2121Barker 2012 - Sir Richard Doll Lecture. Developmental origins of chronic diseaseSir Richard Doll Lecture. Developmental origins of chronic diseaseSir Richard Doll Lecture. Developmental origins of chronic diseaseBarker DJ10/02/2012Public Health. 126(3):185-9. Epub 2012 Feb 10.
Coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer and many other chronic diseases are unnecessary. Their occurrence is not mandated by genes passed down to us through thousands of years of evolution.
Chronic diseases are not the inevitable lot of humankind. They are the result of the changing pattern of human development. We could readily prevent them, had we the will to do so.
Prevention of chronic disease, and an increase in healthy ageing require improvement in the nutrition of girls and young women.
Many babies in the womb in the Western world today are receiving unbalanced and inadequate diets. Many babies in the developing world are malnourished because their mothers are chronically malnourished.
Protecting the nutrition and health of girls and young women should be the cornerstone of public health. Not only will this prevent chronic disease, but it will produce new generations who have better health and well-being through their lives.
It is difficult to overstate the importance of the findings that Professor Barker has so elegantly summarised in this lecture.
As he emphasises, most of the chronic diseases that increasingly afflict people in both developed and developing countries could actually be prevented if women of childbearing age were adequately nourished.
Robust evidence shows that 'nutritional programming' effects (reflecting the mother's diet and nutritional status) permanently shape a child's lifetime health risks. Much of this programming occurs before that child is even born, although the critical time window extends to around the first 1000 days from conception.
The lifelong risks from early malnutrition extend to mental as well as physical health disorders.
The full text of this article is freely available online here
Nutritional programming, review, free full texthttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22325676View this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text of this article is available online.
2043Sapone et al 2012 - Spectrum of gluten-related disorders: consensus on new nomenclature and classificationSpectrum of gluten-related disorders: consensus on new nomenclature and classificationSpectrum of gluten-related disorders: consensus on new nomenclature and classificationSapone A, Bai JC, Ciacci C, Dolinsek J, Green PH, Hadjivassiliou M, Kaukinen K, Rostami K, Sanders DS, Schumann M, Ullrich R, Villalta D, Volta U, Catassi C, Fasano A07/02/2012BMC Med. 2012 Feb 7;10(1):13.
A decade ago celiac disease was considered extremely rare outside Europe and, therefore, was almost completely ignored by health care professionals. In only 10 years, key milestones have moved celiac disease from obscurity into the popular spotlight worldwide. Now we are observing another interesting phenomenon that is generating great confusion among health care professionals. The number of individuals embracing a gluten-free diet (GFD) appears much higher than the projected number of celiac disease patients, fueling a global market of gluten-free products approaching $2.5 billion (US) in global sales in 2010. This trend is supported by the notion that, along with celiac disease, other conditions related to the ingestion of gluten have emerged as health care concerns. This review will summarize our current knowledge about the three main forms of gluten reactions: allergic (wheat allergy), autoimmune (celiac disease, dermatitis herpetiformis and gluten ataxia) and possibly immune-mediated (gluten sensitivity), and also outline pathogenic, clinical and epidemiological differences and propose new nomenclature and classifications.
celiac, gluten, allergyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22313950View this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text is available online
2038Miller et al 2012 - PubMed - Berry Fruit Enhances Beneficial Signaling In The BrainBerry Fruit Enhances Beneficial Signaling In The BrainBerry Fruit Enhances Beneficial Signalling In The BrainMiller MG, Shukitt-Hale B03/02/2012J Agric Food Chem. 2012 Feb 3
Increased lifespans have led to population aging and brought attention to healthcare concerns associated with old age. A growing body of preclinical and clinical research has identified neurological benefits associated with the consumption of berry fruits. In addition to their now well-known antioxidant effects, dietary supplementation with berry fruits also has direct effects on the brain. Intake of these fruits may help to prevent age-related neurodegeneration and resulting changes in cognitive and motor function. In cell and animal models, berry fruits mediate signaling pathways involved in inflammation and cell survival in addition to enhancing neuroplasticity, neurotransmission, and calcium buffering, all of which lead to attenuation of age- and pathology-related deficits in behavior. Recent clinical trials have extended these antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cognition-sparing effects to humans. This paper reviews recent evidence for the beneficialsignaling effects of berry fruits on the brain and behavior.
berries; brain; aging; signaling; antioxidants; anti-inflammatory; behaviour; behaviorhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22264107View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
20362 Feb 2012 - BBC News - Sugar tax needed, say US expertsSugarSugar is as damaging and addictive as alcohol or tobacco and should be regulated, claim US health experts.02/02/2012by Helen Briggs
According to a University of California team, new policies such as taxes are needed to control soaring consumption of sugar and sweeteners.
Prof Robert Lustig argues in the journal Nature for major shifts in public policy.
Industry body the Food and Drink Federation said "demonising" food was unhelpful.
