1286Colter et al 2008 - Fatty acid status and behavioural symptoms of ADHD in adolescents: a case-control study.Fatty acid status and behavioural symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents: a case-control study.Fatty acid status and behavioural symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents: a case-control study.Colter AL, Cutler C, Meckling KA.01/02/2008Nutr J. 147:8
BACKGROUND: Most studies of Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have focused on either young children or older adults. The current study compared 11 ADHD adolescents with 12 age-matched controls. The purpose was to examine differences in dietary intake, particularly of essential fatty acids, and determine whether this could explain the typical abnormalities in red blood cell fatty acids observed in previous studies of young children. A secondary purpose was to determine if there were relationships between circulating concentrations of essential fatty acids and specific ADHD behaviours as measured by the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-L). METHODS: Eleven ADHD adolescents and twelve age-matched controls were recruited through newspaper ads, posters and a university website. ADHD diagnosis was confirmed by medical practitioners according to DSM-IV criteria. Blood, dietary intake information as well as behavioural assessments were completed. RESULTS: Results showed that ADHD adolescents consumed more energy and fat than controls but had similar anthropometry. ADHD children consumed equivalent amounts of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids to controls, however they had significantly lower levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and total omega-3 fatty acids, higher omega-6 fatty acids and a lower ratio of n-3:n-6 fatty acids than control subjects. In addition, low omega-3 status correlated with higher scores on several Conners' behavioural scales. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that adolescents with ADHD continue to display abnormal essential fatty acid profiles that are often observed in younger children and distinctly different from normal controls of similar age. Further these red blood cell fatty acid differences are not explained by differences in intake. This suggests that there are metabolic differences in fatty acid handling between ADHD adolescents and normal controls. The value of omega-3 supplements to improve fatty acid profiles and possibly behaviours associated with ADHD, need to be examined.
ADHD, fatty acids, omega-3, RBCFAhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18275609?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=2&log$=relatedarticles&logdbfrom=pubmedView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
3170Oner et al 2008 - Relation of ferritin levels with symptom ratings and cognitive performance in children with ADHDRelation of ferritin levels with symptom ratings and cognitive performance in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorderADHD and iron stores - relationship with behaviour but not cognitionOner O, Alkar OY, Oner P.01/02/2008Pediatr Int. 50(1)40-4.
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present paper was to investigate the relationship between behavioral symptoms and attentional and executive functions and hematological variables related to iron deficiency and anemia, ferritin, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and red cell distribution width (RDW) in children and adolescents with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
METHODS: The sample consisted of 52 ADHD children (42 boys, 10 girls; age 7-13 years; mean +/- SD, 9.9 +/- 2.1 years). Conners Parent and Teacher Rating Scales were obtained. The neuropsychological test battery included Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST), Stroop, Continuous Performance Test, Digit Symbol and Digit Span subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (WISC-R), and Trail Making Test A and B, which taps abstraction-flexilibity (WCST), sustained attention (CPT), mental tracking and complex attention (WISC-R Digit Span, Digit Symbol, Trail Making A and B) and interference control (Stroop). Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate the relation of ferritin, hemoglobin, MCV, RDW, age, gender, and presence of comorbidity.
RESULTS: While seven children had iron deficiency, none of them was anemic. Lower ferritin levels were associated with higher hyperactivity scores in parental ratings. While performance increased with age for most of the neuropsychological tests utilized, ferritin, hemoglobin, MCV and RDW and gender were not significantly related with cognitive performance in this sample.
CONCLUSIONS: At least for the present clinical sample, ferritin levels might be related with behavioral but not cognitive measures in ADHD cases.
ADHD, behaviour, cognition, iron, ferritin, blood biochemical measures, children, human study, observational studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18279203View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1537Rajkumar & Jebaraj 2008 - Chronic psychosis associated with vitamin B12 deficiencyChronic psychosis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency Chronic psychosis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency Rajkumar AP, Jebaraj P.01/02/2008J Assoc Physicians India. 56115-6.
B12 deficiency is widely prevalent and usually presents with haematologic and neuropsychiatric manifestations. Psychiatric symptoms seldom precede anaemia and present as the principal manifestation of B12 deficiency. A report an unusual presentation of long standing psychotic symptoms without anaemia in a 31 year old male, who presented to a tertiary care psychiatric facility. His physical examination revealed hyper pigmentation of extremities and posterior column involvement. Laboratory investigations confirmed normal haemoglobin and low serum B12 levels. He recovered dramatically with short term anti psychotic medication and intramuscular cobalamin supplementation. He remained asymptomatic and functionally independent at two years follow up.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18472513View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1821Whalley et al 2008 - n-3 Fatty acid erythrocyte membrane content, APOE varepsilon4, and cognitive variation: an observational follow-up study in late adulthoodn-3 Fatty acid erythrocyte membrane content, APOE varepsilon4, and cognitive variation: an observational follow-up study in late adulthoodn-3 Fatty acid erythrocyte membrane content, APOE varepsilon4, and cognitive variation: an observational follow-up study in late adulthoodWhalley LJ, Deary IJ, Starr JM, Wahle KW, Rance KA, Bourne VJ, Fox HC01/02/2008Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Feb;87(2):449-54.
BACKGROUND: Evidence for an inverse relation between dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and age-related cognitive decline is inconsistent. This inconsistency may arise because the relation is present only in the absence of the apolipoprotein E epsilon4 (APOE epsilon4) allele.
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the contribution of erythrocyte n-3 PUFA content to cognitive aging in the presence or absence of the APOE epsilon4 allele.
DESIGN: We followed up 120 volunteers, born in 1936, at approximate ages of 64, 66, and 68 y. Their intelligence quotient at 11 y old was available. At first follow-up, we determined APOE genotype and measured the PUFA composition of erythrocyte membranes. Six cognitive tests were administered at all follow-ups. We related cognitive performance at approximately 64 y old and cognitive changes from approximately 64 to approximately 68 y old to erythrocyte n-3 PUFA composition on recruitment and to APOE epsilon4 allele status.
