1194Nutrition and Mental Health - edited by Martina WattsNutrition and Mental Health - edited by Martina WattsNutrition and Mental Health - edited by Martina WattsMartina Watts, MSc Nut Med BA (Hons) DipION29/08/2008
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An essential guide to the relationship between diet and mental health
This excellent handbook explains the science behind nutrition and its effects on mental health, in a clear, accessible way. It explores: the complex and dynamic relationship between mental health, diet and nutrition, and how mental health and mental illness related factors, dietary factors and other social, biological and environmental factors interact to affect mental well-being. Leading health practitioners have contributed their own valuable insights, experiences and nutritional strategies to create an informed, up-to-date and fully referenced resource.
The Nutrition and Mental Health handbook offers all those working in the mental health sector advice and support on using nutritional approaches to improve the lives of people who are experiencing mental health problems.
It is presented in a clear, understandable format, with a glossary and summary chapter, designed to be useful for those with little previous nutritional knowledge, as well as more experienced practitioners, carers and health care practitioners.
Vital information for: carers, trainers, managers and professionals working within mental health both in social and health care fields within the public, private and voluntary sectors.
Martina Watts BA (Hons) Dip ION is a BANT-registered Nutritional Therapist with special experience working with children and adults suffering from digestive, behavioural and immune problems. Her interest in human nutrition began after both her children were diagnosed with severe multiple allergies. Martina runs a private practice in Brighton and works as an independent Nutrition Consultant for schools and local government. She is currently on the MSc Nutritional Medicine programme at Surrey University. Martina is a member of the Guild of Health Writers and has been a regular newspaper columnist since 1999.
mental health, modern diets, mineral depletion, food additives, mercury, inflammation, omega 3 fatty acids, gut and psychology, schizophrenia, food intolerance, allergy, blood sugar, eating disorders, eating distress, N&MH Handbook.jpgbook cover18.9515.95
1376Wu et al 2008 - DHA dietary supplementation enhances the effects of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition.Docosahexaenoic acid dietary supplementation enhances the effects of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition.Docosahexaenoic acid dietary supplementation enhances the effects of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition.Wu A, Ying Z, Gomez-Pinilla F.26/08/2008Neuroscience. 155(3):751-9. Epub 2008 Jun 17.751-9. Epub 2008 Jun 17.
Omega-3 fatty acids (i.e. docosahexaenoic acid; DHA), similar to exercise, improve cognitive function, promote neuroplasticity, and protect against neurological lesion. In this study, we investigated a possible synergistic action between DHA dietary supplementation and voluntary exercise on modulating synaptic plasticity and cognition. Rats received DHA dietary supplementation (1.25% DHA) with or without voluntary exercise for 12 days. We found that the DHA-enriched diet significantly increased spatial learning ability, and these effects were enhanced by exercise. The DHA-enriched diet increased levels of pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and mature BDNF, whereas the additional application of exercise boosted the levels of both. Furthermore, the levels of the activated forms of CREB and synapsin I were incremented by the DHA-enriched diet with greater elevation by the concurrent application of exercise. While the DHA diet reduced hippocampal oxidized protein levels, a combination of a DHA diet and exercise resulted in a greater reduction rate. The levels of activated forms of hippocampal Akt and CaMKII were increased by the DHA-enriched diet, and with even greater elevation by a combination of diet and exercise. Akt and CaMKII signaling are crucial step by which BDNF exerts its action on synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. These results indicate that the DHA diet enhanced the effects of exercise on cognition and BDNF-related synaptic plasticity, a capacity that may be used to promote mental health and reduce risk of neurological disorders.
Exercise, diet, fatty acids, omega-3, DHA, synaptic plasticity, BDNF, behaviour, memory, learning http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18620024?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=1&log$=relatedarticles&logdbfrom=pubmedView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
3157van de Rest et al 2008 - Effect of fish oil on cognitive performance in older subjects: a randomized, controlled trialEffect of fish oil on cognitive performance in older subjects: a randomized, controlled trialEffect of fish oil on cognitive performance in older subjects: a randomized, controlled trialvan de Rest O, Geleijnse JM, Kok FJ, van Staveren WA, Dullemeijer C, Olderikkert MG, Beekman AT, de Groot CP.05/08/2008Neurology.71(6)430-8
BACKGROUND: High intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may protect against age-related cognitive decline. However, results from epidemiologic studies are inconclusive, and results from randomized trials in elderly subjects without dementia are lacking.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on cognitive performance.
