953Richardson 2006 - Omega-3 fatty acids in ADHD and related neurodevelopmental disordersOmega-3 fatty acids in ADHD and related neurodevelopmental disorders Omega-3 fatty acids in ADHD and related neurodevelopmental disordersRichardson, A J01/04/2006International Review of Psychiatry18(2)155-172
Omega-3 fatty acids are dietary essentials, and are critical to brain development and function. Increasing evidence suggests that a relative lack of omega-3 may contribute to many psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders.
This review focuses on the possible role of omega-3 in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and related childhood developmental disorders, evaluating the existing evidence from both research and clinical perspectives.
Theory and experimental evidence support a role for omega-3 in ADHD, dyslexia, developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and autism.
Results from controlled treatment trials are mixed, but the few studies in this area have involved different populations and treatment formulations. Dietary supplementation with fish oils (providing EPA and DHA) appears to alleviate ADHD-related symptoms in at least some children, and one study of DCD children also found benefits for academic achievement. Larger trials are now needed to confirm these findings, and to establish the specificity and durability of any treatment effects as well as optimal formulations and dosages.
Omega-3 is not supported by current evidence as a primary treatment for ADHD or related conditions, but further research in this area is clearly warranted. Given their relative safety and general health benefits, omega-3 fatty acids offer a promising complementary approach to standard treatments.
This review draws together findings from the latest research into the relevance of omega-3 fatty acids for ADHD and related childhood developmental disorders, highlighting the implications for both research and practice.
This article forms part of a Special Issue of the International Review of Psychiatry focusing on the role of fatty acids in a wide range of mental health conditions. Other articles from this Special Issue include:
Omega-3, fatty acids, ADHD, neurodevelopmental disorders, dyslexia, developmental coordination disorder (DCD), autism, human studies, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16777670View this and related abstracts via PubMed hereCIRP_A_158286.pdf
968Saugstad 2006 - Are neurodegenerative disorders and psychotic manifestations avoidable with adequate dietary omega-3?Are neurodegenerative disorder and psychotic manifestations avoidable brain dysfunctions with adequate dietary omega-3?Are neurodegenerative disorder and psychotic manifestations avoidable brain dysfunctions with adequate dietary omega-3?Saugstad L.F.01/04/2006Nutr Health18(2)89-101
The present mismatch between what our brain needs, and the modern diet neglects our marine heritage. Last century, the priority in nutrition and food production was to achieve a high protein diet and somatic growth and function. The dietary content of omega-3 (N-3) required by the brain was neglected although evidence for the essentiality of certain fatty acids was published in 1929 and specifically re-affirmed for omega 3 in the brain in the 1970s. Cognitive decline with age and neurodegenerative disorder with dementia are now rising. This review describes signs of N-3 deficit in Alzheimer and Parkinson Disease, where maximum change involves the primary sites: olfactory cortex and the hippocampus. The olfactory agnosia observed in schizophrenia supports an N-3 deficit as does a reduction of key ologodendrocyte- and myelin-related genes in this disorder and affective disorder, where a rise in dementia accords with a deficit of N-3 also in this disorder. N-3 normalizes cerebral excitability at all levels. That the two disorders are localized at the extremes of excitability, is supported by their opposing treatments: convulsant neuroleptics and anti-epileptic anti-depressants. An adequate N-3 diet will probably prevent most psychotic episodes and prove that neurodegenerative disorder with dementia is also to a large extent not only preventable but avoidable.
omega-3, neurodegeneratuive disorders, psychosis, dementiahttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16859172&query_hl=16&itool=pubmed_docsumView this abstract via PubMed here
974Vaddadi 2006 - Essential fatty acids and mental illness.Essential fatty acids and mental illness.Essential fatty acids and mental illness.Vaddadi K01/04/2006Int Rev Psychiatry18(2)81-4.
The treatment of psychiatric illness requires novel pharmacological strategies. There is a growing body of evidence examining the role of neuronal phospholipid abnormalities in the pathogenesis of psychiatric illness, particularly in schizophrenia. However, work in other conditions like mood disorders are also showing interesting outcomes with EPA supplementation. Diseases that are considered to have a genetic basis may be significantly influenced by environmental factors including dietary supplementation. The suggestion that EFA supplementation may prevent the onset of symptoms of a psychiatric disease or aberrant behaviour needs longitudinal randomized controlled research. In recent years the focus has shifted from omega-6 to omega-3. It is true that western diets have far more omega-6 than omega-3. In the 1980s, there were positive outcomes in research studies using GLA in schizophrenia (Vaddadi et al., 1989). Future research needs to incorporate studies using pure GLA. Research should not be restricted to parent fatty acid (omega-3) supplementation alone but be expanded to include bioactive down-the-chain metabolites. The recent identification of novel omega-3 derived mediators such as resolvins and neuroprotectins, which are a highly bioactive (1-10 nMol range), may well have some role to play in psychiatric disorders; however this remains highly speculative at this stage.