RESULTS: Total n-3 PUFA and docosohexaenoic acid concentrations were associated with benefits for cognition at approximately 64 y old and from approximately 64 to approximately 68 y old. After adjustment for sex, APOE epsilon4 status, and intelligence quotient at 11 y old, the effects associated with total n-3 PUFA remained significant. Cognitive benefits were associated with higher erythrocyte n-3 PUFA content but were significant only in the absence of the APOE epsilon4 allele.
CONCLUSIONS: These data are evidence of a gene x environment interaction for cognitive aging. They are relevant to the analysis of trials of n-3 PUFA supplements in cognitive aging and dementia prevention, and they support heterogeneity in cognitive aging and, possibly, in Alzheimer disease.
Aging/metabolism, Apolipoprotein E4/metabolism,
Cognition, Erythrocyte Membrane/metabolism,
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18258638View this abstract via PubMed here
117830 Jan 2008 - Associate Parliamentary Food and Health Forum Report on the links between diet, mental health and behaviourAssociate Parliamentary Food and Health Forum30/01/2008Associate Parliamentary Food and Health Forum
The Associate Parliamentary Food and Health Forum has issued a report which looks at the scientific evidence on whether mental health and performance can be affected by what we eat, and explores how this may be happening. It concentrates particularly on the role of omega-3 fatty acids (whose benefits are promoted relentlessly and often inaccurately by the food industry) but recognises that other nutrients forming part of a healthy diet also have a significant role.
The report backs the recommendations of the FSA that fish consumption should be increased since it is the prime source of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, but is concerned that fish stocks may not be sufficient if this advice is followed and considers possible alternative sources of omega-3 fatty acids. The report emphasises the importance of omega-3 in the diet of pregnant and breast feeding mothers and children since brain development mainly occurs at the beginning of life, but also recognises that older people may benefit. There may be a protective effect of omega-3 against Alzheimer's disease but the report concludes that more research, already under way, needs to be evaluated before firm conclusions can be drawn."
Half a dozen Parliamentarians have been conducting an inquiry for a year, in which they have taken scientific and other evidence from experts at a number of open meetings. This evidence has clarified the role of omega-3 and other nutrients in brain development and function, but has also revealed the need for further well conducted research into their effect on different aspects of human behaviour and cognitive development. However they agreed that the evidence for the benefits of naturally occurring omega-3 in fish and fish oils was very powerful and that this should be a vital component of a well balanced healthy diet.
In their report, the Parliamentarians emphasise that we should consider the impact on our mental health, as well as our physical health, of what we eat. In particular the inquiry report looks at the evidence that diet influences the behaviour and performance of school children, the behaviour of offenders and people suffering from depression.
The recommendations range from advice on Government messages about healthy eating, to specific advice in relation to pregnant women and on nutritional standards in prisons.
Lord Rea, Chairman of the FHF inquiry team, said:
"The scientific evidence we heard showed very clearly the importance of omega-3 long chain fatty acids in brain composition and function. There is epidemiological evidence that populations with a high fish intake have less depression, a lower rate of Alzheimer's disease and brighter children (as well as healthier hearts and arteries). But there is less hard evidence so far that intervention studies which change people's diets or give them supplements show a beneficial effect. However there are a few well conducted random controlled trials which do appear to show such an effect among juvenile offenders and children with ADHD and other behavioural disorders and we learnt of others in progress, some which we describe briefly in the report. However it became clear that far too little research of this kind has been done and one of our main recommendations is that more should be commissioned and funded in view of the burden that mental and behavioural disorders place on society."
The report looks at a number of issues which may affect mental health and behaviour, including the controversial issue of artificial food colours. The Parliamentarians recommend that all artificial food colours (which have no nutritional value) and non-essential preservatives, should be banned from food products and soft drinks.
Dr Ian Gibson, said:
"It was an illuminating experience to hear from a wide range of scientists who have been studying the links between diet, mental health and behaviour. I was pleased that we were also able to hear from teachers at the grassroots level, such as those at Eaton Hall School in Norwich, who are trying to help children with behavioural problems. Mrs Moore and her colleagues do an excellent job and it was very interesting to hear how they are using emerging evidence on diet and behaviour as one strand in their approach to supporting their pupils."
Earl Baldwin of Bewdley said:
"While we majored on the importance of fish oils, we were also impressed by the emerging evidence of the influence of a range of micronutrients on behaviour, performance and well-being, especially in young offenders, and by the importance for some people of avoiding foodstuffs to which they appear to be intolerant.
The report also recommends better diets for offenders held in prisons and young offender institutes, especially pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers. It calls for the introduction of nutrient-based standards for meals, similar to those used in schools, but based on adult dietary needs.
Baroness Miller of Chilthorne Domer said:
"I am especially pleased that our report highlights how important fish oils are in a mother's diet. We heard how the development of the foetus brain is particularly dependent on the mothers' nutrient intake. Our report highlights how mothers with little or no control of their diet, such as those in prison, must be offered an adequate diet taking their pregnancy into account. Otherwise the unborn child could be having their life chances severely hampered even before they are born."
The Parliamentarians are also critical of medical training, noting that a lack of training in nutrition and diet for GPs and other medical professionals detracts from their ability to support their patients' physical and mental health. The Parliamentarians recommend that this issue should be addressed by the Royal Medical Colleges and the General Medical Council.
The Government may be concerned that the Parliamentarians recommend it includes financial support to School Breakfast Clubs as part of the package set up to improve school meals. They strongly recommend that all children entitled to free school lunches should be entitled also to a free school breakfast the content of which, like school lunches, should be subject to quantified nutritional standards.
Baroness Gibson of Market Rasen said:
"A good breakfast is a good start to the day, especially for children. It (free school breakfasts for the children of low income families) could help the least well off in our society and help children to recognise good nutritional food as part of their everyday life."
The Countess of Mar said:
"The evidence we received for this report has shown that whilst, in the past, we have recognised the importance of some of the major vitamins and minerals - those we see on cereal packets, for example, we may now be paying the price of ignoring the importance of the role played by lesser known factors, including trace elements in our health and behaviour. I was surprised by the lack of knowledge there is about these essential constituents in the human diet when, in my role as a farmer and stock breeder, I learned very early on to ensure that animals in my care receive a balanced diet, to look out for signs and symptoms of deficiency before they become serious and to provide supplements if necessary. This report is a step along the way towards doing the same, particularly for infants, children and young people."