METHODS: Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 302 cognitively healthy (Mini-Mental State Examination score > 21) individuals aged 65 years or older. Participants were randomly assigned to 1,800 mg/d EPA-DHA, 400 mg/d EPA-DHA, or placebo capsules for 26 weeks. Cognitive performance was assessed using an extensive neuropsychological test battery that included the cognitive domains of attention, sensorimotor speed, memory, and executive function.
RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 70 years, and 55% were male. Plasma concentrations of EPA-DHA increased by 238% in the high-dose and 51% in the low-dose fish oil group compared with placebo, reflecting excellent compliance. Baseline scores on the cognitive tests were comparable in the three groups. Overall, there were no significant differential changes in any of the cognitive domains for either low-dose or high-dose fish oil supplementation compared with placebo.
CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we observed no overall effect of 26 weeks of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on cognitive performance.
omega-3, cognitive impairment, RCT, human trial, RCTFAhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18678826View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1240Augood et al 2008 - Dietary intakes of oily fish, DHA and EPA: associations with age-related macular degeneration.Oily fish consumption, dietary docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid intakes, and associations with neovascular age-related macular degeneration.diet, omega-3, fish, vision, age-related macular degeneration, AMD, ageingAugood C, Chakravarthy U, Young I, Vioque J, de Jong PT, Bentham G, Rahu M, Seland J, Soubrane G, Tomazzoli L, Topouzis F, Vingerling JR, Fletcher AE.01/08/2008Am J Clin Nutr88(2)398-406
BACKGROUND: Fish intake, the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), may reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association of oily fish and dietary DHA and EPA with neovascular AMD (NV-AMD). DESIGN: Participants aged >/=65 y in the cross-sectional population-based EUREYE study underwent fundus photography and were interviewed by using a food-frequency questionnaire. Fundus images were graded by the International Classification System for Age Related Maculopathy. Questionnaire data were converted to nutrient intakes with the use of food-composition tables. Survey logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs of energy-adjusted quartiles of EPA or DHA with NV-AMD, taking into account potential confounders. RESULTS: Dietary intake data and fundus images were available for 105 cases with NV-AMD and for 2170 controls without any features of early or late AMD. Eating oily fish at least once per week compared with less than once per week was associated with a halving of the odds of NV-AMD (OR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.68; P = 0.002). Compared with the lowest quartile, there was a significant trend for decreased odds with increasing quartiles of either DHA or EPA. ORs in the highest quartiles were 0.32 (95% CI: 0.12, 0.87; P = 0.03) for DHA and 0.29 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.73; P = 0.02) for EPA. CONCLUSIONS: Eating oily fish at least once per week compared with less than once per week was associated with a halving of the OR for NV-AMD.
diet, omega-3, fish, vision, age-related macular degeneration, AMD, ageinghttp://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/88/2/398View this article via the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition here
1276Benton et al 2008 - Micronutrient status, cognition and behavioral problems in childhood.Micronutrient status, cognition and behavioral problems in childhood.Micronutrient status, cognition and behavioral problems in childhood.Benton D; ILSI Europe a.i.s.b.l.01/08/2008Eur J Nutr.47 Suppl 338-50
It is widely accepted that the rapid rate of growth of the brain during the last third of gestation and the early postnatal stage makes it vulnerable to an inadequate diet, although brain development continues into adulthood and micronutrient status can influence functioning beyond infancy. A deficiency of various micro-nutrients in developing countries has been found to have long-term implication for cognitive development. Vitamin A plays a critical role in visual perception and a deficiency is the leading cause of childhood blindness. A lack of iodine during a critical period in brain development is associated with reduced intellectual ability. Iron shortage is a widespread problem in the developing world but also in industrialized countries. There is evidence that iron deficiency in early life adversely effects brain development. In addition in industrialized countries a role for folate in the prevention of neural tube defects is well established and in a few individuals impaired cognitive functioning is associated with the inadequate provision of vitamin B(12. )The controversial suggestions that sub-clinical deficiencies of micronutrients may in industrialized societies influence anti-social behavior and intelligence are also discussed.
nutrition, diet, children, cognition, behaviour, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18683028?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=1&log$=relatedreviews&logdbfrom=pubmedView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1275Benton et al 2008 - The influence of children's diet on their cognition and behaviorThe influence of children's diet on their cognition and behaviorThe influence of children's diet on their cognition and behaviorBenton D; ILSI Europe a.i.s.b.l.01/08/2008Eur J Nutr.47 Suppl 325-37.
