women who consume a typical western diet might be much more common than researchers and clinicians realize. A number of studies have reported inadequate intakes of n-3, folate, B vitamins, iron, and calcium in pregnant women. Depletion of nutrient reserves throughout pregnancy can increase a woman's risk for maternal depression.
nutrition, pregnancy, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19699836?itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=7View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1900Teegala et al 2009 - Consumption and health effects of trans fatty acids: a reviewConsumption and health effects of trans fatty acids: a reviewConsumption and health effects of trans fatty acids: a reviewTeegala SM, Willett WC, Mozaffarian D.01/09/2009J AOAC Int. 92(5):1250-7.
Consumption of industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFA) remains high in many populations, particularly in developing nations where partially hydrogenated vegetable oils are frequently used for home cooking and among individuals in developed countries having high intakes of bakery or processed foods.
Well-controlled observational studies and randomized trials indicate that TFA consumption adversely affects multiple risk factors for chronic diseases, including numerous blood lipids and lipoproteins, systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and possibly insulin resistance, diabetes, and adiposity.
Growing evidence for the latter effects is particularly concerning given the worldwide obesity pandemic and high contents of industrially produced TFA in many foods marketed toward children.
Consistent evidence from prospective observational studies of habitual TFA consumption and retrospective observational studies using TFA biomarkers indicates that TFA consumption increases risk of clinical coronary heart disease (CHD). Based on the adverse effects of risk factors and consistent relationships with clinical endpoints, the evidence that TFA consumption increases CHD risk is convincing.
Some evidence suggests that TFA consumption may also increase other disease outcomes, but further investigation is needed to confirm the presence and magnitude of such effects. More research is also needed to understand how specific TFA isomers of varying chain length and double bond location may affect different biologic pathways of disease.
Both individual- and policy-level initiatives to decrease TFA consumption should continue, particularly in population subgroups and in developing nations with high consumption of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils.
trans fats, dietary fat, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19916363View this and related abstracts via Pubmed here
1795Magnus et al 2009 - The cost-effectiveness of removing television advertising of high-fat and/or high-sugar food and beverages to Australian childrenThe cost-effectiveness of removing television advertising of high-fat and/or high-sugar food and beverages to Australian childrenThe cost-effectiveness of removing television advertising of high-fat and/or high-sugar food and beverages to Australian childrenMagnus A, Haby MM, Carter R, Swinburn B.04/08/2009Int J Obes (Lond).33(10):1094-102. Epub 2009 Aug 4.
OBJECTIVE: To model the health benefits and cost-effectiveness of banning television (TV) advertisements in Australia for energy-dense, nutrient-poor food and beverages during children's peak viewing times.
METHODS: Benefits were modelled as changes in body mass index (BMI) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) saved. Intervention costs (AUD$) were compared with future health-care cost offsets from reduced prevalence of obesity-related health conditions. Changes in BMI were assumed to be maintained through to adulthood. The comparator was current practice, the reference year was 2001, and the discount rate for costs and benefits was 3%. The impact of the withdrawal of non-core food and beverage advertisements on children's actual food consumption was drawn from the best available evidence (a randomized controlled trial of advertisement exposure and food consumption). Supporting evidence was found in ecological relationships between TV advertising and childhood obesity, and from the effects of marketing bans on other products. A Working Group of stakeholders provided input into decisions surrounding the modelling assumptions and second-stage filters of 'strength of evidence', 'equity', 'acceptability to stakeholders', 'feasibility of implementation', 'sustainability' and 'side-effects'.
RESULTS:The intervention had a gross incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of AUD$ 3.70 (95% uncertainty interval (UI) $2.40, $7.70) per DALY. Total DALYs saved were 37 000 (95% UI 16,000, 59,000). When the present value of potential savings in future health-care costs was considered (AUD$ 300m (95% UI $130m, $480m), the intervention was 'dominant', because it resulted in both a health gain and a cost offset compared with current practice.