The members of the FHF inquiry team were: Lord Rea (Chairman), Baroness Gibson of Market Rasen, Baroness Miller of Chilthorne Domer, Dr Ian Gibson and Earl Baldwin of Bewdley.
"The Associate Parliamentary Food and Health Forum" launched this report on 30 January 2008 following a year long inquiry into the links between diet, mental health and behaviour. More detailed information about the inquiry, including minutes of all the meetings and presentations given by witnesses, is available on the Forum's website at: www.fhf.org.uk/inquiry."
The Parliamentarians' recommendations are set out below:
1. We recommend that the Government - principally the Department of Health, the Department for Children, Schools and Families and the Ministry of Justice, working with the FSA and the Medical Research Council - commission and support further research in the areas highlighted in this report.
2. We recommend that the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) should be asked to define further the optimum intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in different stages of life, especially for pregnant women and children.
3. We also recommend that in the meantime, on a precautionary basis, the FSA should reconsider its advice to pregnant women about fish consumption, with a view to encouraging them to eat two portions of oily fish, or the equivalent in omega-3 PUFAs, a week (rather than that people should eat two portions of fish a week, of which one should be oily).
4. We also recommend that the FSA continues to monitor closely levels of mercury, dioxin and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) in the different species of oily fish available in the UK.
The lack of nutritional training for GPs and other medical professionals detracts from their ability to support their patients' physical and mental health; this issue should be addressed by the Royal Medical Colleges and the General Medical Council if we are to tackle the problems and costs associated with mental as well as physical ill health.
5. We recommend that the Royal Medical Colleges and the GMC consider upgrading the role of nutrition in the medical curriculum.
6. We recommend that Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) should increase the number of posts for dietitians working in the community and that GP practices should be fully reimbursed if they employ a dietitian to whom patients can be referred for nutritional advice.
The campaigns by the Department of Health and FSA to increase the consumption of fruit and vegetables and reduce consumption of sugar and salt are welcome, but they do not make explicit the emerging link between diet and mental well-being and they neglect the vital role of essential fatty acids, which appear to be crucial to children's life chances particularly in utero and in early childhood.
7. We believe the Government should take further action to raise public awareness of the significance of good nutrition in pregnancy and to tackle the incidence of low birth-weight in the UK.
The evidence which has emerged to date of the links between nutritional status and childhood disorders, depression, aggressive and anti-social behaviour merits further publicly funded research.
8. We recommend that more research to test the effect of selected essential fatty acids on the cognitive skills, mood and behaviour of both "healthy" children (that is, children suffering from no known disorders), as well as children suffering from a range of behavioural disorders should be undertaken.
9. We recommend that regulations should be introduced to prohibit all artificial colours and non-essential preservatives in food products and soft drinks.
10. We recommend that the Government includes financial support to School Breakfast Clubs as part of the package set up to improve school meals. We strongly recommend that all children entitled to free school lunches should be entitled also to a free school breakfast whose content, like school lunches, should be subject to quantified nutritional standards.
11. We recommend that the Department of Health encourages other NHS Trusts to adopt an approach similar to that pursued by the Doncaster and South Humber Healthcare NHS Trust which undertakes a nutritional assessment of patients suffering from depression and patients with early symptoms of psychosis and provides dietary advice to them.
12. We recommend that consideration of the outcome of the next trial of nutritional supplements in Young Offender Institutes should be a priority for the National Offender Management Service (NOMS) given that our prisons are overcrowded and there is continuing concern about the mental health of prisoners, particularly young offenders at risk of self-harm and suicide.
13. We recommend that any dietary intervention that can be used to improve the behaviour and mental well-being of offenders held in custody should be given serious consideration by the NOMS.
14. We recommend that the NOMS looks positively at the case for introducing nutrient-based standards for meals in prisons, similar to those introduced for schools, but based on recommended daily intakes for adults.
15. We also recommend that effective measures should be taken in all prisons to inform prisoners about the benefits of a good diet and to persuade and encourage them to make healthy choices both while they are in custody and after their release.
16. We recommend that in all women's prisons national nutritional standards should be introduced to ensure that the basic dietary needs of pregnant women prisoners are achieved.
17. Because of the major potential benefit for the fields of education, crime, health and the well-being of vulnerable sections of society, we believe that more research is urgently needed in the area of nutrition and behaviour and we recommend that the Government devotes more resources to this, especially in corrective institutions and care homes.
18. We recommend that the Department of Health messages on a healthy diet should emphasise the importance of a balanced diet for optimum mental as well as physical health.
19. While research continues to identify and produce alternative sources of omega-3 PUFAs, we recommend that all people in the UK should be encouraged to eat more fish, some of which should be oily fish, or its equivalent in omega-3 PUFAs.
http://www.fhf.org.uk/inquiryVisit the FHF website hereThe Links Between Diet and Behaviour - FHF inquiry report January 2008 (2).pdfDownload a pdf copy of the full report hereAPFHF.jpgAPFHF
117729 January 2008 - BBC News - Fish oil: A cure for young offenders?Bernard Gesch; criminal justice system; young offenders; A major trial is to be launched to see whether giving young offenders nutritional supplements reduces anti-social behaviour in prison. Its authors believe this could prove a seminal piece of research with major implications for the criminal justice system.29/01/2008Clare Murphy - Health Reporter
Young offenders, including murderers, in three institutions in the UK are to be given a cocktail of vitamins, minerals and "essential fatty acids" on top of their normal prison diet.
Their behaviour will be compared with others who are given a placebo.
Researchers, funded by the Wellcome Trust, have high hopes for the million pound trial on 1,000 volunteers - the largest of its kind - after a much smaller study did find supplements had a favourable impact on levels of violence and ill-discipline in one institution in Aylesbury.
This is not about improving prison food, which the team believe is - from a nutritional perspective at least - more than satisfactory. "The problem is that prisoners do not make good dietary choices," says Professor John Stein of Oxford University, "and that's what we're trying to overcome."
The idea that better nutrition could change behaviour is obviously an attractive one - providing a pill is both very simple and incredibly cheap. But it is not without controversy.