The rapid growth of the brain and its high metabolic rate suggests that it is reasonable to consider whether their diet may influence the cognitive development of children.
To date although there are few nutritional recommendations that can be made with confidence, there is a growing body of evidence that diet can influence the development and functioning of the brain.
Several lines of evidence support the view that the diet of the mother during pregnancy, and the diet of the infant in the perinatal period, have long-term consequences.
The provision of fatty acids has been the most studied aspect of nutrition, although the evidence is lacking that supplementation has long-term benefits.
There is increasing evidence that the missing of breakfast has negative consequences late in the morning and a working hypothesis is that meals of a low rather than high glycemic load are beneficial.
The aim is to introduce a range of topics to those for whom this area is of potential interest. Where appropriate the main themes and conclusions are summarized and attention is drawn to review articles that allow those interested to go further.
diet, cognition, behaviour, children, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18683027?ordinalpos=2&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1268Ford et al 2008 - Vitamins B12, B6, and folic acid for onset of depressive symptoms in older men: a randomized controlled trial.Vitamins B12, B6, and folic acid for onset of depressive symptoms in older men: results from a 2-year placebo-controlled randomized trial. Vitamins B12, B6, and folic acid for onset of depressive symptoms in older men: results from a 2-year placebo-controlled randomized trial.Ford AH, Flicker L, Thomas J, Norman P, Jamrozik K, Almeida OP.01/08/2008J Clin Psychiatry.69(8)1203-9
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether use of vitamins B(12), B(6), and folate was associated with reduced severity of depressive symptoms and 2-year incidence of clinically significant depression.
METHOD: The investigators recruited 299 men aged 75 years and older free of clinically significant depression (Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)score < 18). They were randomly assigned to treatment with 400 microg B(12) + 2 mg folic acid + 25 mg B(6) per day (N = 150) or placebo (N = 149). The BDI was the primary outcome measure of the study. Follow-up assessments took place 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after baseline. Analyses were intention-to-treat. The study was conducted from June 2001 to June 2004.
RESULTS: 118 and 123 men treated with vitamins and placebo, respectively, completed this 2-year trial (19.4% dropout rate). Analysis of variance for repeated measures showed that there was no difference between the groups (F = 0.76, df = 1, p = .384) nor was there a significant change of BDI scores over time (F = 1.26, df = 4, p = .284). Cox regression revealed that participants treated with vitamins were 24% more likely to remain free of depression during the trial, although the difference between groups was not significant (95% CI = 0.68 to 2.28). At the end of the study, 84.3% of men treated with vitamins and 79.1% of those treated with placebo remained free of clinically significant depressive symptoms. The number of people needed to treat to show benefit was 21.
CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed that treatment with B(12), folic acid, and B(6) is no better than placebo at reducing the severity of depressive symptoms or the incidence of clinically significant depression over a period of 2 years in older men.
