800Reichelt & Jensen 2004 - IgA antibodies against gliadin and gluten in multiple sclerosis.IgA antibodies against gliadin and gluten in multiple sclerosis.IgA antibodies against gliadin and gluten in multiple sclerosisReichelt KL, Jensen D.01/10/2004Acta Neurol Scand. 110(4)239-41.
BACKGROUND: Multiple changes in antibodies against various antigens are found in multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: We wanted to measure immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies to some common food antigens in MS and also IgG against gliadin and gluten. METHODS: The IgA antibodies were measured in serum against gluten, gliadin, lactoglobulin, lactalbumin, casein and ovalbumin in patients with MS and controls using ELISA technique. IgG was likewise measured for gluten and gliadin. RESULTS: Highly significant increases compared with controls were found for IgA and IgG antibodies against gliadin and gluten. IgA antibodies against casein were significantly increased. Anti-endomycium and anti-transglutaminase antibodies were negative. CONCLUSIONS: The data presented indicate that there may be a possible moderately increased uptake of some specific proteins from the gut in MS compared with controls.
multiple sclerosis, gliadin, gluten, IgG antibodies, IgA antibodieshttp://www.blackwell-synergy.com/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=0001-6314&date=2004&volume=110&issue=4&spage=239Licensed users of Acta Neurologica Scandinavica (via Blackwell Synergy) can view the full text of this paper here
928Virmani & Binienda 2004 - Role of carnitine esters in brain neuropathologyRole of carnitine esters in brain neuropathologyRole of carnitine esters in brain neuropathologyVirmani A, Binienda Z.01/10/2004Mol Aspects Med. 25(5-6)533-49.
L-Carnitine (L-C) is a naturally occurring quaternary ammonium compound endogenous in all mammalian species and is a vital cofactor for the mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids. Fatty acids are utilized as an energy substrate in all tissues, and although glucose is the main energetic substrate in adult brain, fatty acids have also been shown to be utilized by brain as an energy substrate. L-C also participates in the control of the mitochondrial acyl-CoA/CoA ratio, peroxisomal oxidation of fatty acids, and the production of ketone bodies. Due to their intrinsic interaction with the bioenergetic processes, they play an important role in diseases associated with metabolic compromise, especially mitochondrial-related disorders. A deficiency of carnitine is known to have major deleterious effects on the CNS. Several syndromes of secondary carnitine deficiency have been described that may result from defects in intermediary metabolism and alterations principally involving mitochondrial oxidative pathways. Mitochondrial superoxide formation resulting from disturbed electron transfer within the respiratory chain may affect the activities of respiratory chain complexes I, II, III, IV, and V and underlie some CNS pathologies. This mitochondrial dysfunction may be ameliorated by L-C and its esters. In addition to its metabolic role, L-C and its esters such as acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) poses unique neuroprotective, neuromodulatory, and neurotrophic properties which may play an important role in counteracting various disease processes. Neural dysfunction and metabolic imbalances underlie many diseases, and the inclusion of metabolic modifiers may provide an alternative and early intervention approach, which may limit further developmental damage, cognitive loss, and improve long-term therapeutic outcomes. The neurophysiological and neuroprotective actions of L-C and ALC on cellular processes in the central and peripheral nervous system show such effects. Indeed, many studies have shown improvement in processes, such as memory and learning, and are discussed in this review.
carnitine, neurotoxicity, mechanisms, review, neurodegenerative disorders, oxidative stresshttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T9P-4CX1492-3&_coverDate=12%2F31%2F2004&_alid=329049279&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_qd=1&_cdi=5120&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000010360&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=126524&md5=37ab35fc1826f09c957d134de4f9ef43Licensed users can view the full text of this paper here
71230 September 2004 - Edinburgh - Scottish Parliamentary Cross Party Group on AutismScottish Parliamentary Cross Party Group on Autism30/09/200430/09/2004
Dr Alex Richardson has been invited to address the Scottish Parliamentary Cross-Party Group on Autism to explain
why more research is needed into biochemical and nutritional factors in autistic spectrum disorders (ASD)
what practical benefits this research could offer not only to service providers in education, health and welfare; but also to the increasing number of individuals and families directly affected by ASD.
Dr Richardson's presentation will include an overview of existing research in this area and its implications for better identification and management of autistic spectrum disorders.
It will also outline the new clinical research programme that FAB Research has developed in collaboration with other charities and leading researchers from several Universities in the UK.
This meeting will be held at the new Parliament Building in Edinburgh. It is open to interested members of the public, although for security purposes, anyone wishing to attend must confirm their registration before 28th September using the contact details given here.