That what we eat can impact upon how we behave is hardly a new concept.
When Dr Hugh Sinclair persuaded the British government in 1942 to supplement children's diets with orange juice and cod liver oil, he speculated that among other ills, poor diets could lead to anti-social behaviour.
He may not have then predicted the way in which cod liver oil - rich in an essential fatty acid called omega-3 - would be seized from the shelves of health shops and supermarkets by a later generation of parents convinced it would help their child excel at school.
But while there is pretty much consensus within the scientific community about the protective effect these oils have on the heart, their impact upon the brain - whether to lift depression, curb violent urges, or simply to boost concentration - are less well documented.
Small trials on selected groups of children with disorders such as dyslexia and ADHD have shown mixed results, with small improvements seen in some participants but not others.
Fledgling plans to dish it out to all schoolchildren, regardless of disorders, were shelved after the Food Standards Agency said there was little evidence to support such a move.
And a much touted trial of Durham schoolchildren, in which all GCSE pupils were encouraged to take the supplement in the run up to exams last summer, seems to have been quietly forgotten.
The results did improve, but they have done for the last five years - and the margin of improvement was in fact smaller than previous years.
Acting on impulse
Its impact upon anti-social behaviour takes us into even more uncharted waters.
Omega-3 is one of the key components of a package of 30 nutrients that will seek to bring the offender's intake of vitamins and minerals up to the recommended daily amount.
The researchers are looking for evidence that the supplements are helping the participants curb impulsive urges - seen as a key feature of anti-social behaviour.
Computer tests will be carried out to measure this. Heart rate variability will also be checked - a low rate is said to be predictive of undesirable behaviour - and blood biochemistry recorded.
While it is thought the fish oil holds the most promise, levels of other important nutrients such as zinc and Vitamin D, will also be noted.
The results will then be compared with those of the group offered a placebo.
The researchers hope the findings will mirror, if not better, a study carried out at HM Young Offenders Institution in Aylesbury by the charity Natural Justice, which is also involved in this latest trial.
There capsule takers committed on average 26% fewer disciplinary offences than those taking a placebo and committed 37% fewer violent crimes.
If the trial does prove a success, it raises as many questions as it answers.
Could it be applied to the prison population as a whole - or does it only improve young, growing brains?
How long will the effects last, and how could you ensure that pill taking continues once the offender has left the prison gate? Even more controversially, could likely offenders be identified and offered the supplements before undesirable behaviour kicks in?
Frances Crook, director of the Howard League for Penal Reform, does believe that diet plays a role in criminal behaviour and that poor food choices should be seen as part of the social fabric from which these youngsters hail.
"But this is all wrong. What we need is a comprehensive approach: these youngsters need to be taught how to shop, how to cook a nutritious meal and, crucially, how to sit down and eat it with others.
"A society which believes a young offender can be cured by a capsule which he takes back to his cell and consumes with his chips has got some serious thinking to do. Popping a pill can never be the answer."
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/7213499.stmRead the BBC News Item here_44387085_youngoffender_203.jpg
1820Buydens-Branchey and Branchey 2008 - Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease feelings of anger in substance abusersLong-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease feelings of anger in substance abusersLong-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease feelings of anger in substance abusersBuydens-Branchey L, Branchey M15/01/2008Psychiatry Res. 2008 Jan 15;157(1-3):95-104. Epub 2007 Sep 27
It has been suggested that low levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play a role in the pathophysiology of some psychiatric disorders. In light of the existence of strong associations between high-frequency and high-severity aggressive behaviors and substance use disorders and of our observation that substance abusers have poor dietary habits, the possibility that the administration of supplements of n-3 PUFAs would decrease their anger levels was explored. A lifelong history of aggressive behaviors and problems with the law was obtained in 24 patients. Thirteen patients received on a daily basis capsules containing 3 g of n-3 PUFAs (EPA+DHA). Eleven patients received placebo capsules. The trial was double-blind, randomized, and lasted 3 months. An anger scale was administered at baseline and every month thereafter. Six PUFA group patients and eight placebo group patients were followed for an additional 3 months after treatment discontinuation. Four patients in each group had a history of assaultive behavior. The baseline fish and n-3 PUFA intakes of these eight patients were significantly lower than those of the non-aggressive patients. When given for 3 months, n-3 PUFAs were superior to placebo in diminishing anger scores. Scores remained decreased for 3 months following treatment discontinuation. These data provide further support for emerging evidence indicating that supplementation with long-chain n-3 PUFAs could be beneficial in the treatment of some individuals with aggressive tendencies.
substance abusehttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17900705View this abstract via PubMed here
1173Detoxing Childhood - by Sue PalmerDetoxing Childhood: What parents need to know to raise happy, successful childrenSue Palmer; Detoxing ChildhoodSue Palmer10/01/2008
When Sue Palmer wrote Toxic Childhood, her ground-breaking book that showed how problems of diet, education, fitness and mental health problems were all inter-related, she created a national debate. Everyone from educationists and scientists to politicians, religious leaders and authors got involved in the debate. The problems seemed potentially overwhelming. Now, in this important successor volume, Sue Palmer provides an essential guide on how to bring up children in a way that avoids the problems of a toxic world. With practical, easy-to-follow advice she explains what children need, in terms of food, play, sleep and talk; what childcare and education will help most; how families can work together for the best, given the hectic pace of 21st century life; and how to turn the electronic village of TV, computers and mobile phones to our advantage. With so many pressures across so many parts of our lives today, this book is the one-stop solution to all our concerns about raising healthy, happy children in the modern world.
Sue Palmer; Detoxing ChildhoodDetoxing Childhood.jpgDetoxing Childhoodhttp://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0752890107/fabresearfood-21http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0752890107/fabresearch-20
2123Franzek et al 2008 - Prenatal exposure to the 1944-45 Dutch 'hunger winter' and addiction later in lifePrenatal exposure to the 1944-45 Dutch 'hunger winter' and addiction later in life.Prenatal exposure to the 1944-45 Dutch 'hunger winter' and addiction later in life.Franzek EJ, Sprangers N, Janssens AC, Van Duijn CM, Van De Wetering BJ.08/01/2008Addiction.103(3)433-8. Epub 2008 Jan 8.