Vitamin B, folate, folic acid, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B6, depression, ageing, RCThttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18557664?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1260Jing et al 2008 - The effect of peripheral administration of zinc on food intake in rats fed Zn-adequate or Zn-deficient diets.The effect of peripheral administration of zinc on food intake in rats fed Zn-adequate or Zn-deficient diets.The effect of peripheral administration of zinc on food intake in rats fed Zn-adequate or Zn-deficient diets.Jing MY, Sun JY, Wang JF.01/08/2008Biol Trace Elem Res.124(2):144-56. Epub 2008 Apr 19
Zinc deficiency induces a striking reduction of food intake in animals. To elucidate the mechanisms for this effect, two studies were connectedly conducted to determine the effects of peripheral administration of zinc on food intake in rats fed the zinc-adequate or zinc-deficient diets for a 3-week period. In study 1, two groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were provided diets made either adequate (ZA; 38.89 mg/kg) or deficient (ZD; 3.30 mg/kg) in zinc. In study 2, after feeding for 3 weeks, both ZA and ZD groups received intraperitoneal (IP) injection of zinc solution with three levels (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 microg zinc/g body weight, respectively) and cumulative food intake at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 h, and plasma hormones concentrations were measured. The results in study 1 showed rats fed the ZD diets revealed symptoms of zinc deficiency, such as sparse and coarse hair, poor appetite, susceptibility to surroundings, lethargy, and small movements. Zinc concentrations in serum, femur, and skeletal muscle of rats fed the ZD diets declined by 26.58% (P < 0.01), 27.32% (P < 0.01), and 24.22% (P < 0.05), respectively, as compared with ZA control group. These findings demonstrated that rat models with zinc deficiency and zinc adequacy had been fully established. The results in study 2 showed that IP administration of zinc in both ZA and ZD rats did not influence food intake at each time points (P > 0.05), although zinc deficiency suppressed food intake. Plasma neuropeptide Y (NPY) was higher, but insulin and glucagon were lower in response to zinc deficiency or zinc administration by contrast with their respective controls (P < 0.05). Leptin, T3, and T4 concentrations were uniformly decreased (P < 0.05) in rats fed the ZD diets in contrast to ZA diets; however, no differences (P > 0.05) were observed during zinc injection. Calcitonin gene-related peptide was unaffected (P > 0.05) by either zinc deficiency or zinc administration. The present studies suggested that zinc administration did not affect short-term food intake in rats even in the zinc-deficient ones; the reduced food intake induced by zinc deficiency was probably associated with the depression in thyroid hormones. The results also indicated that NPY and insulin varied conversely during the control of food intake.
zinc, eating disorders, anorexia, mechanisms, endocrinologyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18425433?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=2&log$=relatedarticles&logdbfrom=pubmedView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1309Nguyen et al 2008 - Dietary omega-3 fatty acids and ganglion cell functionDietary omega-3 fatty acids and ganglion cell functionDietary omega-3 fatty acids and ganglion cell functionNguyen CT, Vingrys AJ, Bui BV.01/08/2008Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci.49(8)3586-94. Epub 2008 May 9
PURPOSE: Diet-induced deficiencies in Omega-3 (omega-3) fatty acids are well known to alter photoreceptor function. In this study, the broader functional changes in a diversity of retinal neurons were considered. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley dams were fed either omega-3-sufficient (omega-3(+), n = 21) or -deficient (omega-3(-), n = 19) diets 5 weeks before conception, with the pups continued on the mothers' diet. After 20 weeks of age, electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded by using protocols that isolate separate cellular generators, including; photoreceptors (PIII), ON-bipolar cells (PII), and ganglion/amacrine cells (STR). At the brightest energies, rod and cone responses were isolated with a paired-flash paradigm. Retinal tissue (omega-3(+), n = 5; omega-3(-), n = 5) was harvested at 23 weeks of age for fatty acid assays with thin layer and gas liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Omega-3 deficiency caused a 48.6% decrease in total retinal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This change induced significant amplitude decreases only in the rod PII (-8.2%) and positive (p)STR components (-27.4%), with widespread delays in all signals (PIII 5.7%, PII 13.6%, pSTR 7.6%, and negative
STR 8.3%). Omega-3 deficiency exerted its greatest effects on signals originating in the inner retina (pSTR). CONCLUSIONS: Increasing dietary omega-3 has beneficial effects across the retina, with the greatest improvement occurring in ganglion cell function.
omega-3, vision, experimental studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18469188?ordinalpos=10&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1719Sawni 2008 - Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and complementary/alternative medicineAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and complementary/alternative medicineAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and complementary/alternative medicineSawni A.01/08/2008Adolesc Med State Art Rev. 19(2):313-26, xi.
The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased both by parents and health care providers. Despite scientific evidence supporting the effectiveness of stimulants in the treatment of ADHD, the use of stimulants has received negative publicity and, for many parents, is worrisome. Concerns regarding adverse effects and the prospect of long-term use of pharmacologic treatments make many parents uncomfortable thus they seek "alternative treatments." With the information explosion produced by the Internet, marketing for alternative therapies such as herbal remedies, elimination diets, and food supplements for ADHD has increased.
Many people use CAM because they are attracted to the CAM philosophies and health beliefs, dissatisfied with the process or results of conventional treatments, or concerned about adverse effects of stimulants. Although some scientific evidence exists regarding some CAM therapies, for most there are key questions regarding safety and efficacy of these treatments in children. The aim of this article is to provide a general overview and focus on the evidence-based studies of CAM modalities that are commonly used for ADHD.