Several countries are imposing taxes on unhealthy food; Denmark and Hungary have a tax on saturated fat, while France has approved a tax on soft drinks.
Now, researchers in the US are proposing similar policies for added sugar and sweeteners, amid concern about the amount of sugar in the diet.
The consumption of sugar has tripled worldwide over the past 50 years, with links to obesity, high blood pressure and diabetes.
In a comment in the journal Nature, Prof Lustig, a leading child obesity expert, says governments need to consider major shifts in policy, such as taxes, limiting sales of sweet food and drinks during school hours, or even stopping children from buying them below a certain age.
The professor of paediatrics at the University of California, San Francisco, told the BBC: "It (sugar) meets all the criteria for societal intervention that alcohol and tobacco meet."
The researchers acknowledge that they face "an uphill political battle against a powerful sugar lobby".
But they write in Nature, that "with enough clamour for change, tectonic shifts in policy become possible".
"Take, for instance bans on smoking in public places and the use of designated drivers, not to mention airbags in cars and condom dispensers in public bathrooms.
"These simple measures - which have all been on the battleground of American politics - are now taken for granted as essential tools for our public health and well-being. It's time to turn our attention to sugar."
Robert H Lustig MD UCSF Professor of Paediatrics in the Division of Endocrinology, gave a lecture called 'Sugar - The Bitter Truth' on 26 May 2009. The following July, it was then posted on YouTube and to date has been viewed well over a million times. In his lecture, Professor Lustig explores the damage caused by sugary foods. He argues that too much fructose and not enough fibre appear to be cornerstones of the obesity epidemic through their effects on insulin and other hormones. (For a peer-reviewed account of Lustig's theory, see his 2006 review in Nature Endocrinology)
The New York Times published a review of this lecture on 13 April 2011 which you can view here:
20221 Feb 2012 - MNT - Mothers Who Eat Fish While Pregnant Produce Offspring With Better Cognitive DevelopmentMothers who eat fish while pregnantDoes eating fish during pregnancy improve a child's intelligence? According to a recent study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition the answer is yes.01/02/2012by Petra Rattue - Medical News Today
The study revealed that infants of mothers who consumed more fish during pregnancy achieved higher scores in verbal intelligence and fine motor skill testing, as well as having a higher pro-social behavior. The study is part of the NUTRIMENTHE project "Effect of diet on offspring's cognitive development", which focuses on the effects of genetic variants and maternal fish intake on the children's intellectual capacity.
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/241045.phpRead the full news item in Medical News Today here
2068Gu et al 2012 - Nutrient intake and plasma ß-amyloidNutrient intake and plasma ß-amyloidGu et al 2012 - Nutrient intake and plasma ß-amyloidGu Y, Schupf N, Cosentino S A, Luchsinger J A, Scarmeas N31/01/2012Neurology WNL.0b013e318258f7c2
Objective: The widely reported associations between various nutrients and cognition may occur through many biologic pathways including those of β-amyloid (Aβ). However, little is known about the possible associations of dietary factors with plasma Aβ40 or Aβ42. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association between nutrient intake and plasma Aβ levels.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 and dietary data were obtained from 1,219 cognitively healthy elderly (age >65 years), who were participants in a community-based multiethnic cohort. Information on dietary intake was obtained 1.2 years, on average, before Aβ assay. The associations of plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels and dietary intake of 10 nutrients were examined using linear regression models, adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, education, caloric intake, apolipoprotein E genotype, and recruitment wave. Nutrients examined included saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), ω-6 PUFA, vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene, vitamin B12, folate, and vitamin D.
Results: In unadjusted models that simultaneously included all nutrients, higher intake of ω-3 PUFA was associated with lower levels of Aβ40 (β = −24.7, p < 0.001) and lower levels of Aβ42 (β = −12.3, p < 0.001). In adjusted models, ω-3 PUFA remained a strong predictor of Aβ42 (β = −7.31, p = 0.02), whereas its association with Aβ40 was attenuated (β = −11.96, p = 0.06). Other nutrients were not associated with plasma Aβ levels.
Conclusions: Our data suggest that higher dietary intake of ω-3 PUFA is associated with lower plasma levels of Aβ42, a profile linked with reduced risk of incident AD and slower cognitive decline in our cohort.
http://www.neurology.org/content/early/2012/05/02/WNL.0b013e318258f7c2.abstract?sid=3c4872c8-fb70-4963-859c-25abcf075177View this and related abstracts via Neurology here
2021Palmer et al 2012 - Effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy on infants' allergies in first year of life: randomised controlled trialEffect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy on infants' allergies in first year of life: randomised controlled trialEffect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid
supplementation in pregnancy on infants' allergies in
first year of life: randomised controlled trialPalmer D J, Sullivan T, Gold M S, Prescott S L, Heddle R, Gibson R A, Makrides M31/01/2012BMJ 2012;344:e184 doi: 10.1136/bmj.e184
Objective To determine whether dietary n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation of pregnant women with a fetus at high risk of allergic disease reduces immunoglobulin E associated eczema or food allergy at 1 year of age.