AIMS: Prenatal exposure to severe famine has been associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia and affective disorders. We studied the relationship between prenatal exposure to famine during the Dutch hunger winter of 1944-45 and addiction later in life.
DESIGN: A case-control study.
SETTING: The Rotterdam city area during the Dutch hunger winter lasting from mid-October 1944 to mid-May 1945. From February 1945 to mid-May 1945 the hunger winter was characterized by a famine peak.
PARTICIPANTS: Patients are native Dutch addicted patients from the Rotterdam Addiction Treatment Program and controls are native Dutch inhabitants of Rotterdam, born between 1944 and 1947.
MEASUREMENT: Exposure to the whole hunger winter (< 1400 kcal/day) and the peak of the hunger winter (< 1000 kcal/day) was determined for each trimester of gestation. For each trimester the exposed/unexposed ratios were compared between patients and controls and quantified as odds ratios (OR).
FINDINGS: The odds of first-trimester gestational exposure to famine during the total hunger winter was significantly higher among patients receiving treatment for an addictive disorder (OR = 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.64). Stratification by sex shows that the odds of exposure during the first trimester was significantly higher only among men (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.05-1.72), but not among women (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 0.88-1.81). The odds of exposure to the peak of the hunger winter during the first trimester of gestation were also significantly higher among addiction treatment patients (OR = 1.61, 95% CI 1.22-2.12). We did not find any significant differences for the second and third trimesters of gestation.
CONCLUSION: First-trimester prenatal exposure to famine appears to be associated with addiction later in life. The study confirms the adverse influence of severe malnutrition on brain development and maturation, confirms the influence of perinatal insults on mental health in later life and gives rise to great concern about the possible future consequences for the hunger regions in our world.
Nutritional programming, addiction, human studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18190668View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
11712 January 2008 - BBC News - UK and US 'keenest' on fast foodjunk food; fast food; obesity02/01/2008
The UK is the country most attached to fast food, closely followed by the United States, a survey has suggested.
A poll of 9,000 people in 13 nations, alongside a BBC investigation into global obesity, found vast variations in attitudes towards food and weight.
Many French get on the scales every day the poll found, while Singaporeans are the least likely to weigh themselves.
People are now said to be getting fatter in most of the world, with the exception of parts of Asia.
The three-day BBC series will look at the problems arising from the trend and what can be done about it.
This study, by market research firm Synovate, questioned 9,000 people in 13 countries across five continents.
Few people blamed their government for rising levels of obesity: the largest number of respondents blamed the food that was now available.
People in the UK and the US were the most likely to nominate "no self discipline" as the leading factor in obesity.
These two nations also had the most respondents who said they would be unable to give up fast food.
Some 45% in the UK agreed with the statement "I like the taste of fast food too much to give it up", while 44% of Americans said they would be unable to give up their burgers, pizzas and chicken wings.
Middle east diets
The survey also threw up some other interesting geographical variations.
Saudi Arabians and those from the United Arab Emirates were among the top consumers of low-fat food products, meal replacements and food supplements.
They were also the most interested in weight-loss courses, gym memberships and home exercise equipment.
"People are inherently contradictory and nowhere is it more obvious than on such a sensitive and important issue such as their weight," said Steve Garton of Synovate.
"The results show there's a world of people who cannot deny themselves that hamburger or extra piece of pizza, but probably make themselves feel better by washing it down with a diet cola."
A recent study of men and women in 63 countries found between half and two-thirds of men were overweight or obese in 2006.
168,000 people were evaluated by a doctor on a single day. The US was not included in the report.
A BMI over 25 is deemed overweight and greater than 30 is obese.
The populations of Canada and South Africa currently lead the way, with an average Body Mass Index (BMI) of 29 - a calculation that takes into account both height and weight.
There is still some debate about the exact health risk posed by rising levels of obesity, but those who are overweight do have a higher risk of heart disease, Type II diabetes and other diseases including some cancers.
It is thought that an increasingly sedentary lifestyle is a major factor in rising obesity rates.
Health analysts warn that obesity-related illness threatens to overwhelm healthcare systems around the world.
Neville Rigby, of the International Obesity Task Force, said: "It is serious for individuals, but it is also serious for countries.
"Reports from the World Health Organization have shown that preventing chronic disease can have major economic benefits, and failing to do so can have major economic disadvantages."
Douglas Smallwood, chief executive at leading health charity Diabetes UK, said: "This survey is a sad indictment of current eating habits in the UK."
Peter Hollins, chief executive of the British Heart Foundation said: "If we are to tackle the growing obesity crisis it is vital that Britain's junk food addiction is addressed.
"But this isn't going to happen whilst a junk-dominated diet is being normalised through the constant barrage of advertising and promotions."
168,000 people were evaluated by a doctor on a single day. The US was not included in the report.
A BMI over 25 is deemed overweight and greater than 30 is obese.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/7165990.stmRead the BBC News item here - graphs from this survey available here_44328182_fastfood203.jpg
11701 January 2008 - BBC News - Ban on junk food ads introducedban on junk foods; Children's Food Campaign01/01/2008
A ban on adverts for junk food during television programmes aimed at children under 16 has come into force.
Regulator Ofcom has outlawed adverts for foods high in fat, salt and sugar in an effort to tackle rising childhood obesity levels.
But broadcasters say the quality of children's programmes will be hit by the loss of an estimated £39m in advertising revenue.
Health campaigners had called for a complete ban before the 9pm watershed.
The move is the latest stage in a phased crackdown on advertising during programmes aimed at or appealing to children.
In April 2007, junk food ads were banned during programmes made to appeal to seven to nine-year-olds.
And by December this year, dedicated children's channels will have to phase them out altogether.
Children's Secretary Ed Balls has said that UK children see some 10,000 television adverts a year and recognise 400 brands by the age of 10.
Terrestrial broadcasters have predicted their advertising revenue will fall by 1% after the ban. Child-oriented satellite channels expect a 9% drop, while commercial channels aimed entirely at children fear a 15% fall.
Ofcom's rules impose curbs on adverts during shows where child viewers make up a high percentage of the total audience.