ADHD, treatment, CAM, complementary and alternative medicine, therapy, diet, dietary supplements, elimination diets, herbal medicine, human studies, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18822835View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1187MindroomMindroomMindroom is a charity dedicated to helping children and adults with learning difficulties. Conservative estimates indicate that at least five children in every class in the UK (and most other countries) have some form of learning difficulty. If left undiagnosed or untreated, learning difficulties will become the big public healthcare problem of our time. Mindroom is a global meeting place where people can come with questions-and share answers. It's a venue for parents to access basic information- and for world experts to share their latest ideas. Here, conventional wisdom and unconventional thinking meet and move forward together. It is a forum helping children to develop, teachers to learn, parents to understand and experts to spread the word. Mindroom's goal is to create such awareness, that by the year 2020, all children and adults in this country with learning difficulties, will receive the recognition and help they need.17/07/2008
Did you know that there are at least 5 children in every class with some form of learning difficulty who will then grow into adults with learning difficulties?
Whether you are a child, a parent, a relative, a teacher or any other professional, it doesn't matter. It's for you.
Mindroom's goal is to create such awareness that, by the year 2020, all children and adults in this country with learning difficulties will receive the recognition and help they need.
We will achieve this by:
Offering direct help and support Arranging high profile conferences Setting up multi-disciplinary diagnostic centres Setting up specialist schools
http://www.mindroom.org/Visit the Mindroom website hereMindroom.jpgMindroom logo
11851 to 4 July 2008 - Royal College of Psychiatrists Annual MeetingRoyal College of Psychiatrists Annual MeetingRoyal College of Psychiatrists01/07/200804/07/2008
This conference is set to take place in London's Imperial College, a centre of academic excellence and learning, situated within easy access of London's main tourist attractions. The programme encompasses the broad range of psychiatric specialties and special interests and includes presentations from international experts as well as new research presentations. Attendees will access the most current evidence base, have the opportunity to update existing skills (for example in neurology) and be encouraged to think more broadly about psychiatry through sessions on 'The History of Psychiatry' and 'Psychiatry and Film'. There will also be some theatre performances included in the programme. The delegate fee allows for attendance at all sessions and workshops and includes lunch and tea and coffee throughout the day.
4 daysLondonImperial CollegeMichelle Braithwaite - Conference Manager020 7235 2351 x142http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/events/annualmeeting2008.aspxFurther details available on the RCP website here
1318Olson et al 2008 - Fish oil vs olive oil intake in late pregnancy and asthma in the offspring: 16 y of registry-based follow-up from a randomized controlled trial.Fish oil intake compared with olive oil intake in late pregnancy and asthma in the offspring: 16 y of registry-based follow-up from a randomized controlled trial.Fish oil intake compared with olive oil intake in late pregnancy and asthma in the offspring: 16 y of registry-based follow-up from a randomized controlled trial.Olsen SF, Østerdal ML, Salvig JD, Mortensen LM, Rytter D, Secher NJ, Henriksen TB01/07/2008Am J Clin Nutr.88(1)167-75
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that asthma is rooted in the intrauterine environment and that intake of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in pregnancy may have immunomodulatory effects on the child. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine whether increasing maternal intake of n-3 PUFAs in pregnancy may affect offspring risk of asthma. DESIGN: In 1990, a population-based sample of 533 women with normal pregnancies were randomly assigned 2:1:1 to receive four 1-g gelatin capsules/d with fish oil providing 2.7 g n-3 PUFAs (n = 266); four 1-g, similar-looking capsules/d with olive oil (n = 136); or no oil capsules (n = 131). Women were recruited and randomly assigned around gestation week 30 and asked to take capsules until delivery. Among 531 live-born children, 528 were identified in registries and 523 were still alive by August 2006. Diagnoses from the International Coding of Diseases version 10 were extracted from a mandatory registry that recorded diagnoses reported from hospital contacts. RESULTS: During the 16 y that passed since childbirth, 19 children from the fish oil and olive oil groups had received an asthma-related diagnosis; 10 had received the diagnosis allergic asthma. The hazard rate of asthma was reduced by 63% (95% CI: 8%, 85%; P = 0.03), whereas the hazard rate of allergic asthma was reduced by 87% (95% CI: 40%, 97%; P = 0.01) in the fish oil compared with the olive oil group. CONCLUSION: Under the assumption that intake of olive oil in the dose provided here was inert, our results support that increasing n-3 PUFAs in late pregnancy may carry an important prophylactic potential in relation to offspring asthma.