CONCLUSIONS: Although recognizing the limitations of the available evidence, restricting TV food advertising to children would be one of the most cost-effective population-based interventions available to governments today. Despite its economic credentials from a public health perspective, the initiative is strongly opposed by food and advertising industries and is under review by the current Australian government.
food advertising, health, obesity, cost-benefit, human study, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19652656View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1562Haase & Rink 2009 - Functional significance of zinc-related signaling pathways in immune cellsFunctional significance of zinc-related signaling pathways in immune cells Functional significance of zinc-related signaling pathways in immune cells Haase H, Rink L.01/08/2009Annu Rev Nutr. 29133-52.
Recent years have brought a paradigm shift for the role of the essential trace element zinc in immunity. Although its function as a structural component of many enzymes has been known for decades, current experimental evidence points to an additional function of the concentration of free or loosely bound zinc ions as an intracellular signal. The activity of virtually all immune cells is modulated by zinc in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we discuss the interactions of zinc with major signaling pathways that regulate immune cell activity, and the implications of zinc deficiency or supplementation on zinc signaling as the molecular basis for an effect of zinc on immune cell function.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19400701View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1926Kris-Etherton et al 2009 - Dietary reference intakes for DHA and EPADietary reference intakes for DHA and EPADietary reference intakes for DHA and EPAKris-Etherton PM, Grieger JA, Etherton TD.01/08/2009Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.81(2-3):99-104. Epub 2009 Jun 13.
Various organizations worldwide have made dietary recommendations for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and fish intake that are primarily for coronary disease risk reduction and triglyceride (TG) lowering.
Recommendations also have been made for DHA intake for pregnant women, infants, and vegetarians/vegans.
A Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), specifically, an Adequate Intake (AI), has been set for alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of The National Academies. This amount is based on an intake that supports normal growth and neural development and results in no nutrient deficiency.
Although there is no DRI for EPA and DHA, the National Academies have recommended that approximately 10% of the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for ALA can be consumed as EPA and/or DHA. This recommendation represents current mean intake for EPA and DHA in the United States ( approximately 100mg/day), which is much lower than what many groups worldwide are currently recommending.
Global recommendations for long-chain omega-3 fatty acids underscore the pressing need to establish DRIs for DHA and EPA because DRIs are recognized as the "official" standard by which federal agencies issue dietary guidance or policy directives for the health and well-being of individuals in the United States and Canada.
Because of the many health benefits of DHA and EPA, it is important and timely that the National Academies establish DRIs for the individual long-chain (20 carbons or greater) omega-3 fatty acids.
omega-3, fatty acids, EPA, DHA, ALA, EFA, HUFA, recommended dietary intakes, RNI, RDA, EAR, human studies, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19525100View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1766Meiri et al 2009 - Omega 3 fatty acid treatment in autismOmega 3 fatty acid treatment in autismOmega 3 fatty acid treatment in autismMeiri G, Bichovsky Y, Belmaker RH.01/08/2009J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 19(4):449-51.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of omega-3 fatty acids for children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD).
METHODS: This was an open-label pilot study. Ten children aged 4-7 years old with ASD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4(th) edition (DSM-IV), were given 1 gram daily of omega-3 fatty acids for 12 weeks. The main outcome measure used was the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC). These data were collected between July, 2006, and June, 2007.
RESULTS: Of the 9 subjects who completed the study, 8 showed improvement of about 33% on the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC). None worsened and no side effects were reported.
CONCLUSIONS: Omega-3 fatty acids appear to be safe and might be helpful for children suffering from ASD. Further study is needed with a larger number of children in a double-blind design and with various doses of omega-3 fatty acids.
autism, omega-3, fatty acids, dietary supplementation, intervention, open-label study, pilot study, human studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19702497View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1842Oddy et al 2009 - Dietary patterns and mental health in early adolescenceThe association between dietary patterns and mental health in early adolescenceDietary patterns and mental health in early adolescenceOddy WH, Robinson M, Ambrosini GL, O'Sullivan TA, de Klerk NH, Beilin LJ, Silburn SR, Zubrick SR, Stanley FJ.01/08/2009Prev Med. Aug;49(1):39-44. Epub 2009 May 23.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between dietary patterns and mental health in early adolescence.