omega-3, psychiatry, mental illness, reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16777662&itool=iconabstr&query_hl=1&itool=pubmed_docsumView the abstract of this paper via PubMed here
977Vaddadi et al 2006 - Tardive dyskinesia and essential fatty acidsTardive dyskinesia and essential fatty acids.Tardive dyskinesia and essential fatty acids.Vaddadi K, Hakansson K, Clifford J, Waddington J. 01/04/2006Int Rev Psychiatry.18(2)133-43
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder described in individuals who have been treated with anti-dopaminergic agents. The pathophysiology of this condition remains to be fully elucidated. Several mechanisms like dopaminergic supersensitivity, dysfunction of striatonigral, GABAergic neurons and disturbed balance between dopaminergic and cholinergic systems have been described. Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are important components of neuronal membrane and the EFA content of these membranes can significantly influence neuronal functioning. Lower levels of EFAs have been reported in red blood cells (RBC) and plasma of individuals with moderate to severe TD. Supplementation with EFAs (omega-3 and omega-6 and ethyl-EPA) have been tried to alleviate TD in open and double-blind clinical trials and in some animal models of TD. In addition, antioxidants (Vitamin E) and melatonin have been tried. However, smaller numbers of patients and shortened length of clinical studies make it difficult to draw any definitive conclusions. Large multi-centre studies with sound methodology of both EFAs and antioxidants are needed.
schizophrenia, tardive dyskinesia, essential fatty acids, omega-3, omega-6http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16777667&query_hl=1&itool=pubmed_docsumView this and related abstractsw via PubMed here
986Kawakita et al 2006 - Docosahexaenoic acid promotes neurogenesis in vitro and in vivo.Docosahexaenoic acid promotes neurogenesis in vitro and in vivo.Docosahexaenoic acid promotes neurogenesis in vitro and in vivo.Kawakita E, Hashimoto M, Shido O. 09/03/2006Neuroscience. 139(3)991-7.
Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), one of the main structural lipids in the mammalian brain, plays crucial roles in the development and function of brain neurons. We examined the effect of docosahexaenoic acid on neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells in vitro and in vivo. Neural stem cells obtained from 15.5-day-old rat embryos were propagated as neurospheres and cultured under differential conditions with or without docosahexaenoic acid for 4 and 7 days. Docosahexaenoic acid significantly increased the number of Tuj1-positive neurons compared with the control on both culture days, and the newborn neurons in the docosahexaenoic acid group were morphologically more mature than in the control. Docosahexaenoic acid significantly decreased the incorporation ratio of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, the mitotic division marker, during the first 24 h period; it also significantly decreased the number of pyknotic cells on day 7. Thus, docosahexaenoic acid promotes the differentiation of neural stem cells into neurons by promoting cell cycle exit and suppressing cell death. Furthermore, dietary administration of docosahexaenoic acid significantly increased the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine(+)/NeuN(+) newborn neurons in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus in adult rats. These results demonstrate that docosahexaenoic acid effectively promotes neurogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that it has the new property of modulating hippocampal function regulated by neurogenesis.
DHA, omega-3, brain development, neurogenesis, hippocampushttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16527422&query_hl=1&itool=pubmed_docsumView this and related abstracts via Pubmed here
9472 March 2006 - BBC News - School snack ban plans proposedMeasures which would see the sale of fizzy drinks and unhealthy snacks banned in schools have been set out by a nutrition advisory body.02/03/2006
The Schools Foods Trust was established by ministers who said they wanted to see a junk food ban in English schools.
Trust chair Dame Suzi Leather said child obesity must be tackled urgently, and schools must make it easy for children to eat healthily.
There will now be a period of consultation on the plans.
Ms Leather said many children were eating themselves into an early grave, she added, pointing out that obesity could shorten one's life by nine years.
"It's terribly important that we understand the magnitude of the public health risk," Dame Suzi told the BBC.
Obesity currently costs the NHS up to a £1 billion a year, and one in eight children are obese.
It is estimated that of the generation now entering school, a quarter could be obese by 2020 unless urgent preventative steps are taken.
The trust's advice follows recommendations from the School Meals Review Panel that new food-based standards should be introduced to improve school meal quality.
Dame Suzi said: "They (the new rules) cannot succeed if pupils are surrounded with chocolate, crisps and drinks that fill them up with sugar and fat during the school day.
"It's not in children's best interests to have unlimited access to these products, and they replace the consumption of more nourishing foods.
"The evidence is clear - children are eating too many foods with too much sugar, fat and salt and little or no nutritional value.
"By managing choice we can increase the variety of foods our children eat and make the healthy choice the easy choice."
Seeds and nuts
She also said that evidence suggested behaviour and learning improved when junk food is removed from schools.
Additionally schools should replace these products with health products such as seeds and nuts.
Schools minister Jacqui Smith said the government would now hear wider views on the plans.
"The independent School Food Trust has proposed a robust set of standards for food which can be sold in schools through vending machines, in tuck shops and at break times," she said.
Head teacher and school workforce associations, dieticians, health charities, and food and drink organisations will be invited to submit the trust's proposals.
The government will publish the final version of the non-lunch food standards alongside the agreed standards for school lunches in May.
Trust proposals include:
Schools should stop selling confectionery and "bagged savoury snacks" other than nuts and seeds with no added salt or sugar.
Schools should offer a variety of fruit and vegetables in all food outlets and easy access to free, chilled drinking water.
The only other drinks available should be bottled water, skimmed or semi-skimmed milk, pure fruit juices, yoghurt and milk drinks with less than 5% added sugar.
Drinks made from a combination of these such as smoothies, tea or coffee would also be allowed.
Chief executive of the Royal Society of Health Professor Richard Parish backed the new recommendations saying it was "about time that government, schools and the wider community put public health priorities first."
He said: "The School Food Trust report to government should not be seen as controversial, it's simply a case of finally putting children's health first, and is applauded from a public health standpoint.
"Everywhere children turn they are confronted with unhealthy food choices.
"It's vital that at least while they are at school they have an environment where healthy food is the norm."