782Gut and Psychology Syndromes: Natural Treatment for Autism, ADD/ADHD, Dyslexia, Dyspraxia, Depression, Schizophrenia Gut and Psychology Syndromes: Natural Treatment for Autism, ADD/ADHD, Dyslexia, Dyspraxia, Depression, Schizophrenia Natural Treatment for Autism,ADD/ADHD,Dyslexia,Dyspraxia,Depression,Schizophrenia Natasha Campbell-McBride01/09/2004
Dr. Natasha Campbell-McBride set up The Cambridge Nutrition Clinic in 1998. As a parent of a child diagnosed with learning disabilities, she was acutely aware of the difficulties facing other parents like her, and she has devoted much of her time to helping these families.
She realised that nutrition played a critical role in helping children and adults to overcome their disabilities, and has pioneered the use of probiotics in this field.
Her willingness to share her knowledge has resulted in her contributing to many publications, as well as presenting at numerous seminars and conferences on the subjects of learning disabilities and digestive disorders. Her book "Gut and Psychology Syndrome" captures her experience and knowledge, incorporating her most recent work.
She believes that the link between learning disabilities, the food and drink that we take, and the condition of our digestive system is absolute, and the results of her work have supported her position on this subject. In her clinic, parents discuss all aspects of their child's condition, confident in the knowledge that they are not only talking to a professional but to a parent who has lived their experience. Her deep understanding of the challenges they face, puts her advice in a class of it's own.
From the Publisher
"Gut and Psychology Syndrome" reveals the true connection between nutrition and brain function. Written by a neurologist and practising nutritionist it is a "no holds barred" investigation into the real facts behind why today's generation of children have the highest incidence of learning disabilities and behavioural disorders ever. Reviewers have praised it for it's wealth of information and advice. Presented in a style that will benefit both parents and practitioners, this book is definitely one to read and keep for reference".
gut, nutrition, autism, adhd, immunne, psychology, gut microflora, prebiotics, probioticsGAPS.jpgGAPS book coverhttp://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0954852001/fabresearfood-21GAPS.jpg
1335Hoffman et al 2004 - Maturation of visual acuity is accelerated in breast-fed term infants fed baby food containing DHA-enriched egg yolk.Maturation of visual acuity is accelerated in breast-fed term infants fed baby food containing DHA-enriched egg yolk. Maturation of visual acuity is accelerated in breast-fed term infants fed baby food containing DHA-enriched egg yolk.Hoffman DR, Theuer RC, Castañeda YS, Wheaton DH, Bosworth RG, O'Connor AR, Morale SE, Wiedemann LE, Birch EE01/09/2004J Nutr. 134(9)2307-13
Between 6 and 12 mo of age, blood levels of the (n-3) long-chain PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in breast-fed infants typically decrease due to diminished maternal DHA stores and the introduction of DHA-poor solid foods displacing human milk as the primary source of nutrition. Thus, we utilized a randomized, clinical trial format to evaluate the effect of supplemental DHA in solid foods on visual development of breast-fed infants with the primary outcome, sweep visual-evoked potential (VEP) acuity, as an index for maturation of the retina and visual cortex. At 6 mo of age, breast-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive 1 jar (113 g)/d of baby food containing egg yolk enriched with DHA (115 mg DHA/100 g food; n = 25) or control baby food (0 mg DHA; n = 26). Gravimetric measures were used to estimate the supplemental DHA intake which was 83 mg DHA/d in the supplemented group and 0 mg/d in controls. Although many infants in both groups continued to breast-feed for a mean of 9 mo, RBC DHA levels decreased significantly between 6 and 12 mo (from 3.8 to 3.0 g/100 g total fatty acids) in control infants, whereas RBC DHA levels increased by 34% from 4.1 to 5.5 g/100 g by 12 mo in supplemented infants. VEP acuity at 6 mo was 0.49 logMAR (minimum angle of resolution) and improved to 0.29 logMAR by 12 mo in controls. In DHA-supplemented infants, VEP acuity was 0.48 logMAR at 6 mo and matured to 0.14 logMAR at 12 mo (1.5 lines on the eye chart better than controls). At 12 mo, the difference corresponded to 1.5 lines on the eye chart. RBC DHA levels and VEP acuity at 12 mo were correlated (r = -0.50; P = 0.0002), supporting the need of an adequate dietary supply of DHA throughout 1 y of life for neural development.
omega-3, brain development, vision, visual acuity, infant feeding, RCThttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15333721?ordinalpos=9&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumView this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text of this paper is available from the Journal website
867Uritski et al 2004 - Dietary iron affects inflammatory status in a rat model of colitis.Dietary iron affects inflammatory status in a rat model of colitis.Dietary iron affects inflammatory status in a rat model of colitis.
Uritski R, Barshack I, Bilkis I, Ghebremeskel K, Reifen R.01/09/2004 J Nutr. 134(9)2251-5.