fish oil, olive oil, omega-3, fatty acids, asthmahttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18614738?ordinalpos=5&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related absttracts via PubMed here
1242Sontrop et al 2008 - Depressive symptoms during pregnancy in relation to fish consumption and intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.Depressive symptoms during pregnancy in relation to fish consumption and intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Depression, pregnancy, omega-3, dietSontrop J, Avison WR, Evers SE, Speechley KN, Campbell MK.01/07/2008Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 22(4)389-99
An inverse association between depression and the n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), primarily obtained from fish consumption, is observed in both observational and experimental research and is biologically plausible. Study objectives were to examine whether prenatal depressive symptoms were associated with lower intakes of fish or EPA+DHA.
Pregnant women (n = 2394) completed a telephone interview between 10 and 22 weeks' gestation in London, Ontario, 2002-05. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale (CES-D). Intakes of fish and EPA+DHA were measured using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Sequential multiple regression was used to examine associations of depressive symptoms with intake of fish and EPA+DHA, respectively, while controlling for sociodemographic, health and lifestyle variables.
The mean CES-D score was 9.9 (SD 8.0). Intake of EPA+DHA was dichotomised at the median value of 85 mg/day. Fish consumption and intake of EPA+DHA were not associated with prenatal depressive symptoms after adjustment for confounders; however, depressive symptoms were significantly higher for lower intakes of EPA+DHA among current smokers and women of single/separated/divorced marital status. The adjusted difference in CES-D scores between intake categories of EPA+DHA was -2.4 (95% CI -4.2, -0.4) for current smokers and -2.8 (95% CI -5.2, -0.4) for women of single marital status.
Although pregnant women may be at risk for low concentrations of EPA and DHA, an association between low intakes of EPA+DHA and increased depressive symptoms was only observed among current smokers and women of single marital status.
Depression, pregnancy, omega-3, diet, fish and seafood intake, FFQhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18578753?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=2&log$=relatedarticles&logdbfrom=pubmedView this abstract via PubMed here
1299Spahis et al 2008 - Lipid profile, fatty acid composition and pro- and anti-oxidant status in pediatric patients with ADHD.Lipid profile, fatty acid composition and pro- and anti-oxidant status in pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.Lipid profile, fatty acid composition and pro- and anti-oxidant status in pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.Spahis S, Vanasse M, Bélanger SA, Ghadirian P, Grenier E, Levy E01/07/2008Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 79(1-2):47-53. Epub 2008 Aug 30
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent behavioral disorder in children and the pathophysiology remains obscure. In addition to the pharmacotherapy, which is the primary treatment of ADHD, nutritional intervention may have a significant impact on ADHD symptoms. We studied lipid and lipoprotein profiles, fatty acid (FA) composition, and oxidant-antioxidant status in 37 pediatric ADHD patients and 35 healthy control subjects. Our results show that plasma triacylglycerols and phospholipids were lower, whereas free cholesterol, HDL, and apolipoprotein A-I were higher in ADHD patients compared with controls. The proportion of plasma EPA and DHA was higher, but that of oleic and alpha-linolenic (ALA) acids was lower. As expected from these findings, the proportions of both total saturates and polyunsaturates fatty acids (PUFA) were higher and lower, respectively, in ADHD patients than in controls, which led to a significant decrease in the PUFAs/saturates ratio. On the other hand, the ratios of eicosatrienoic acid to arachidonic acid and of palmitoleic acid to linoleic acid, established indexes of essential fatty acid (EFA) status remained unchanged revealing that EFA did not affect ADHD patients. Similarly, the activity of delta-6 desaturase, estimated by the ratio of 18:2(n-6)/20:4(n-6), was found unaffected, whereas ALA/EPA was diminished. Lessened lipid peroxidation was noted in ADHD subjects as documented by the diminished values of plasma malondialdehyde accompanied by increased concentrations of gamma-tocopherol. In conclusions, significant changes occur in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles, as well as in the oxidant-antioxidant status of ADHD patients, however, the FA distribution does not reflect n-3 FA deficiency.
fatty acids, RBCFA, PUFA, omega-3, omega-6, ADHD, case-control studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18757191?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1612Smith 2008 - The worldwide challenge of the dementias: a role for B vitamins and homocysteine?The worldwide challenge of the dementias: a role for B vitamins and homocysteine? The worldwide challenge of the dementias: a role for B vitamins and homocysteine?