METHOD: The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study is a prospective study of 2900 pregnancies recruited from 1989-1992. At 14 years of age (2003-2006; n=1324), the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) was used to assess behaviour (characterising mental health status), with higher scores representing poorer behaviour. Two dietary patterns (Western and Healthy) were identified using factor analysis and food group intakes estimated by a 212-item food frequency questionnaire. Relationships between dietary patterns, food group intakes and behaviour were examined using general linear modelling following adjustment for potential confounding factors at age 14: total energy intake, body mass index, physical activity, screen use, family structure, income and functioning, gender and maternal education at pregnancy.
RESULTS: Higher total (b=2.20, 95% CI=1.06, 3.35), internalizing (withdrawn/depressed) (b=1.25, 95% CI=0.15, 2.35) and externalizing (delinquent/aggressive) (b=2.60, 95% CI=1.51, 3.68) CBCL scores were significantly associated with the Western dietary pattern, with increased intakes of takeaway foods, confectionary and red meat. Improved behavioural scores were significantly associated with higher intakes of leafy green vegetables and fresh fruit (components of the Healthy pattern).
CONCLUSION: These findings implicate a Western dietary pattern in poorer behavioural outcomes for adolescents. Better behavioural outcomes were associated with a higher intake of fresh fruit and leafy green vegetables.
diet, dietary patterns, mental health, internalising behaviour problems, externalising behaviour problems, adolescents, human study, observational studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19467256View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
3159van de Rest et al 2009 - Effect of fish oil supplementation on quality of life in a general population of older Dutch subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.Effect of fish oil supplementation on quality of life in a general population of older Dutch subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.Effect of fish oil supplementation on quality of life in a general population of older Dutch subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.van de Rest O, Geleijnse JM, Kok FJ, van Staveren WA, Olderikkert MG, Beekman AT, de Groot LC.01/08/2009J Am Geriatr Soc. 57(8)1481-6. Epub 2009 Jun 22.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on quality of life (QOL).
SETTING: Independently living individuals from the general older Dutch population.
PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred two individuals aged 65 and older without depression or dementia.
INTERVENTION: 1,800 mg/d EPA-DHA (n=96), 400 mg/d EPA-DHA (n=100), or placebo capsules (n=106) for 26 weeks.
MEASUREMENTS: QOL was assessed using the short version of the World Health Organization QOL questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF). The WHOQOL-BREF covers four domains: physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and satisfaction with environment. The total score range is 26 to 130, with higher scores indicating a more favorable condition.
RESULTS: Mean age of the participants was 70, and 55% were male. Plasma concentrations of EPA-DHA increased 238% in the high-dose and 51% in the low-dose EPA-DHA group, reflecting excellent adherence. Median baseline total WHOQOL scores ranged from 107 to 110 in the three groups and were not significantly different from each other. After 26 weeks, the mean difference from placebo was -1.42 (95% confidence interval (CI)=-3.40-0.57) for the high-dose and 0.02 (95% CI=-1.95-1.99) for the low-dose fish oil group. Treatment with 1,800 mg or 400 mg EPA-DHA did not affect total QOL or any of the separate domains after 13 or 26 weeks of intervention.
CONCLUSION: Supplementation with high or low doses of fish oil for 26 weeks did not influence the QOL of healthy older individuals.
omega-3, ageing, quality of life, RCT, RCTFA, human studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19549020View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1549Tveden-Nyborg et al 2009 - Vitamin C deficiency in early postnatal life, spatial memory and number of hippocampal neurons.Vitamin C deficiency in early postnatal life impairs spatial memory and reduces the number of hippocampal neurons in guinea pigs.Vitamin C deficiency in early postnatal life impairs spatial memory and reduces the number of hippocampal neurons in guinea pigs. Tveden-Nyborg P, Johansen LK, Raida Z, Villumsen CK, Larsen JO, Lykkesfeldt J.29/07/2009Am J Clin Nutr.90(3)540-6. Epub 2009 Jul 29.