Iron deficiency anemia is a common feature in inflammatory bowel disease, and oral supplementation is one of the mainstay therapies. However, there is some concern that oral iron supplementation may lead to oxidative stress and exacerbation of inflammation. Our objective was to study the effect of severely deficient, moderately deficient, normal and high iron status on oxidative stress and the course of inflammation in a rat model of colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The rats were randomly assigned to receive the low-iron diet for 3 (moderately iron-deficient group, n = 16) or 5 (severely iron-deficient group, n = 16) wk, the normal iron diet for 2 wk (normal iron group, n = 16) or the high-iron diet for 2 wk (high-iron group, n = 16). Malondialdehyde concentration, electroparamagnetic resonance measurement, myeloperoxidase activity, and histological analysis were used to evaluate oxidative stress. Noncolitic rats in the high-iron group had higher oxidative stress parameters than those in the other groups. The induction of colitis resulted in severe inflammatory changes in the high-iron and severely iron-deficient groups, and produced higher histological scores in the colon of the normal and high-iron groups. Iron overload, oxidative stress, and inflammation were lower in the moderately iron-deficient group compared with the other 3 groups. In conclusion, we suggest that low rather than normal or high iron supplementation should be considered for the treatment of iron deficiency in inflammatory bowel disease.
iron, supplementation, diet, anaemia, iron-deficiency, IBS, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammation, oxidative stress, animal studieshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15333712Licensed users of J Nutrition can view the full text of this article here
757Vojdani et al - 2004 - Infections, toxic chemicals and dietary peptides binding to lymphocyte receptors and tissue enzymes are major instigators of autoimmunity in autism.Infections, toxic chemicals and dietary peptides binding to lymphocyte receptors and tissue enzymes are major instigators of autoimmunity in autism.Infections, toxic chemicals and dietary peptides binding to lymphocyte receptors and tissue enzymes are major instigators of autoimmunity in autism.
Vojdani A, Pangborn JB, Vojdani E, Cooper EL.01/09/2004Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 16(3)189-99
Similar to many complex autoimmune diseases, genetic and environmental factors including diet, infection and xenobiotics play a critical role in the development of autism. In this study, we postulated that infectious agent antigens such as streptokinase, dietary peptides (gliadin and casein) and ethyl mercury (xenobiotic) bind to different lymphocyte receptors and tissue enzyme (DPP IV or CD26). We assessed this hypothesis first by measuring IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies against CD26, CD69, streptokinase (SK), gliadin and casein peptides and against ethyl mercury bound to human serum albumin in patients with autism. A significant percentage of children with autism developed anti-SK, anti-gliadin and casein peptides and anti-ethyl mercury antibodies, concomitant with the appearance of anti-CD26 and anti-CD69 autoantibodies. These antibodies are synthesized as a result of SK, gliadin, casein and ethyl mercury binding to CD26 and CD69, indicating that they are specific. Immune absorption demonstrated that only specific antigens, like CD26, were capable of significantly reducing serum anti-CD26 levels. However, for direct demonstration of SK, gliadin, casein and ethyl mercury to CD26 or CD69, microtiter wells were coated with CD26 or CD69 alone or in combination with SK, gliadin, casein or ethyl mercury and then reacted with enzyme labeled rabbit anti-CD26 or anti-CD69. Adding these molecules to CD26 or CD69 resulted in 28-86% inhibition of CD26 or CD69 binding to anti-CD26 or anti-CD69 antibodies. The highest % binding of these antigens or peptides to CD26 or CD69 was attributed to SK and the lowest to casein peptides. We, therefore, propose that bacterial antigens (SK), dietary peptides (gliadin, casein) and Thimerosal (ethyl mercury) in individuals with pre-disposing HLA molecules, bind to CD26 or CD69 and induce antibodies against these molecules. In conclusion, this study is apparently the first to demonstrate that dietary peptides, bacterial toxins and xenobiotics bind to lymphocyte receptors and/or tissue enzymes, resulting in autoimmune reaction in children with autism.
autism, diet, allergy, gluten, caseinhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=14611720View abstarct in Pub Med
793Bourre 2004 - Roles of unsaturated fatty acids (especially omega-3) in the brain at various agesRoles of unsaturated fatty acids (especially omega-3 fatty acids) in the brain at various ages and during ageingRoles of unsaturated fatty acids (especially omega-3 fatty acids) in the brain at various ages and during ageingBourre, J.M.01/08/2004J Nutr Health Aging. 8(3)163-74.