Deputy director general of the Food and Drink Federation Martin Paterson said it welcomed better school meal provision, but that banning foods was neither an effective nor a practical solution.
"We recognise that tuck shops and vending should not compete with school meals - although they can play a part.
"Balance is the key and bans will not help teach children how to build a balanced diet."
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/4765110.stmRead the BBS News Website article here_40362415_obesity203.jpg
1327Bjørkkjaer et al 2006 - Short-term duodenal seal oil administration normalised n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio in rectal mucosa and ameliorated bodily pain in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.Short-term duodenal seal oil administration normalised n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio in rectal mucosa and ameliorated bodily pain in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.Short-term duodenal seal oil administration normalised n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio in rectal mucosa and ameliorated bodily pain in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.Bjørkkjaer T, Brun JG, Valen M, Arslan G, Lind R, Brunborg LA, Berstad A, Frøyland L01/03/2006Lipids Health Dis. Mar 205:6
BACKGROUND: A high dietary intake of n-6 compared to n-3 fatty acids (FAs) may promote the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and cytokines. In two recent studies, short-term (10-day) duodenal administration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich seal oil ameliorated joint pain in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Using unpublished data from these two studies we here investigated whether normalisation of the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in blood and tissues by seal oil administration was associated with improved health related quality of life (HRQOL) as assessed by the generic short-form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire. RESULTS: In the first pilot study, baseline n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in rectal mucosal biopsies from 10 patients with IBD (9 of those had joint pain) was significantly increased compared with that in 10 control patients without IBD or joint pain. Following seal oil administration, the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio of the IBD-patients was significantly lowered to the level seen in untreated controls. In the subsequent, randomized controlled study (n = 19), seal oil administration reduced the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in blood similarly and also the SF-36 assessed bodily pain, while n-6 FA rich soy oil administration had no such effect. CONCLUSION: In these two separate studies, short-term duodenal administration of seal oil normalised the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in rectal mucosa and improved the bodily pain dimension of HRQOL of patients with IBD-related joint pain. The possibility of a causal relationship between n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in rectal mucosa and bodily pain in IBD-patients warrants further investigations.
fatty acids, omega-3, omega-6, EPA, DHA, pain, inflammation, inflammatory bowel disease, treatmenthttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16549021?ordinalpos=127&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text is available from the Journal website
1037Jiang 2006 - Effect of B vitamins-fortified foods on primary school children in Beijing.Effect of B vitamins-fortified foods on primary school children in Beijing. Effect of B vitamins-fortified foods on primary school children in Beijing.Jiang YY.01/02/2006Asia Pac J Public Health. 18(2):21-5.
The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of B vitamins-fortified foods on primary school children.
A controlled trial was conducted in 101 normal primary school children aged 9-11 years. They were randomly assigned to supplemental control group (S-control, n=36), riboflavin supplementation group (+riboflavin 0.625 mg/day, n=32), and B vitamin compound supplementation group (+riboflavin 0.625 mg/day, +thiamin 0.512 mg/day, +nicotinic acid 0.365 mg/day, +folic acid 0.13 mg/day, n=33) based on school classes. Urinary riboflavin excretion and erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient (EGRAC) along with erythrocyte transketolase activity (ETKA) were used to evaluate B vitamin levels in the children. AYP index, an index reflecting the brain performance ability, was chosen to assess the children's study abilities. Health education was carried out to help children and their parents adopt scientific dietary concepts.
The urinary riboflavin excretion was higher in two supplementation groups (435.24 +/- 153.3 microg/g creatinine, 374.6 +/- 144.6 microg/g creatinine) than in S-control group (235.1 +/- 86.2 microg/g creatinine). Average values of EGRAC were lower in two supplementation groups (0.90 +/- 0.11, 0.80 +/- 0.10) than in S-control group (1.08 +/- 0.25). At the same time, the percentage of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP%) decreased from 63.69 +/- 28.04 to 42.16 +/- 16.31 in B vitamin compound supplementation group. Meanwhile, AYP index increased at the end of the supplementation in two supplementation groups. B vitamins supplementation can significantly increase B vitamin level in children.
Biochemical activities of riboflavin and thiamin can improve with the intake of fortified foods. The effect of B vitamin compound supplementation is better than that of single riboflavin supplementation when the effect of riboflavin's biofunction is considered. In addition, micronutrient supplementation appears to assist children's study abilities.
Vitamin B, school children, diet, biochemistryhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16883966&query_hl=16&itool=pubmed_docsumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1610Kemperman et al 2006 - Low essential fatty acid and B-vitamin status in a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia and its response to dietary supplementationLow essential fatty acid and B-vitamin status in a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia and its response to dietary supplementation Low essential fatty acid and B-vitamin status in a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia and its response to dietary supplementation Kemperman RF, Veurink M, van der Wal T, Knegtering H, Bruggeman R, Fokkema MR, Kema IP, Korf J, Muskiet FA.01/02/2006Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 74(2)75-85. Epub 2005 Dec 27.