But in November, consumer group Which? claimed the restrictions were insufficient because they did not cover family programmes which appealed to both children and adults.
Among these were high-profile shows such as The X Factor, Ant and Dec's Saturday Night Takeaway, New You've Been Framed and Coronation Street.
Richard Watts from the Children's Food Campaign told BBC Radio 4's Today programme that 18 out of the top 20 shows watched by children were not covered by the new ban.
"The rules are fantastically complicated and opaque for parents," Mr Watts said in endorsing a complete ban before the 9pm watershed.
He accused Ofcom of balancing the protection of children's health alongside the "financial health" of broadcasters.
In addition to scheduling restrictions, Ofcom plans to ban the use of celebrities and characters, such as cartoon heroes, to advertise unhealthy food. Free gifts and health or nutrition claims will also be banned.
A Food Standards Agency ratings system is used to assess which foods are deemed to be junk products.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/7166510.stmRead the BBC News item herejunk food.jpg
1775Dunstan et al 2008 - Cognitive assessment of children at age 2(1/2) years after maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial.Cognitive assessment of children at age 2(1/2) years after maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial.Cognitive assessment of children at age 2(1/2) years after maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial.
Dunstan JA, Simmer K, Dixon G, Prescott SL.01/01/2008Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 93(1):F45-50. Epub 2006 Dec 21.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of antenatal omega 3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC PUFA) on cognitive development in a cohort of children whose mothers received high-dose fish oil in pregnancy.
DESIGN: A double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial.
SETTING: Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
PATIENTS: 98 pregnant women received the supplementation from 20 weeks' gestation until delivery. Their infants (n = 72) were assessed at age 2(1/2) years.
INTERVENTIONS: Fish oil (2.2 g docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and 1.1 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/day) or olive oil from 20 weeks' gestation until delivery.
OUTCOME MEASURES: Effects on infant growth and developmental quotients (Griffiths Mental Development Scales), receptive language (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test) and behaviour (Child Behaviour Checklist).
RESULTS: Children in the fish oil-supplemented group (n = 33) attained a significantly higher score for eye and hand coordination (mean ((SD) score 114 (10.2)) than those in the placebo group (n = 39, mean score 108 (SD 11.3); p = 0.021, adjusted p = 0.008). Eye and hand coordination scores correlated with n-3 PUFA levels in cord blood erythrocytes (EPA: r = 0.320, p = 0.007; DHA: r = 0.308, p = 0.009) and inversely correlated with n-6 PUFA (arachidonic acid 20:4n-6: r = -0.331, p = 0.005). Growth measurements in the two groups were similar at age 2(1/2) years.
CONCLUSION: Maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy is safe for the fetus and infant, and may have potentially beneficial effects on the child's eye and hand coordination. Further studies are needed to determine the significance of this finding.
fish oil, omega-3, dietary supplementation, pregnancy, child development, cognition, motor coordinationhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17185423View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1167FAB Events in 2008FAB Research events01/01/200831/12/2008
During 2008, FAB Research staged a series of one-day conferences in the series 'Feeding Young Minds' at different UK locations that provided a unique opportunity to hear the latest scientific evidence from leading international experts on how food can affect behaviour, learning and mood, with a particular emphasis on omega-3 fatty acids.
Full details of each event can be found via the following links
1631Hoffer 2008 - Vitamin therapy in schizophreniaVitamin therapy in schizophreniaVitamin therapy in schizophreniaHoffer LJ.01/01/2008Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 45(1):3-10.
Schizophrenia is a devastating and poorly understood disease for which the only accepted therapy is nonspecific antipsychotic and anti-seizure medication. This article summarizes the evidence that certain vitamin deficiencies likely worsen the symptoms of schizophrenia, and the evidence that large doses of certain vitamins could improve the core metabolic abnormalities that predispose some people to develop it; it recounts the history of a controversial vitamin-based therapy for schizophrenia called orthomolecular psychiatry; and it concludes by advocating a process for discovering promising new schizophrenia therapies that involves small, carefully conducted clinical trials of nutrient combinations in appropriately selected patients.
schizophrenia, nutrition, vitamins, treatment, review, Free Full Texthttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18587164View this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text of this article is available online
1339Koletzko et al 2008 - The roles of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation and infancy: review of current knowledge and consensus recommendations.The roles of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation and infancy: review of current knowledge and consensus recommendations.The roles of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation and infancy: review of current knowledge and consensus recommendations.Koletzko B, Lien E, Agostoni C, Böhles H, Campoy C, Cetin I, Decsi T, Dudenhausen JW, Dupont C, Forsyth S, Hoesli I, Holzgreve W, Lapillonne A, Putet G, Secher NJ, Symonds M, Szajewska H, Willatts P, Uauy R; World Association of Perinatal Medicine Dietary Guidelines Working Group01/01/2008J Perinat Med. 36(1)5-14
This paper reviews current knowledge on the role of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), in maternal and term infant nutrition as well as infant development. Consensus recommendations and practice guidelines for health-care providers supported by the World Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Early Nutrition Academy, and the Child Health Foundation are provided. The fetus and neonate should receive LC-PUFA in amounts sufficient to support optimal visual and cognitive development. Moreover, the consumption of oils rich in n-3 LC-PUFA during pregnancy reduces the risk for early premature birth. Pregnant and lactating women should aim to achieve an average daily intake of at least 200 mg DHA. For healthy term infants, we recommend and fully endorse breastfeeding, which supplies preformed LC-PUFA, as the preferred method of feeding. When breastfeeding is not possible, we recommend use of an infant formula providing DHA at levels between 0.2 and 0.5 weight percent of total fat, and with the minimum amount of AA equivalent to the contents of DHA. Dietary LC-PUFA supply should continue after the first six months of life, but currently there is not sufficient information for quantitative recommendations.
fatty acids, omega-3, PUFA, DHA, pregnancy, infant feeding, dietary intakeshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18184094?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=1&log$=relatedarticles&logdbfrom=pubmedView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1250Konofal et al 2008 - Effects of iron supplementation on ADHD in children.Effects of iron supplementation on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. Iron supplementation for ADHDKonofal E, Lecendreux M, Deron J, Marchand M, Cortese S, Zaïm M, Mouren MC, Arnulf I.01/01/2008Pediatr Neurol.38(1)20-6
Iron deficiency has been suggested as a possible contributing cause of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. This present study examined the effects of iron supplementation on ADHD in children.