Among various organs, in the brain, the fatty acids most extensively studied are omega-3 fatty acids. Alpha-linolenic acid (18:3omega3) deficiency alters the structure and function of membranes and induces minor cerebral dysfunctions, as demonstrated in animal models and subsequently in human infants. Even though the brain is materially an organ like any other, that is to say elaborated from substances present in the diet (sometimes exclusively), for long it was not accepted that food can have an influence on brain structure, and thus on its function. Lipids, and especially omega-3 fatty acids, provided the first coherent experimental demonstration of the effect of diet (nutrients) on the structure and function of the brain. In fact the brain, after adipose tissue, is the organ richest in lipids, whose only role is to participate in membrane structure. First it was shown that the differentiation and functioning of cultured brain cells requires not only alpha-linolenic acid (the major component of the omega-3, omega3 family), but also the very long omega-3 and omega-6 carbon chains (1). It was then demonstrated that alpha-linolenic acid deficiency alters the course of brain development, perturbs the composition and physicochemical properties of brain cell membranes, neurones, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes (2).This leads to physicochemical modifications, induces biochemical and physiological perturbations, and results in neurosensory and behavioural upset (3). Consequently, the nature of polyunsaturated fatty acids (in particular omega-3) present in formula milks for infants (premature and term) conditions the visual and cerebral abilities, including intellectual. Moreover, dietary omega-3 fatty acids are certainly involved in the prevention of some aspects of cardiovascular disease (including at the level of cerebral vascularization), and in some neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly depression, as well as in dementia, notably Alzheimer's disease. Recent results have shown that dietary alpha-linolenic acid deficiency induces more marked abnormalities in certain cerebral structures than in others, as the frontal cortex and pituitary gland are more severely affected. These selective lesions are accompanied by behavioural disorders more particularly affecting certain tests (habituation, adaptation to new situations). Biochemical and behavioural abnormalities are partially reversed by a dietary phospholipid supplement, especially omega-3-rich egg yolk extracts or pig brain. A dose-effect study showed that animal phospholipids are more effective than plant phospholipids to reverse the consequences of alpha-linolenic acid deficiency, partly because they provide very long preformed chains. Alpha-linolenic acid deficiency decreases the perception of pleasure, by slightly altering the efficacy of sensory organs and by affecting certain cerebral structures. Age-related impairment of hearing, vision and smell is due to both decreased efficacy of the parts of the brain concerned and disorders of sensory receptors, particularly of the inner ear or retina. For example, a given level of perception of a sweet taste requires a larger quantity of sugar in subjects with alpha-linolenic acid deficiency. In view of occidental eating habits, as omega-6 fatty acid deficiency has never been observed, its impact on the brain has not been studied. In contrast, omega-9 fatty acid deficiency, specifically oleic acid deficiency, induces a reduction of this fatty acid in many tissues, except the brain (but the sciatic nerve is affected). This fatty acid is therefore not synthesized in sufficient quantities, at least during pregnancy-lactation, implying a need for dietary intake. It must be remembered that organization of the neurons is almost complete several weeks before birth, and that these neurons remain for the subject's life time. Consequently, any disturbance of these neurons, an alteration of their connections, and impaired turnover of their constituents at any stage of life, will tend to accelerate ageing. The enzymatic activities of synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids are very limited in the brain: this organ therefore depends on an exogenous supply. Consequently, fatty acids that are essential for the brain are arachidonic acid and cervonic acid, derived from the diet, unless they are synthesized by the liver from linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid. The age-related reduction of hepatic desaturase activities (which participate in the synthesis of long chains, together with elongases) can impair turnover of cerebral membranes. In many structures, especially in the frontal cortex, a reduction of cervonic and arachidonic acids is observed during ageing, predominantly associated with a reduction of phosphatidylethanolamines (mainly in the form of plasmalogens). Peroxisomal oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases in the brain during ageing, participating in decreased turnover of membrane fatty acids, which are also less effectively protected against peroxidation by free radicals.
review, omega-3, omega-6, essential fatty acids, brain development, aging, diethttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15129302View this abstract via PubMed here
1466Calderon & Kim - DHA promotes neurite growth in hippocampal neurons.Docosahexaenoic acid promotes neurite growth in hippocampal neurons.Docosahexaenoic acid promotes neurite growth in hippocampal neurons.Calderon F, Kim HY.01/08/2004J Neurochem. 90(4):979-88.
Docosahexanoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) deficiency during development is associated with impairment in learning and memory, suggesting an important role of DHA in neuronal development. Here we provide evidence that DHA promotes neuronal differentiation in rat embryonic hippocampal primary cultures. DHA deficiency in vitro was spontaneously induced by culturing hippocampal cells in chemically defined medium. DHA supplementation improved DHA levels to values observed in freshly isolated hippocampus. We found that DHA supplementation in culture increased the population of neurons with longer neurite length per neuron and with higher number of branches. However, supplementation with arachidonic, oleic or docosapentaenoic acid did not have any effect, indicating specificity of the DHA action on neurite growth. Furthermore, hippocampal cultures obtained from n-3 fatty acid deficient animals contained a lower DHA level and a neuronal population with shorter neurite length per neuron in comparison to those obtained from animals with adequate n-3 fatty acids. DHA supplementation to the deficient group recovered the neurite length to the level similar to n-3 fatty acid adequate cultures. Our data demonstrates that DHA uniquely promotes neurite growth in hippocampal neurons. Inadequate neurite development due to DHA deficiency may contribute to the cognitive impairment associated with n-3 fatty acid deficiency.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15287904View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
765Chen et al 2004 - Diet and blood fatty acids in children with ADHD in TaiwanDietary patterns and blood fatty acid composition in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in Taiwan.Dietary patterns and blood fatty acid composition in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in Taiwan.Chen, J.R., Hsu, S.F., Hsu, C.D., Hwang, L.H., Yang, S.C.01/08/2004J Nutr Biochem15(8):467-72
Nutritional factors may be relative to attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), although the pathogenic mechanism is still unknown. Based on the work of others, we hypothesized that children with ADHD have altered dietary patterns and fatty acid metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate dietary patterns and the blood fatty acid composition in children with ADHD in the Taipei area of Taiwan. The present study found that 58 subjects with ADHD (average age 8.5 years) had significantly higher intakes of iron and vitamin C compared to those of 52 control subjects (average age 7.9 years) (P < 0.05). The blood total protein content in subjects with ADHD was significantly lower than that in control subjects (P < 0.05). On the other hand, children with ADHD had significantly higher blood iron levels compared to the control children (P < 0.05). Additionally, plasma gamma-linolenic acid (18:3 n-6) in children with ADHD was higher than that in control children (P < 0.05). Concerning the composition of other fatty acids in the phospholipid isolated from red blood cell (RBC) membranes, oleic acid (18:1n-9) was significantly higher, whereas nervonic acid (24:1n-9), linoleic acid (18:2n-6), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) were significantly lower in subjects with ADHD (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that there were no differences in dietary patterns of these children with ADHD except for the intake of iron and vitamin C; however, the fatty acid composition of phospholipid from RBC membranes in the ADHD children differed from that of the normal children.
ADHD, children, diet, blood fatty acids, biochemistry, HUFA, PUFA, omega-3, omega-6, GLA, DHA, iron, vitamin C, erythrocytes, plasmahttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T8P-4D1KFHT-4&_coverDate=08%2F31%2F2004&_alid=251709469&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_qd=1&_cdi=5092&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000010360&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=126524&md5=71180633a312a6e3adc933eb9cc04f67Licensed users of J Nutr Biochem can view the full text of this paper here
795Usai et al 2004 - Frontal cortical perfusion abnormalities related to gluten intake in coeliac diseaseFrontal cortical perfusion abnormalities related to gluten intake and associated autoimmune disease in adult coeliac disease: 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT study.Frontal cortical perfusion abnormalities related to gluten intake and associated autoimmune disease in adult coeliac disease: 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT study.Usai P, Serra A, Marini B, Mariotti S, Satta L, Boi MF, Spanu A, Loi G, Piga M.01/08/2004Dig Liver Dis. 36(8)513-8.
OBJECTIVE: Since brain perfusion abnormalities have been described by single-photon emission computed tomography in some autoimmune diseases, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of perfusion abnormalities by brain single-photon emission computed tomography in a group of coeliac disease patients, and to investigate whether gluten intake and associated autoimmune diseases may be considered risk factors in causing cerebral impairment.
METHODS: Thirty-four adult coeliac patients (16 on a gluten-free diet and 18 on a gluten-containing diet, 18 (53%) with autoimmune diseases) underwent 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer brain single-photon emission computed tomography and qualitative evaluation of brain perfusion was performed together with a semiquantitative estimation using the asymmetry index. Ten subjects on our database, matched for sex, age and ethnic group, who were proved normal by histology ofjejunal mucosa (four males and six females; median age 39 years, range 27-55 years), were included as control group.
RESULTS: Twenty-four out of 34 patients (71%) showed brain single-photon emission computed tomography abnormalities confirmed by abnormal regional asymmetry index (>5%; range 5.8-18.5%). Topographic comparison of the brain areas showed that the more significant abnormalities were localised in frontal regions, and were significantly different from controls only in coeliac disease patients on unrestricted diet. The prevalence of single-photon emission computed tomography abnormalities was similar in coeliac disease patients with (74%) and without (69%) associated autoimmune disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Abnormalities of brain perfusion seem common in coeliac disease. This phenomenon is similar to that previously described in other autoimmune diseases, but does not appear to be related to associated autoimmunity and, at least in the frontal region, may be improved by a gluten-free diet.
coeliac, gluten, autoimmune, brain perfusion, frontal lobes, SPECT, brain imaginghttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15334770View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
3708Kalueff et al 2004 - Impaired motor performance in mice lacking neurosteroid vitamin D receptorsImpaired motor performance in mice lacking neurosteroid vitamin D receptorsImpaired motor performance in mice lacking neurosteroid vitamin D receptorsKalueff AV, Lou YR, Laaksi I, Tuohimaa P.30/07/2004Brain Res Bull. 64(1):.25-9
Vitamin D is a neuroactive seco-steroid and its importance to the nervous system is receiving increasing recognition.