We assessed essential fatty acid (EFA) and B-vitamin status, together with their determinants, in 61 patients with schizophrenia and established whether those with poor status responded biochemically to the appropriate dietary supplements. As a group, the patients had high erythrocyte saturated fatty acids (FAs), monounsaturated FA and low polyunsaturated FA of the omega3 and omega6 series. Patients reporting not to take vitamin supplements had low vitamin B12 and high homocysteine. Homocysteine variance proved best explained by folate in both the total group and male patients, and by vitamins B12 and B6 in females. Alcohol consumption and duration of illness are risk factors for low polyunsaturated FA status (< P2.5 of reference range), while male gender and absence of fish consumption predict hyperhomocysteinemia (> P97.5 of reference range). Two patients exhibited biochemical EFA deficiency and seven showed biochemical signs of omega3/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) marginality. Four patients exhibited moderate hyperhomocysteinemia with plasma values ranging from 57.5 to 74.8 micromol/L. None of the five patients with either moderate hyperhomocysteinemia, biochemical EFA deficiency, or both, was predicted by their clinicians to have poor diets. That diet was nevertheless at the basis of these abnormalities became confirmed after supplementing 4 of them with B vitamins and with soybean and fish oils. We conclude that a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia has biochemical EFA deficiency, omega3/DHA marginality, moderate hyperhomocysteinemia, or combinations. Correction seems indicated in view of the possible relation of poor EFA and B-vitamin status with some of their psychiatric symptoms, but notably to reduce their high risk of cardiovascular disease.
schizophrenia, Vitamin B, homocysteine, B6, B12, folate, omega-3, DHA, biochemical study, human studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16384692View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
1331Maes et al 2006 - Lower serum zinc in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): relationships to immune dysfunctions and relevance for the oxidative stress status in CFS.Lower serum zinc in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): relationships to immune dysfunctions and relevance for the oxidative stress status in CFS.Lower serum zinc in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): relationships to immune dysfunctions and relevance for the oxidative stress status in CFS.Maes M, Mihaylova I, De Ruyter M01/02/2006J Affect Disord. 90(2-3)141-7. Epub 2005 Dec 9
The present study examines serum zinc concentrations in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) versus normal volunteers. Serum zinc levels were determined by means of an atomic absorption method. We found that serum zinc was significantly lower in the CFS patients than in the normal controls. There was a trend toward a significant negative correlation between serum zinc and the severity of CFS and there was a significant and negative correlation between serum zinc and the subjective experience of infection. We found that serum zinc was significantly and negatively correlated to the increase in the alpha2 protein fraction and positively correlated to decreases in the expression of mitogen-induced CD69+ (a T cell activation marker) on CD3+ as well as CD3+CD8+ T cells. These results show that CFS is accompanied by a low serum zinc status and that the latter is related to signs of inflammation and defects in early T cell activation pathways. Since zinc is a strong anti-oxidant, the present results further support the findings that CFS is accompanied by increased oxidative stress. The results of these reports suggest that some patients with CFS should be treated with specific antioxidants, including zinc supplements.
zinc, chronic fatigue syndrome, CFS, inflammation, oxidative stresshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16338007?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=1&log$=relatedarticles&logdbfrom=pubmedView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
93930 January 2006 - Diet, Behaviour and the Junk Food Generation Children's Diet, Behaviour and the Junk Food Generation - lessons for education.Organised by Mackay-Hannah in association with FAB Research and Napier University, Edinburgh30/01/200630/01/2006
A one day conference examining the relationships between diet, behaviour and learning in school-aged children.
Peter Peacock MSP, Scottish Minister for Education and Young People
Professor Michael Crawford, Director, Institute of Brain Chemistry and Human Nutrition, London Metropolitan University.
Dr Alex Richardson, Senior Research Fellow, Dept of Physiology, Human Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford
Mary Creagh, Presenter, Children's Food Bill (tbc)
David Rex, Community Dietician, NHS Highland
Lizzie Vann MBE, Founder, Organix Ltd
Mike Marshall, Head Teacher, Greenwards Primary School, Elgin
There is currently wide-ranging concern about the dietary habits and overall fitness of children. Initially discussed in the world of academia and professional journals, the issue is now firmly in the mainstream public consciousness due, in part, to the impact of 'Jamie's School Dinners' on Channel 4.
Much of the debate and Government's response so far has been within the context of the physical health of children and young people. However, a growing body of evidence shows that diet is as important for optimal mental development and functioning. The relationship between diet, learning and behaviour is emerging as a critical issue not only from the perspectives of children who fail to realise their potential, but also for educators and others charged with delivering the education service.
With the 'Hungry for Success' initiative, Scotland has a good story to tell in terms of healthy eating in schools. The Children's Food Bill, recently presented to the UK Parliament, aspires to take the agenda further by regulating the marketing of certain classes of food to children.
This one-day conference will provide an excellent opportunity for educators and others professionally involved with school-aged children to hear from expert opinion and to share best practice in what is becoming a key issue for the future of education.
9:20 - 16:20EdinburghCarlton Hotel, North Bridge30-Jan-2006 MacKay Hannah - FAB Conference.pdfDownload Further Information and Conference Booking Form hereImage4.jpgConcern is growing about the effects of many children's diets
94520 January 2006 - BBC News - Berries 'help prevent dementia'dementia; Alzheimer's; aging;Compounds in the common British blackcurrant could help prevent Alzheimer's disease, research suggests. A study shows blackcurrants and their US cousins, boysenberries, are full of potentially beneficial anti-oxidant compounds.20/01/2006
Research in the Journal of Science Food and Agriculture found these compounds could block the cell damage which leads to Alzheimer's disease.
The New Zealand team said the berries could prevent but not cure dementia.
Cancer and ageing
Alzheimer's disease is thought to be caused by the build up of deposits of a protein in the brain.
These amyloid plaques are associated with damage to brain cells, which are eventually killed off.
It is this damage - known as oxidative stress - which the anti-oxidant compounds in the berries appears to combat.