BACKGROUND: The neonatal brain is particularly vulnerable to imbalances in redox homeostasis because of rapid growth and immature antioxidant systems. Vitamin C has been shown to have a key function in the brain, and during states of deficiency it is able to retain higher concentrations of vitamin C than other organs. However, because neurons maintain one of the highest intracellular concentrations of vitamin C in the organism, the brain may still be more sensitive to deficiency despite these preventive measures.
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the potential link between chronic vitamin C deficiency and neuronal damage in newborn guinea pigs.
DESIGN: Thirty 6- to 7-d-old guinea pigs were randomly assigned to 2 groups to receive either a vitamin C-sufficient diet or the same diet containing a low concentration of vitamin C (but adequate to prevent scurvy) for 2 mo. Spatial memory was assessed by the Morris Water Maze, and hippocampal neuron numbers were quantified by stereologic techniques.
RESULTS: The results showed a reduction in spatial memory (P < 0.05) and an increased time to first platform hit (P < 0.05) in deficient animals compared with controls. The deficient animals had a lower total number of neurons in hippocampal subdivisions (dentate gyrus, cornu ammonis 1, and cornu ammonis 2-3) than did the normal controls (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that vitamin C deficiency in early postnatal life results in impaired neuronal development and a functional decrease in spatial memory in guinea pigs. We speculate that this unrecognized effect of vitamin C deficiency may have clinical implications for high-risk individuals, such as in children born from vitamin C-deficient mothers.
The importance of Vitamin C for brain development and function has been given relatively little attention, despite the fact that the brain normally contains high concentrations of Vitamin C.
In this study, Vitamin C deficiency in newborns was associated with significant impairments in spatial memory performance and impaired brain development in regions well known to be important for memory.
1382Hibbeln & Davis 2009 - Considerations regarding neuropsychiatric nutritional requirements for intakes of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acidsConsiderations regarding neuropsychiatric nutritional requirements for intakes of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acidsConsiderations regarding neuropsychiatric nutritional requirements for intakes of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acidsHibbeln JR, Davis JM18/07/2009Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.81(2-3):. 179-86. Epub 2009 Jul 19.
BACKGROUND: Adverse neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric outcomes have been established as signs of nutrient deficiencies and may be applicable to insufficient dietary intakes of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFAs).
OBJECTIVE: Consider if statistical definitions for Daily Reference Intakes can be applied to n-3 HUFAs intakes during pregnancy for maternal and neurodevelopmental deficiencies. DESIGN: Data were prospectively collected from women during pregnancy and children up to age 8 years participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Statistical analyses took social and lifestyle factors into account.
RESULTS: During pregnancy, n-3 HUFA intakes from seafood that putatively meet statistical definitions of an estimated average requirement ranged from 0.05 to 0.06en% (111-139mg/d/2000Cal) for suboptimal fine motor control at 42m and 0.065-0.08en% (114-181mg/d/2000Cal) for suboptimal verbal IQ at age 8 years and 0.18-0.22en% (389-486mg/d/2000Cal) for maternal depression at 32 weeks. Intakes of n-3 ranging from 0.2 to 0.41en% (445-917mg/d/2000Cal) prevented both increased risk of maternal depression and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes for children among 97.5% of the population. No upper limit for safety was found.
CONCLUSION: During pregnancy, a n-3 HUFA intake of 0.40en% (900mg/d/2000Cal) from seafood is likely to meet the nutritional requirements for 97.5% of the mothers and children of this population. These considerations do not constitute DRI's for docosahexaenoic acid and n-3 HUFAs, but may contribute to their formulation.
psychiatric disorders, diet, fatty acids, omega-3, fish, seafood, RDA, RNI, epidemiologyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19619995?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via Pubmed here
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