Since numerous data link vitamin D dysfunctions to various neurological and behavioural disorders, we studied whether genetic ablation of vitamin D receptors (VDR) may be associated with motor impairments in mice subjected to several behavioural tests.
The data obtained in the vertical screen and swim tests show that VDR genetic ablation produces severe motor impairment (shorter screen retention and poor swimming) in mutant mice compared to wild-type and heterozygous control animals. These impairments appear to be unrelated to visual, vestibular and activity/emotionality parameters of mice, and are likely associated with disturbed calcium homeostasis.
This study confirms the important role of the vitamin D system in motor functions and suggests that animal genetic models targeting the vitamin D/VDR system may be a useful tool to study vitamin D-related motor/behavioural disorders.
Vitamin D, Vit-D, Vit_D, brain development, motor coordination, dyspraxia, animal studyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15275953View this and related abstracts via PubMed here.
703Bell et al 2004 - Membrane fatty acids, reading and spelling in dyslexic and non-dyslexic adultsMembrane fatty acids, reading and spelling in dyslexic and non-dyslexic adultsMembrane fatty acids, reading and spelling in dyslexic and non-dyslexic adultsBell, J.G., Ross, M.A., Cyhlarova, E., Shrier, A., Dick, J.R., Henderson, R.J., Richardson, A.J.30/06/20046th International Congress of the International Study for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids (ISSFAL), Brighton UK, 27 June - 1 July 2004.
Increasing evidence implicates functional deficiencies or imbalances of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in dyslexia, in which specific difficulties with reading and spelling are core features. Our aim was to examine associations between these literacy skills and n-3 and n-6 fatty acid status in dyslexic and non-dyslexic adults.
32 dyslexic adults and 19 matched controls completed standardised tests of reading and spelling and gave venous blood samples for analysis of the polar lipid composition of RBC membranes. Relationships between literacy skills and n-3 and n-6 concentrations were examined using rank order correlations.
Better word reading was associated with higher total n-3 concentrations in both dyslexic and control groups (each p < 0.05, combined sample p < 0.01). In dyslexic subjects only, reading performance also correlated negatively with ratios of LA/ALA and AA/EPA (p < 0.05) and with total n-6 at trend level (p=0.06). Better spelling was related to higher DHA status only in controls, and to lower LA/ALA ratios only in the dyslexic group (p < 0.05).
The finding that n-3 status was directly related to reading performance irrespective of dyslexia supports a dimensional view of this condition, but our other results suggest that n-3/n-6 imbalances might be particularly relevant to dyslexic subjects. This study obviously cannot address causality, but ongoing treatment trials should help to clarify possible implications for dietary management of dyslexia.
824Kalueff et al 2004 - Increased anxiety in mice lacking vitamin D receptor geneIncreased anxiety in mice lacking vitamin D receptor geneIncreased anxiety in mice lacking vitamin D receptor geneKalueff, A.V., Lou, Y.R., Laaksi, I., Tuohimaa, P.07/06/2004Neuroreport. 15(8)1271-4.
Vitamin D is a steroid hormone with many important functions in the brain, mediated through the vitamin D nuclear receptor. Numerous human and animal data link vitamin D dysfunctions to various behavioural disorders.
To examine this problem, we studied whether genetic ablation of vitamin D receptors in mice may be associated with altered emotional behaviours.
Here we show that the receptor-deficient mice demonstrate increased anxiety-like behaviours when subjected to a battery of behavioural tests.
These studies suggest that vitamin D and its receptors are an important factor in the brain, whose imbalance may significantly affect emotional behaviour.
Copyright 2004 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins
anxiety, Vitamin D, genetic studies, brain function, Vit-D, Vit_D, neurodevelopmental disordershttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15167547View this and related abstracts via PubMed here.
720Healing Without Freud or Prozac: Natural Approaches to Conquering Stress, Anxiety, Depression Without Drugs and Without Psychotherapy Healing Without Freud or Prozac: Natural Approaches to Conquering Stress, Anxiety, Depression Without Drugs and Without Psychotherapy David Servan-Schreiber - Healing without Freud or ProzacDavid Servan-Schreiber04/06/2004
The late David Servan-Schreiber (1961 to 2011) was a distinguished psychiatrist and research scientist both in his native France and in the USA, where he co-founded the Center for Complementary Medicine at the University of Pittsburg Medical Centre.