The berries contain a cocktail of chemical compounds including anthocyanins - which cause the deep colour in blue and purple fruits - and polyphenolics - which can be found in red wine and chocolate.
Dilip Ghosh of the Horticulture and Food Research Institute of New Zealand tested the compounds on cultured human brain cancer cells.
They demonstrated in a test tube their ability to protect against the effects of oxidative stress - in this case caused by adding the chemical hydrogen peroxide to the culture.
Oxidative stress is an important cause of brain degeneration as well as cancer and ageing.
The researchers said: "The extracts of boysenberry and blackcurrant containing anthocyanins and phenolic compounds displayed significant inhibition against the oxidative challenge of hydrogen peroxide."
This can decrease the rate at which cells mutate and therefore give protection against age-related diseases, they added.
Fellow researcher James Joseph of Tufts University said the effect was likely to be the same in humans.
He told Chemistry and Industry magazine: "I am confident that the Alzheimer's protective effect we've seen will bear out in live humans.
"Diet will never be able to cure Alzheimer's but could prevent it or at least delay its onset."
Head of research at charity Alzheimer's Society Dr Susanne Sorensen said the study results helped to explain evidence that berries have a protective effect against a range of diseases.
She said: "The results demonstrate that a specific fraction of blackcurrant is particularly effective in this respect.
"However, the results cannot readily be transferred from this experimental system of cultures of well characterised tumour cell lines to neurons nor to complete brains."
As this article notes (at the very end) - these results from 'test-tube' studies may show some promising anti-oxidant properties, but this does not mean they can be generalised to living brain cells, let alone behaviour in people eating blackcurrants. Controlled clinical treatment trials would be needed to substantiate claims of that kind.
Nonetheless, it is interesting to note the nutritional value of blackcurrants, and other possible health benefits with which they've been linked.
Blackcurrants are very high in vitamin C and also provide significant amounts of vitamin E and carotenes
They have a high potassium content
They contain anthocyanin flavonoids, which can help to counter the common bacteria that cause food poisoning and urinary tract infections. The high pectin content of blackcurrants can also help digestion.
Anthocyanin flavonoids are anti-inflammatory, supporting both the idea that a blackcurrant drink may help to relieve a swollen, sore throat, and the traditional use of blackcurrants for rheumatism
In addition, blackcurrant seeds contain 25-30% gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), a fatty acid. More commonly extracted from the seeds of evening primrose oil, GLA has been used with some success in the treatment of some inflammatory skin conditions, such as eczema.
Diuretics often help those who suffer from high blood pressure and rheumatism, but deplete their potassium levels. Blackcurrants combine a diuretic effect with a high level of potassium
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/4632886.stmRead the BBC News Website article here_41239606_blackcurrant203.jpg
94320 January 2006 - BBC News - Oily fish makes 'babies brainier'diet in pregnancy; babiesEating oily fish and seeds in pregnancy can boost children's future brain power and social skills, research suggests.20/01/2006
A study of 9,000 mothers and children suggested those who consumed less of the essential fatty acid Omega-3 had children with lower IQs.
These children also had poorer motor skills and hand-to-eye co-ordination, research in the Economist said.
A team from the National Institutes of Health in the US analysed data from a long-term study done in Avon, UK.
Looking at the effects of Omega-3 intake on 9,000 mothers and their children, the team found mothers with the lowest intake of the essential fatty acid had children with a verbal IQ six points lower than the average.
While those with the highest consumption of mackerel and sardines and other sources of Omega-3 had children, at age three-and-a-half, with the best measures of fine-motor performance, researchers said.
Low intake of the crucial fatty acid also appeared to lead to higher levels of social interactions - such as an inability to make friends.
Research leader Dr Joseph Hibbeln said "frightening data" showed 14% of 17-year-olds whose mother had eaten small quantities of Omega -3 during pregnancy demonstrated this sort of behaviour.
This compared with 8% of those born to the group with the highest intake, he said.
Dr Hibbeln said: "The findings of poor social development and poor motor control in children indicate that these children may be on a developmental trajectory towards lifelong disruptive and poorly-socialised behaviour as they grow up."
She told the BBC: "The baby's brain needs Omega-3 fatty acids. It doesn't create its own fatty acids so it needs to be something that the mother will eat."
The new research also builds on earlier work in the US which suggests pregnant mothers will develop children with better language and communication skills if they regularly consume oily fish.
Nutritional expert Patrick Holford, director of the Brain Bio Centre, said Omega-3 was key to children's intelligence because the brain is formed of 60% fat - 30% of which is essential fats.
Successive studies have shown clear links between intelligence and consumption of this essential fatty acid, he added.
"It's absolutely essential that pregnant women take in enough Omega-3 and that children in early infancy take in enough Omega-3."
The richest sources of Omega-3 are larger fish which eat other fish, but research shows that the larger the fish the more pollutants, such as mercury, they contain.
For this reason Mr Holford recommends women consume two portions of wild or organic salmon, trout or sardines weekly.
The Food Standards Agency says pregnant women should consume only one or two portions of oily fish a week.
Seeds such as flax, pumpkin and hemp are good sources of Omega-3 for vegetarians, but large quantities need to be consumed to gain the same effect.
This might translate to two tablespoons of seeds daily, Mr Holford said, but women can also use a high quality Omega-3 fish oil supplement.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/4631006.stmRead the BBC News Website article heremackerel.jpgMackeral
94216 January 2006 - BBC News - Mental health link to diet changemental health; diet and mood; depression; despair; Changes to diets over the last 50 years may be playing a key role in the rise of mental illness, a study says.16/01/2006
Food campaigners Sustain and the Mental Health Foundation say the way food is now produced has altered the balance of key nutrients people consume.