Smith AD.29/06/2008Food Nutr Bull. 29(2 Suppl)S143-72.
Dementia has reached epidemic proportions, with an estimated 4.6 million new cases worldwide each year. With an aging world population, the prevalence of dementia will increase dramatically in the next few decades. Of the predicted 114 million who will have dementia in 2050, about three-quarters will live in less developed regions. Although strongly age-related, dementia is not an inevitable part of aging but is a true disease, caused by exposure to several genetic and nongenetic risk factors. Prevention will be possible when the nongenetic risk factors have been identified. Apart from age, more than 20 nongenetic risk factors have been postulated, but very few have been established by randomized intervention studies. Elevated blood concentrations of total homocysteine and low-normal concentrations of B vitamins (folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6) are candidate risk factors for both Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Seventy-seven cross-sectional studies on more than 34,000 subjects and 33 prospective studies on more than 12,000 subjects have shown associations between cognitive deficit or dementia and homocysteine and/or B vitamins. Biologically plausible mechanisms have been proposed to account for these associations, including atrophy of the cerebral cortex, but a definite causal pathway has yet to be shown. Raised plasma total homocysteine is a strong prognostic marker of future cognitive decline, and is common in world populations. Low-normal concentrations of the B vitamins, the main determinant of homocysteine concentrations, are also common and occur in particularly vulnerable sections of the population, such as infants and elderly. Large-scale randomized trials of homocysteine-lowering vitamins are needed to see if a proportion of dementia in the world can be prevented.
dementia, Vitamin B, Vit_B, B6, B12, folate, homocysteine, treatment, prevention, human studies, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18709889View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1845Mathieu et al 2008 - Synergistic effects of stress and omega-3 fatty acid deprivation on emotional response and brain lipid composition in adult ratsSynergistic effects of stress and omega-3 fatty acid deprivation on emotional response and brain lipid composition in adult ratsSynergistic effects of stress and omega-3 fatty acid deprivation on emotional response and brain lipid composition in adult ratsMathieu G, Denis S, Lavialle M, Vancassel S.24/06/2008Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 78(6):391-401. Epub 2008 Jun 24.
The aim was to determine the consequences of multi-generational n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) deficiency on emotional response in rats subjected to maternal separation (MS) as chronic early life stress.
Pups fed a control or an n-3 PUFA deficient diet were daily separated for 2 weeks before weaning. In adult rats, reward response was assessed by sucrose consumption and reactivity to novelty using openfield test.
Both n-3 PUFA deficiency and MS increased reward response and impulsivity. Moreover, nutritional deficiency and stress acted in synergy to elevate sucrose intake by 80%, compared to control conditions. n-3 PUFA deprivation induced a depletion of docosahexanoeic acid of brain membranes by 70% compensated by increase in 22:5 n-6 and arachidonic acid (AA) levels. The diet-induced AA increase was, however, significantly higher in MS rats.
This suggests that n-3 PUFA deficit could be an environmental risk increasing vulnerability to depressive-like response induced by chronic stress.
omega-3, emotional deprivation, stress, depression, brain tissue, DHA, AA, animal study, experimental studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18579362View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
118210 June 2008 - The National Children's Nutrition Conference - CardiffThe Dyscovery Centre, University of Wales10/06/200810/06/2008
Better Nutrition, Better Learning, Better Futures
This major new conference will give you the opportunity to hear from international experts who are undertaking the latest research in nutrition, and how this links to behaviour, learning and wellbeing. It will provide you with the route from research to practical management, and enable you to gain an understanding of ways in which schools can take this information on board in practical ways, and push food higher up the school agenda to ensure that we give all our children the bright future they deserve.
This conference is suitable for health and educational professionals, GPs, parents, those working with young people in youth services, nutritionists, and researchers working in the fields of child development, neuroscience and education.
Chair: Prof David Benton
Jane Hutt AM - Welcome and opening remarks
Professor Michael Crawford - We are what we eat - driving forces for evolution
Dr Paul Clayton - Malnutrition in children today: what we can learn from the Victorians
Professor Bonnie Kaplan - Keep your bananas in the refrigerator: mechanisms by which nutrients affect brain function
Dr Alex Richardson - They are what you feed them - omega 3 - what's the real evidence?