This book represents a remarkable synthesis of what he has learned from his professional and personal experience, and it clearly displays his extraordinary combination of intelligence, wisdom, insight and real compassion. With an open mind, Dr Servan-Schreiber has sought out and critically appraised the scientific evidence for a number of new therapies for depression, anxiety and stress-related conditions. He has also made his findings accessible by relating them to the cases of real people he has worked with in a variety of settings. This is a book that anyone with an interest in mental health and well-being should read.
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Stress, anxiety and depression are among the most common reasons for people to see the doctor. The drugs targeting these conditions are pharmaceutical bestsellers. Yet a majority of patients would like to be able to heal without taking drugs or engaging in therapy that involves talking about their problems. Dr Servan-Schreiber gathers together the answers to questions about alternatives to drugs and talk therapy. He discusses only treatment methods he has used with patients himself, methods which have been proven to work in clinical studies. Written with case histories, this book should make those who dismiss alternative medicine think again and provide those who are looking for help - without taking drugs and without talk therapy - with some answers.
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1759Angermayr & Clar 2004 - Iodine supplementation for preventing iodine deficiency disorders in children.Iodine supplementation for preventing iodine deficiency disorders in children.Iodine supplementation for preventing iodine deficiency disorders in children.
Angermayr L, Clar C.01/06/2004Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(2):CD003819.
BACKGROUND:Iodine deficiency is the main cause of potentially preventable mental retardation in childhood, as well as causing goitre and hypothyroidism in people of all ages. It is still prevalent in large parts of the world.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of iodine supplementation overall, and of different forms and dosages of iodine supplementation separately, in the prevention of iodine deficiency disorders in children.
SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and reference lists, databases of ongoing trials and the Internet were searched. Date of latest search: October 2003.
SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials and prospective controlled trials not using randomisation of iodine supplementation in children living in areas of iodine deficiency.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:Two reviewers did the initial data selection and quality assessment of trials independently. As the studies identified were not sufficiently similar and not of sufficient quality, we did not do a meta-analysis but summarised the data in a narrative format.
MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-six prospective controlled trials were related to our question, assessing a total of 29613 children. Twenty of them were classified as being of low quality, six of moderate quality. Most studies used iodised oil as a supplement, but other supplements were also used. The intervention groups were compared to a non-supplemented control group, different doses or different forms of iodine supplementation. There was a clear tendency towards goitre reduction with iodine supplementation; this was significant in several studies. Significant differences in physical development were not seen, except in one study. Results for differences in cognitive and psychomotor measures were mixed, with only few studies showing a positive intervention effect. One study suggested that infant mortality was lowered after iodine supplementation. Most studies showed a significant increase in urinary iodine excretion and levels recommended by the WHO were reached in most cases after supplementation. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were significantly reduced in one study. In 1.8% of the children investigated, adverse effects were found, most of them were minor and transient.
REVIEWERS' CONCLUSIONS: Despite most of the included studies being of low quality, the results suggest that iodine supplementation, especially iodised oil, is an effective means of decreasing goitre rates and improving iodine status in children. Indications of positive effects on physical and mental development and mortality were seen, although results were not always significant. Adverse effects were generally minor and transient. Insufficient evidence was available on non-oil supplements. High quality controlled studies investigating relevant long term outcome measures are needed to address the question of the best form of iodine supplementation in different population groups and settings.
iodine, thyroid, child development. cognition, dietary supplementation, intervention, human studies, randomised controlled trials, RCT, systematic reviewhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15106221View this and related abstracts via PubMed here.
831Burne et al 2004 - Combined prenatal and chronic postnatal vitamin D deficiency in rats impairs prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle.Combined prenatal and chronic postnatal vitamin D deficiency in rats impairs prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle.Combined prenatal and chronic postnatal vitamin D deficiency in rats impairs prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle.Burne, T.H., Feron, F., Brown, J., Eyles, D.W., McGrath, J.J., Mackay-Sim, A.01/06/2004Physiol Behav. 81(4)651-5.
There is growing evidence that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is involved in normal brain development. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of prenatal and postnatal hypovitaminosis D on prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle in adult rats.
We compared six groups of rats: control rats with normal vitamin D throughout life and normal litter size (Litter); control rats with normal vitamin D but with a reduced litter size of two (Control); offspring from reduced litters of vitamin D deplete mothers who were repleted at birth (Birth), repleted at weaning (Weaning) or remained on a deplete diet until 10 weeks of age (Life); or control rats that were placed on a vitamin D-deficient diet from 5 to 10 weeks of age (Adult). All rats were tested in acoustic startle chambers at 5 and 10 weeks of age for acoustic startle responses and for PPI.
There were no significant group differences at 5 weeks of age on the acoustic startle response or on PPI. At 10 weeks of age, rats in the Life group only had impaired PPI despite having normal acoustic startle responses. We conclude that combined prenatal and chronic postnatal hypovitaminosis D, but not early life hypovitaminosis D, alters PPI.