The period has also seen the UK population eating less fresh food and more saturated fats and sugars.
They say this is leading to depression and memory problems, but food experts say the research is not conclusive.
Dr Andrew McCulloch, chief executive of the Mental Health Foundation, said: "We are well aware of the effect of diet upon our physical health.
"But we are only just beginning to understand how the brain as an organ is influenced by the nutrients it derives from the foods we eat and how diets have an impact on our mental health."
And he added that addressing mental health problems with changes in diet was showing better results in some cases than using drugs or counselling.
The report, Feeding Minds, pointed out the delicate balance of minerals, vitamins and essential fats consumed had changed in the past five decades.
Researchers said the proliferation of industrialised farming had introduced pesticides and altered the body fat composition of animals due to the diet they are now fed.
For example, the report said chickens reach their slaughter weight twice as fast as they did 30 years ago, increasing the fat content from 2% to 22%.
The diet has also altered the balance of vital fatty acids omega-3 and omega-6 in chickens which the brain needs to ensure it functions properly.
In contrast, saturated fats, consumption of which has been increasing with the boom in ready meals, act to slow down the brain's working process.
The report said people were eating 34% less vegetables and two-thirds less fish - the main source of omega-3 fatty acids - than they were 50 years ago.
Such changes, the study said, could be linked to depression, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Alzheimer's disease.
The two groups urged people to adopt healthier diets, with more fresh vegetables, fruit and fish, and called on the government to raise awareness about the issue.
Report researcher Courtney Van de Weyer said: "The good news is that the diet for a healthy mind is the same as the diet for a healthy body.
"The bad news is that, unless there is a radical overhaul of food and farming policies there won't be healthy and nutritious foods available in the future for people to eat."
Rebecca Foster, a nutrition scientist at the British Nutrition Foundation, said: "The evidence associating mental health and nutrient intake is in its infancy, this is a very difficult association to research and in many cases results are subjective.
"Therefore, it is difficult to draw conclusions about the association between mental illness and dietary intake at this point.
"However, the nutrient recommendations outlined in this report are in line with recommendations for good health, which should continue to be advocated by all health professionals."
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/4610070.stmRead the BBC News Website article here_41163510_despair203.jpg
94116 January 2006 - News Release - New reports link mental ill-health to changing dietsmental health and diet; food and mood; food and behaviour; food intolerances; psychiatry; mental illness; depressionAs new figures show that mental ill-health is costing the UK almost £100 billion a year, evidence released today by the Mental Health Foundation and Sustain reveals that changes to the human diet in the last fifty years or so could be an important factor behind the major rise of mental ill-health in the UK.16/01/2006
New reports link mental ill-health to changing diets
A body of evidence linking the impact of diet on mood and behaviour has been growing for many years. Now scientific evidence, published today, reveals that food can have an immediate and lasting effect upon a person's mental health and behaviour because of the way it affects the structure and function of the brain.
Significant changes in the way food is produced and manufactured have not only reduced the amounts of essential fats, vitamins and minerals consumed, but have also disturbed the balance of nutrients in the foods eaten. The proliferation of industrialised farming has introduced pesticides and altered the body fat composition of animals due to the diets they are now fed. As a result, the population's intake of omega-3 fatty acids has decreased whilst the consumption of omega-6 fatty acids has increased. According to the research, this unequal intake combined with a lack of vitamins and minerals is associated with depression, concentration and memory problems.
At the same time, the UK population is consuming less nutritious, fresh produce and more saturated fats and sugars. According to the Mental Health Foundation and Sustain, new substances, such as pesticides, additives and trans-fats have also been introduced to the diet. These, alone and in combination, can prevent the brain from functioning effectively.
There have also been remarkable changes in the way that the population prepares and cooks food. The research shows that only 29 per cent of 15-24 year olds report eating a meal made from scratch every day, compared to 50 per cent of those aged over 65. It is also reported that a high proportion of younger people are eating insufficient amounts of fresh fruit and vegetables, instead eating unhealthy foods including ready meals and takeaways.
Amino acids are vital to good mental health. Neurotransmitters in the brain are made from amino acids, many of which need to be derived from the diet. A deficiency in certain amino acids can lead to feelings of depression, apathy and leave a person feeling unmotivated and unable to relax.
The two charities assert that many nutrients can improve a person's mental health, and dietary changes may hold the key to combating specific mental health problems including depression, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and Alzheimer's disease.
Dr Andrew McCulloch, Chief Executive of the Mental Health Foundation, says: 'We are well aware of the effect of diet upon our physical health, but we are only just beginning to understand how the brain, as an organ, is influenced by the nutrients it derives from the foods we eat, and how our diets have an impact on our mental health. This evidence raises a number of important questions and concerns for us all, but the knowledge gives individuals the power to make decisions that will benefit them and future generations. On a larger scale, our Government cannot ignore the growing burden of mental ill health in the UK and must look to nutrition as an option in helping people to manage their mental health problems. The potential rewards, in economic terms, and in terms of alleviating human suffering, are enormous.'
Courtney Van de Weyer, researcher on the Feeding Minds campaign at Sustain, added: 'The good news is that the diet for a healthy mind is the same as the diet for a health body. The bad news is that, unless there is a radical overhaul of food and farming policies - particularly on fish - there won't be healthy and nutritious foods available in the future for people to eat.'