Twenty-three nonanemic children (aged 5-8 years) with serum ferritin levels <30 ng/mL who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD were randomized (3:1 ratio) to either oral iron (ferrous sulfate, 80 mg/day, n = 18) or placebo (n = 5) for 12 weeks.
There was a progressive significant decrease in the ADHD Rating Scale after 12 weeks on iron (-11.0 +/- 13.9; P < 0.008), but not on placebo (3.0 +/- 5.7; P = 0.308). Improvement on Conners' Parent Rating Scale (P = 0.055) and Conners' Teacher Rating Scale (P = 0.076) with iron supplementation therapy failed to reach significance. The mean Clinical Global Impression-Severity significantly decreased at 12 weeks (P < 0.01) with iron, without change in the placebo group.
Iron supplementation (80 mg/day) appeared to improve ADHD symptoms in children with low serum ferritin levels suggesting a need for future investigations with larger controlled trials. Iron therapy was well tolerated and effectiveness is comparable to stimulants.
iron, ADHD, children, RCT, human studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18054688?ordinalpos=13&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1790Krishnaswamy 2008 - Traditional Indian spices and their health significance.Traditional Indian spices and their health significance.Traditional Indian spices and their health significance.
Krishnaswamy K.01/01/2008Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 17 Suppl 1:265-8.
India has been recognized all over the world for spices and medicinal plants. Both exhibit a wide range of physiological and pharmacological properties. Current biomedical efforts are focused on their scientific merits, to provide science-based evidence for the traditional uses and to develop either functional foods or nutraceuticals.
The Indian traditional medical systems use turmeric for wound healing, rheumatic disorders, gastrointestinal symptoms, deworming, rhinitis and as a cosmetic.
Studies in India have explored its anti-inflammatory, cholekinetic and anti-oxidant potentials with the recent investigations focusing on its preventive effect on precarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti atherosclerotic effects in biological systems both under in vitro and in vivo conditions in animals and humans.
Both turmeric and curcumin were found to increase detoxifying enzymes, prevent DNA damage, improve DNA repair, decrease mutations and tumour formation and exhibit antioxidative potential in animals.
Limited clinical studies suggest that turmeric can significantly impact excretion of mutagens in urine in smokers and regress precancerous palatal lesions. It reduces DNA adducts and micronuclei in oral epithelial cells. It prevents formation of nitroso compounds both in vivo and in vitro. It delays induced cataract in diabetes and reduces hyperlipidemia in obese rats.
Recently several molecular targets have been identified for therapeutic / preventive effects of turmeric. Fenugreek seeds, a rich source of soluble fiber used in Indian cuisine reduces blood glucose and lipids and can be used as a food adjuvant in diabetes. Similarly garlic, onions, and ginger have been found to modulate favourably the process of carcinogenesis.
herbs and spices, health, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, human studies, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18296352View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1454Peet M 2008 - Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of schizophreniaOmega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of schizophreniaM Peet01/01/2008The Israel journal of psychiatry and related sciences 2008;45(1):19-25
Most studies have shown reduced levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, in the cell membranes of red blood cells from schizophrenic patients. This has led to research interest in the possible therapeutic benefits of omega-3 fatty acids in schizophrenia. There is evidence from double-blind placebo-controlled trials that omega-3 fatty acids might prevent conversion from a prodromal state into first episode psychosis, and reduce the antipsychotic drug requirement in first episode patients. Results in chronic and acutely relapsing schizophrenia have been mixed. The problems associated with single nutrient studies are discussed. Nutrients are normally ingested in complex combinations, and they interact with each other in their normal metabolic and physiological functions. It is likely that optimal nutritional treatment will involve complex combinations of nutrients, preferably as part of a healthy balanced diet rather than by using supplements. However, such approaches have been little evaluated in mental health..
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18587166?itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=2View this abstract via PubMed here
1760Simmer et al 2008 - Longchain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infants born at termLongchain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infants born at termLongchain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infants born at termSimmer K, Patole SK, Rao SC.01/01/2008Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jan 23;(1):CD000376.
BACKGROUND: The n-3 and n-6 fatty acids linolenic acid and linoleic acid are precursors of the n-3 and n-6 long chain fatty acids (LCPUFA). Infant formula has historically only contained the precursor fatty acids. Controversy exists over whether LCPUFA are also essential nutrients in infancy. Over the last few years, some manufacturers have added LCPUFA to formulae and marketed them as providing an advantage for the development of term infants.
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether supplementation of formula with LCPUFA is safe and of benefit to term infants.
SEARCH STRATEGY: Eligible studies were identified by searching MEDLINE (March 2007), EMBASE 1980 - 2007, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2007) and CINAHL (December 1982 - March 2007). Abstracts of the Society for Pediatric Research were hand searched from 1980 to 2006 inclusive. Reference lists of published narrative and systematic reviews were also reviewed. No language restrictions were applied.
SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised and quasi randomised trials comparing LCPUFA supplemented formula milk vs. non-supplemented formula milk and with clinical endpoints were reviewed.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Methodological quality of eligible studies was assessed according to allocation concealment, blinding of intervention, blinding of outcome assessment and completeness of follow up. Data were sought regarding effects on visual acuity, neurodevelopmental outcomes and physical growth. When appropriate, meta-analysis was conducted to provide a pooled estimate of effect. Continuous data were analysed using weighted mean difference (WMD). There were no categorical outcomes in this review.