Vitamin D, acoustic startle, prepulse inhibition, schizophrenia, Vit_Dhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15178159View this and related abstracts via PubMed here.
1258Evans et al 2004 - Regulation of metabolic rate and substrate utilization by zinc deficiency.Regulation of metabolic rate and substrate utilization by zinc deficiency.Regulation of metabolic rate and substrate utilization by zinc deficiency.Evans SA, Overton JM, Alshingiti A, Levenson CW.01/06/2004Metabolism.53(6)727-32
The trace metal zinc (Zn) is essential for the catalytic activity of many enzymes involved in energy nutrient metabolism and appears to regulate hormones, such as insulin, leptin, and thyroid hormone that play key roles in metabolism. Thus, this study used the continuous monitoring of oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, locomotion, and food intake to determine the effect of dietary Zn restriction on metabolic rate (MR), basal metabolic rate (BMR), and respiratory quotient (RQ). Rats were fed a Zn-adequate (ZA, 28 ppm) or Zn-deficient (ZD, <1 ppm) diet for 8 days, followed by a 4-day refeeding period. To control for reductions in food intake that characteristically occur in ZD rats, an additional group was pair-fed (PF) the same amount ZA food eaten by ZD rats. The mean caloric intake of ZD rats was significantly lower than ZA rats by day 3. By day 8, ZD and PF rats weighed 64% and 67% of ZA rats, respectively, (P <.01). Pair feeding resulted in increased locomotor activity, such that the distance traveled for PF rats (316 +/- 43 m) was 6 times that of ZA (53 +/- 6 m). Despite the fact that PF and ZD rats had the same food intake, there was no increase in locomotor activity in ZD rats suggesting that the mechanisms responsible for increased physical activity in food restricted animals may be Zn dependent. Furthermore, differences in activity between PF and ZD animals were not reflected in differences in MR. Both ZD and PF significantly reduced MR compared with ZA rats beginning on day 4. There was a significant relationship between RQ and caloric intake (r = 0.708, P <.01), but no specific effect of Zn status. Thus, while there may be an effect of Zn on locomotion and the energetic cost of activity, it appears that the most profound effect of Zn status on MR and substrate utilization is the result of Zn deficiency-induced anorexia.
zinc, depression, anxiety, anorexia, mechanismshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15164319?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=3&log$=relatedarticles&logdbfrom=pubmedView this and related abstracts via PubMed here
695Nutritional supplements as adjunctive therapy for children with chronic/recurrent sinusitisNutritional supplements as adjunctive therapy for children with chronic/recurrent sinusitis: pilot research.Nutritional supplements as adjunctive therapy for children with chronic/recurrent sinusitis: pilot research.Linday LA, Dolitsky JN, Shindledecker RD.01/06/2004Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol.68(6)785-93.
OBJECTIVE: Inflammation and edema of the sinonasal mucosa are important in the pathophysiology of sinusitis. Based on the similarities between otitis media (OM) and sinusitis, and our previous research on OM, we hypothesized that nutritional supplements would be effective adjunctive therapy for the treatment of children with chronic/recurrent sinusitis. METHODS: We performed a 4 month, open-label, dose-titration study; subjects were enrolled from late January to early March 2003. Each subject served as his own control. Study supplements were a lemon-flavored cod liver oil and a children's multivitamin-mineral with selenium, prescribed in escalating doses; at higher doses, fish oil was substituted for cod liver oil. Subjects were private pediatric otolaryngology outpatients with a clinical diagnosis of chronic/recurrent sinusitis, whose symptoms were refractory to treatment with antibiotics. RESULTS: Our four subjects were Caucasian males, ranging in age from 4.2 to 9.8 years, with chronic/recurrent sinusitis for at least 3 years prior to entry in the study. Three subjects had a positive response; one subject dropped out for administrative reasons. Four, six, and eight weeks after beginning study supplements, the responders had decreased sinus symptoms, fewer episodes of acute sinusitis, and fewer doctor visits for acute illnesses. Their parents reported that they had begun to recover from upper respiratory illnesses without complications, which was unusual for these children, as was improvement in springtime; their improvement had previously been limited to the summer months or periods of home-schooling. CONCLUSIONS: Use of flavored cod liver oil and a multivitamin-mineral with selenium as adjunctive therapy for children with chronic/recurrent sinusitis is an inexpensive, non-invasive intervention that clinicians can use for selected patients, pending the performance of definitive, large, well-controlled studies.
sinusitis, children, nutritional supplements, multivitamin-mineral, selenium, fatty acids, fish oil, cod liver oil, treatmenthttp://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0165587604000126Licensed users of Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol (via Science Direct or Health Science Journals) can view the full text of this article here
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