The two charities have joined forces on the Feeding Minds campaign to raise awareness of the links between diet and mental health, and are asking Government to increase financial and political support for measures to ensure that sustainable supplies of a wide variety of nutrient-rich foods are available, affordable and attractive for people to obtain both now and in the future. They are also calling on the Government to incorporate the link between diet and mental health into all food-related policy and practice.
REPORT KEY FINDINGS
Over the last 60 years there has been a 34 per cent decline in UK vegetable consumption with currently only 13 per cent of men and 15 per cent of women now eating at least five portions of fruit and vegetables per day.
People in the UK eat 59 per cent less fish - the main source of omega 3 fatty acids - than they did 60 years ago.
Some foods damage the brain by releasing toxins or oxidants that harm healthy brain cells. There are many more nutrients that serve the brain without deception or damage, which can improve mood and mental well-being.
A balanced mood and feelings of well being can be protected by ensuring that a diet provides adequate amounts of complex carbohydrates, essential fats, amino acids, vitamins and minerals and water.
Research indicates that good nutritional intake may be linked to academic success. A number of studies report that providing children with breakfast improves their daily and long-term academic performance.
Among some young offenders, diets supplemented with vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids have resulted in significant and remarkable reductions in anti-social behaviour.
Mental health problems
There is growing evidence that diet plays an important contributory role in specific mental health problems including Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), depression, schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease.
The presentation of depression in the UK population has increased dramatically over recent decades and this has been accompanied by a decrease in the age of onset, with more cases being reported in children, adolescents and young adults.
The incidence of schizophrenia is similar across the globe, although there are differences in outcomes between countries. This implies that environmental factors have some role in determining the duration and severity of symptoms, and the role that diet has to play is attracting increasing scientific interest.
Alzheimer's disease has become more common in the past fifty years and is believed to be the result of a combination of factors, including the aging population, genetics and environmental factors. Growing epidemiological evidence suggests that diet may be one of those environmental factors with associations being reported between the occurrence of Alzheimer's and high saturated fat, consumption, and low vitamin and mineral consumption.
Complementary mental health care services that focus on diet and nutrition report promising results, particularly among those who experience ADHD and depression. On the whole however, they are poorly funded and have received insufficient research attention to draw firm conclusions.
National opinion poll findings
Women report eating healthy foods, including fresh vegetables, fruit or fruit juice and meals made from scratch, more often than men, who tend to eat more takeaways and ready meals.
Younger people are more likely than older people to report daily mental health problems, as are those in social class DE, those on a lower income, those who are not in paid employment and those who are not married.
Nearly two thirds of those who do not report daily mental health problems eat fresh fruit or fruit juice every day, compared with less than half of those who do report daily mental health problems. This pattern is similar for fresh vegetables and salad.
Those who report some level of mental health problem also eat fewer healthy foods (fresh fruit and vegetables, organic foods and meals made from scratch) and more unhealthy foods (chips and crisps, chocolate, ready meals and takeaways).
The Mental Health Foundation is the leading UK charity working to improve services for both people with mental health problems and people with learning disabilities. It is the only charity to fund and work with both service users and providers and plays an important role in funding research and new approaches to promotion, treatment and care.
Sustain: The alliance for better food and farming advocates food and agriculture policies and practices that enhance the health and welfare of people and animals, improve the working and living environment, enrich society and culture and promote equity. We represent around 100 national public interest organisations working at international, national, regional and local level.
The Food and Mental Health Project has now released its report on the connection between food and mental health. Changing Diets, Changing Minds: how food affects mental health and behaviour pulls together the evidence linking what we eat to how we feel - from foetal brain development to adolescent behaviour through to Alzheimer's disease. Due to both the quantity and quality of the evidence, the report proposes that the changes to the food system seen in the past century may be partly responsible for the rise in mental health and behavioural problems at the same time.
The report is available as a free download (www.sustainweb.org/mhealth_index.asp). If you would like to order a printed copy for £10, please call Courtney at Sustain 020 7837 1228, or email firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Mental Health Foundation, Sustain's partner in the Food and Mental Health Project, has released a complementary report, Feeding Minds: the impact of food on mental health. Please visit www.mentalhealth.org.uk to download a copy.
http://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/page.cfm?pageurl=press_2006_01_16.cfmRead the News Release from the Mental Health Foundation here_41214500_veg.jpg
1844DeMar et al 2006 - One generation of n-3 PUFA deprivation increases depression and aggression test scores in ratsOne generation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deprivation increases depression and aggression test scores in ratsOne generation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deprivation increases depression and aggression test scores in ratsDeMar JC Jr, Ma K, Bell JM, Igarashi M, Greenstein D, Rapoport SI.01/01/2006J Lipid Res. 47(1):172-80. Epub 2005 Oct 6.
Male rat pups at weaning (21 days of age) were subjected to a diet deficient or adequate in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) for 15 weeks. Performance on tests of locomotor activity, depression, and aggression was measured in that order during the ensuing 3 weeks, after which brain lipid composition was determined.
In the n-3 PUFA-deprived rats, compared with n-3 PUFA-adequate rats, docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) in brain phospholipid was reduced by 36% and docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6) was elevated by 90%, whereas brain phospholipid concentrations were unchanged.
N-3 PUFA-deprived rats had a significantly increased (P = 0.03) score on the Porsolt forced-swim test for depression, and increased blocking time (P = 0.03) and blocking number (P = 0.04) scores (uncorrected for multiple comparisons) on the isolation-induced resident-intruder test for aggression. Large effect sizes (d > 0.8) were found on the depression score and on the blocking time score of the aggression test. Scores on the open-field test for locomotor activity did not differ significantly between groups, and had only small to medium effect sizes.