MAIN RESULTS: Twenty randomised studies were identified. Fourteen were included (n = 1719) and six excluded. Eleven included studies were of good quality. The main outcomes assessed were visual acuity, neurodevelopmental and physical growth. Visual acuity was measured at various stages throughout the first three years of life by nine studies. Visual evoked potential was used to assess visual acuity in five studies. The remaining four used Teller visual acuity cards. The results were inconsistent. Three studies reported beneficial effect of LCPUFA supplementation on visual acuity while the remaining six did not. Neurodevelopmental outcome was measured at different ages throughout the first two years by eleven studies. Bayley scales of infant development (BSID) was used in eight studies. Only one showed beneficial effect of LCPUFA supplementation on BSID scales. Pooled meta-analysis of the data also did not show any statistically significant benefit of LCPUFA supplementation on either mental or psychomotor developmental index of BSID. One study reported better novelty preference measured by Fagan Infant test at nine months in supplemented infants compared with controls. Another study reported better problem solving at 10 months with supplementation. One study used Brunet and Lezine developmental test to assess the developmental quotient and did not find beneficial effects of LCPUFA supplementation. Physical growth was measured at various ages throughout first three years of life by twelve studies. Some studies reported the actual measurements while some reported the rate of growth over a time period. Some studies z scores. Irrespective of the type of LCPUFA supplementation, duration of supplementation and method of assessment, none of the individual studies found beneficial or harmful effects of LCPUFA supplementation. Meta-analysis of relevant studies also did not show any effect of LCPUFA supplementation on growth of term infants.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:The results of most of the well conducted RCTS have not shown beneficial effects of LCPUFA supplementation of formula milk on the physical, visual and neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants born at term. Only one group of researchers have shown some beneficial effects on VEP acuity. Two groups of researchers have shown some beneficial effect on mental development. Routine supplementation of milk formula with LCPUFA to improve the physical, neurodevelopmental or visual outcomes of infants born at term can not be recommended based on the current evidence. Further research is needed to see if the beneficial effects demonstrated by Dallas 2005 trial of Birch et al can be replicated in different settings.
Fatty acids, omega-3, omega-6, LC-PUFA, DHA, AA, infant feeding, infant formula, dietary supplementation, intervention, RCT, human studies, infants, term infants, systematic reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18253974View this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text of this systematic review is available online
1761Simmer et al 2008 - Longchain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in preterm infantsLongchain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in preterm infantsLongchain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in preterm infantsSimmer K, Schulzke SM, Patole S.01/01/2008Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jan 23;(1):CD000375.
BACKGROUND: The n-3 and n-6 essential fatty acids alpha linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA) are the precursors of the n-3 and n-6 longchain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). Controversy exists over whether LCPUFA are essential nutrients for preterm infants, who may not be able to synthesise sufficient amounts of LCPUFA to satisfy the needs of the developing brain and retina.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to assess whether supplementation of formula with LCPUFA is safe and of benefit to preterm infants.
SEARCH STRATEGY:Trials were identified by MEDLINE (February 2007), Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2007) and by checking reference lists of relevant articles and conference proceedings.
SELECTION CRITERIA:All randomised trials of formula supplemented with LCPUFA and with clinical endpoints were reviewed.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Fifteen randomised trials assessing the clinical effects of feeding formula supplemented with LCPUFA were included in the review.
MAIN RESULTS:Of the fifteen randomised trials included in the review, four of these were not classified as of high quality, due to low follow-up, uncertainty regarding concealment of patient allocation and randomisation, and problems with assessment methodology. VISUAL ACUITY: Visual acuity over the first year was measured by Teller or Lea acuity cards in eight studies, by VEP in six studies and by ERG in two studies. Most studies found no significant differences in any visual assessment between supplemented and control infants. DEVELOPMENT:Most of the trials have used Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) at 12 to 24 months post-term with three out of seven studies reporting some benefit of LCPUFA in different populations of supplemented infants at different postnatal ages. Meta-analysis of BSID of four studies at 12 months (N = 364) and three studies at 18 months (N = 494) post-term showed no significant effect of supplementation on neurodevelopment. Carlson 1992 and Carlson 1996 demonstrated lower novelty preferences (possibly predictive of lower intelligence) in the supplemented compared with the control group. The investigators however concluded that supplemented infants may have more rapid visual information processing given that they had more looks and each look was of shorter duration. GROWTH: Four out of thirteen studies reported benefits of LCPUFA on growth of supplemented infants at different postnatal ages. Two trials (Carlson 1992; Carlson 1996) suggested that LCPUFA supplemented infants grow less well than controls, possibly due to a reduction in AA levels that occurs when n-3 supplements are used without n-6 supplements. Recent trials with addition of AA to the supplement have reported no significant negative effect on growth. Fewtrell 2002 reported mild reductions in length and weight z scores at 18 months. Contrary to these results, meta-analysis of five studies (Uauy 1990; Carlson 1996; Hansen 1997; Vanderhoof 1999; Innis 2002) showed increased weight and length at two months post-term in supplemented infants. Meta-analysis of four studies at 12 months (N = 271) and two studies at 18 months (N = 396) post-term showed no significant effect of supplementation on weight, length or head circumference. SIDE EFFECTS: Uauy 1992 reported no significant effect of LCPUFA supplementation on bleeding time and red cell membrane fragility.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Infants enrolled in the trials were relatively mature and healthy preterm infants. Assessment schedule and methodology, dose and source of supplementation and fatty acid composition of the control formula varied between trials. When the results of the RCT's are pooled, no clear long-term benefits were demonstrated for infants receiving formula supplemented with LCPUFA. There was no evidence that supplementation of formula with n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA impaired the growth of preterm infants.
Fatty acids, LC-PUFA, omega-3, omega-6, prematurity, dietary supplementation, infant formula, infants, pre-term infants, intervention, RCT, systematic review, human studieshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18253973View this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text of this systematic review is available online
To read pdf documents on this site you may need to download
Adobe Acrobat Reader. Get it here.
Website Glossary If you hover your mouse over words that appear underlined
with a blue, dashed line, a definition of that word will appear as a 'tooltip'. You may find further information about the term in our
Food and Behaviour Research is a registered charity (No SC034604) and a company limited by guarantee (Co No SC 253448).
FAB Research | The Green House | Beechwood Business Park | Inverness | Scotland
| IV2 3BL | Telephone: 01463 667318 Website by Calligrafix
Medical opinion and guidance should always be sought for any symptoms that might
possibly reflect a known or suspected disease, disorder or medical condition. Information
provided on this website (or by FAB Research via any other means) does not in any
way constitute advice on the treatment of any medical condition formally diagnosed