Dr Stephanie Matthews - When milk makes children ill
Professor Amanda Kirby - TV or not TV? That is the question! Why we need to sit at the table
Professor Kevin Morgan - The school food revolution and ways to use local/organic food in public food provisioning
Fiona Hamilton-Fairley - Why do children and young people need to learn to cook?
Further information and details of cost can be found on the downloadable flyer and booking form at the link below.
One dayCardiff, WalesSt David's Hotel, Havannah Streettrainingdyscovery@newport.ac.uk01633 432330http://www.dyscovery.co.ukNutrition Conference 10thJune Flyer FINAL.pdfDownload flyer and booking form heredyscovery.jpgDyscovery logo
1774Shulman et al 2008 - Increased gastrointestinal permeability and gut inflammation in children with functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndromeIncreased gastrointestinal permeability and gut inflammation in children with functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndromeIncreased gastrointestinal permeability and gut inflammation in children with functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndromeShulman RJ, Eakin MN, Czyzewski DI, Jarrett M, Ou CN.09/06/2008J Pediatr.153(5):646-50. Epub 2008 Jun 9.
OBJECTIVES: To determine gastrointestinal (GI) permeability and fecal calprotectin concentration in children 7 to 10 years of age with functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome (FAP/IBS) versus control subjects and ascertain potential relationships with pain symptoms and stooling.
STUDY DESIGN: GI permeability and fecal calprotectin concentration were measured. Children kept a 2-week diary of pain episodes and stooling pattern.
RESULTS: Proximal GI permeability was greater in the FAP/IBS group (n = 93) compared with control subjects (n = 52) (0.59 +/- 0.50 vs 0.36 +/- 0.26, respectively; mean +/- SD; P < .001) as was colonic permeability (1.01 +/- 0.67 vs 0.81 +/- 0.43, respectively; P < .05). Gastric and small intestinal permeability were similar. Fecal calprotectin concentration was greater in children with FAP/IBS compared with control children (65.5 +/- 75.4 microg/g stool vs 43.2 +/- 39.4, respectively; P < .01). Fecal calprotectin concentration correlated with pain interference with activities (P = .01, r(2) = 0.36). There was no correlation between GI permeability and pain related symptoms. Neither permeability nor fecal calprotectin correlated with stool form.
CONCLUSIONS: Children with FAP/IBS have evidence of increased GI permeability and low-grade GI inflammation, with the latter relating to the degree to which pain interferes with activities.
autism, ASD, gut permeability, leaky gut, human studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18538790View this and related abstracts via PubMed here. (Free full text of this article is available online)
1236Chong et al 2008 - Dietary omega-3 and fish intake in the primary prevention of age-related macular degeneration: a systematic reviewDietary omega-3 fatty acid and fish intake in the primary prevention of age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.omega-3, diet, fish, vision, macular degeneration, ARMD, AMD, systematic reviewChong EW, Kreis AJ, Wong TY, Simpson JA, Guymer RH.01/06/2008Archives of Ophthalmology126(6)826-33
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evidence on dietary omega-3 fatty acid and fish intake in the primary prevention of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: Seven databases were systematically searched with no limits on publication year or language using standardized criteria. Randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies were included. Of 2754 abstracts identified, 3 prospective cohort, 3 case-control, and 3 cross-sectional studies met the criteria. Measures of associations were pooled quantitatively using meta-analytic methods. RESULTS: Nine studies provided data on a total sample of 88 974 people, including 3203 AMD cases. A high dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids was associated with a 38% reduction in the risk of late AMD (pooled odds ratio
, 0.62; 95% confidence interval
, 0.48-0.82). Fish intake at least twice a week was associated with a reduced risk of both early AMD (pooled OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.64-0.90) and late AMD (pooled OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.53-0.85). CONCLUSIONS: Although this meta-analysis suggests that consumption of fish and foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids may be associated with a lower risk of AMD, there is insufficient evidence from the current literature, with few prospective studies and no randomized clinical trials, to support their routine consumption for AMD prevention.
vision, ageing, macular degeneration, age-related macular degeneration, ARMD, AMD, diet, omega-3, fish, systematic review, meta-analysishttp://archopht.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/126/6/826View the full text of this article in Arch Ophthalmol here
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