This single-generational n-3 PUFA-deprived rat model, which demonstrated significant changes in brain lipid composition and in test scores for depression and aggression, may be useful for elucidating the contribution of disturbed brain PUFA metabolism to human depression, aggression, and bipolar disorder.
omega-3, PUFA, brain fatty acid composition, DHA, EPA, AA, depression, aggression, animal study, experimental study, free full texthttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16210728View this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text of this article is available online
1107Frangou et al 2006 - Efficacy of ethyl-EPA in bipolar depression: randomised double-blind placebo-controlled studyEfficacy of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid in bipolar depression: randomised double-blind placebo-controlled studyEfficacy of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid in bipolar depression: randomised double-blind placebo-controlled studyFrangou S, Lewis M, McCrone P01/01/2006Br J Psychiatry.18846-50.
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) alleviates unipolar depression.
AIMS: To examine the efficacy of EPA in treating depression in bipolar disorder.
METHOD: In a12-week, double-blind study individuals with bipolar depression were randomly assigned to adjunctive treatment with placebo (n=26) or with 1 g/day (n=24) or 2 g/day (n=25) of ethyl-EPA. Primary efficacy was assessed by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), with changes in the Young Mania Rating Scale and Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) as secondary outcome measures.
RESULTS: There was no apparent benefit of 2 g over 1 g ethyl-EPA daily. Significant improvement was noted with ethyl-EPA treatment compared with placebo in the HRSD (P=0.04) and the CGI (P=0.004) scores. Both doses were well tolerated.
CONCLUSIONS: Adjunctive ethyl-EPA is an effective and well-tolerated intervention in bipolar depression.
bipolar disorder, depression, fatty acids, omega-3, EPA, RCT, human clinical trialhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16388069?ordinalpos=14&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text of this article is available online
1117Freeman et al 2006 - Randomized dose-ranging pilot trial of omega-3 for postpartum depression.Randomized dose-ranging pilot trial of omega-3 fatty acids for postpartum depression.Randomized dose-ranging pilot trial of omega-3 fatty acids for postpartum depression.Freeman MP, Hibbeln JR, Wisner KL, Brumbach BH, Watchman M, Gelenberg AJ. 01/01/2006Acta Psychiatr Scand. 113(1) 31-5
OBJECTIVE: Postpartum depression (PPD) affects 10-15% of mothers. Omega-3 fatty acids are an intriguing potential treatment for PPD.
METHOD: The efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for PPD was assessed in an 8-week dose-ranging trial. Subjects were randomized to 0.5 g/day (n = 6), 1.4 g/day (n = 3), or 2.8 g/day (n = 7).
RESULTS: Across groups, pretreatment Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) mean scores were 18.1 and 19.1 respectively; post-treatment mean scores were 9.3 and 10.0. Percent decreases on the EPDS and HRSD were 51.5% and 48.8%, respectively; changes from baseline were significant within each group and when combining groups. Groups did not significantly differ in pre- or post-test scores, or change in scores. The treatment was well tolerated.
CONCLUSION: This study was limited by small sample size and lack of placebo group. However, these results support further study of omega-3 fatty acids as a treatment for PPD.
omega-3, pregnancy, depression, post-partum depressionhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16390366&query_hl=10&itool=pubmed_docsumView this abstract via PubMed here
The NHS Choices website carries a wealth of useful information for both the general public and professionals on many different aspects of health and wellbeing.
Useful information can be found here on particular illnesses and their management - and for those living in the UK, this website also provides information on how to access NHS services and/or find appropriate professional help.
NHS Choices also offers a wide range of general information and guidance on how to maintain good health and wellbeing - including some useful advice on nutrition and diet.
http://www.nhs.uk/Pages/HomePage.aspxVisit the NHS Choices website herechoices-logo.jpgNHS Choices logo
1008West et al 2006 - Risk of schizophrenia in people with coeliac disease, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease: a general population-based study.Risk of schizophrenia in people with coeliac disease, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease: a general population-based study.Risk of schizophrenia in people with coeliac disease, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease: a general population-based study.West J, Logan RF, Hubbard RB, Card TR. 01/01/2006Aliment Pharmacol Ther.23(1):71-4
BACKGROUND: Recently, interest has been revived in whether people with coeliac disease, in contrast to other inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases, have an increased risk of schizophrenia. AIM: To compare the risk of schizophrenia in people diagnosed with coeliac disease, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease with the general population.
METHODS: We used data from the UK General Practice Research Database. People with coeliac disease, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis were matched individually with five age-, sex- and general practice-matched controls. The prevalence of schizophrenia was calculated and compared between disease groups and their respective controls. We calculated odds ratios for schizophrenia using conditional logistic regression adjusting for smoking status.
RESULTS: In people with coeliac disease, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis the prevalence of schizophrenia was 0.25%, 0.27% and 0.24%, respectively, compared with a general population prevalence of 0.37%. The adjusted odds ratios showed no association between schizophrenia and gastrointestinal disease (coeliac disease vs. controls 0.76, 95% CI: 0.41-1.4; Crohn's disease vs. controls 0.74, 95% CI: 0.44-1.3; ulcerative colitis 0.71, 95% CI: 0.44-1.1).
CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to recent findings we found no evidence of an increased risk of schizophrenia in people with coeliac disease compared with the general population.
schizophrenia, gluten, diet, coeliac, epidemiologyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16393282&query_hl=10&itool=pubmed_docsumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
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