Design Follow-up of infants at high hereditary risk of allergic disease in the Docosahexaenoic Acid to Optimise Mother Infant Outcome (DOMInO) randomised controlled trial.
Setting Adelaide, South Australia.
Participants 706 infants at high hereditary risk of developing allergic disease whose mothers were participating in the DOMInO trial.
Interventions The intervention group (n=368) was randomly allocated to receive fish oil capsules (providing 900 mg of n-3 LCPUFA daily) from 21 weeks’ gestation until birth; the control group (n=338) received matched vegetable oil capsules without n-3 LCPUFA.
Main outcome measure Immunoglobulin E associated allergic disease (eczema or food allergy with sensitisation) at 1 year of age.
Results No differences were seen in the overall percentage of infants with immunoglobulin E associated allergic disease between the n-3 LCPUFA and control groups (32/368 (9%) v 43/338 (13%); unadjusted relative risk 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.43 to 1.05, P=0.08; adjusted relative risk 0.70, 0.45 to 1.09, P=0.12), although the percentage of infants diagnosed as having atopic eczema (that is, eczema with associated sensitisation) was lower in the n-3 LCPUFA group (26/368 (7%) v 39/338 (12%); unadjusted relative risk 0.61, 0.38 to 0.98, P=0.04; adjusted relative risk 0.64, 0.40 to 1.02, P=0.06). Fewer infants were sensitised to egg in the n-3 LCPUFA group (34/368 (9%) v 52/338 (15%); unadjusted relative risk 0.61, 0.40 to 0.91, P=0.02; adjusted relative risk 0.62, 0.41 to 0.93, P=0.02), but no difference between groups in immunoglobulin E associated food allergy was seen.
Conclusion n-3 LCPUFA supplementation in pregnancy did not reduce the overall incidence of immunoglobulin E associated allergies in the first year of life, although atopic eczema and egg sensitisation were lower. Longer term follow-up is needed to determine if supplementation has an effect on respiratory allergic diseases and aeroallergen sensitisation in childhood.
http://www.bmj.com/content/344/bmj.e184View this paper on the BMJ website here - open access
2044Pietzak 2012 - Celiac disease, wheat allergy, and gluten sensitivity: when gluten free is not a fadCeliac disease, wheat allergy, and gluten sensitivity: when gluten free is not a fadCeliac disease, wheat allergy, and gluten sensitivity: when gluten free is not a fadPietzak M31/01/2012JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2012 Jan;36(1 Suppl):68S-75S.
As the gluten-free diet (GFD) gains in popularity with the general public, health practitioners are beginning to question its real health benefits.
For those patients with celiac disease (CD), the GFD is considered medical nutrition therapy, as well as the only proven treatment that results in improvements in symptomatology and small bowel histology.
Those with wheat allergy also benefit from the GFD, although these patients often do not need to restrict rye, barley, and oats from their diet.
Gluten sensitivity is a controversial subject, where patients who have neither CD nor wheat allergy have varying degrees of symptomatic improvement on the GFD. Conditions in this category include dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and neurologic diseases such as gluten-sensitive ataxia and autism.
It is important for patients and healthcare practitioners to understand the differences between these conditions, even though they may all respond to a GFD.
Patients with CD can experience comorbid nutrition deficiencies and are at higher risk for the development of cancers and other autoimmune conditions. Those with wheat allergy and gluten sensitivity are thought not to be at higher risk for these complications.
Defining the symptoms and biochemical markers for gluten-sensitive conditions is an important area for future investigations, and high-quality, large-scale randomized trials are needed to prove the true benefits of the GFD in this evolving field.
2058Cunnane et al 2012 - Plasma and Brain Fatty Acid Profiles in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's DiseasePlasma and Brain Fatty Acid Profiles in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's DiseasePlasma and Brain Fatty Acid Profiles in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's DiseaseCunnane SC, Schneider JA, Tangney C, Tremblay-Mercier J, Fortier M, Bennett DA, Morris MC20/01/2012J Alzheimers Dis. 2012 Jan 20
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is generally associated with lower omega-3 fatty acid intake from fish but despite numerous studies, it is still unclear whether there are differences in omega-3 fatty acids in plasma or brain. In matched plasma and brain samples provided by the Memory and Aging Project, fatty acidprofiles were quantified in several plasma lipid classes and in three brain cortical regions. Fatty acid data were expressed as % composition and as concentrations (mg/dL for plasma or mg/g for brain). Differences in plasmafatty acidprofiles between AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and those with no cognitive impairment (NCI) were most apparent in the plasma free fatty acids (lower oleic acid isomers and omega-6 fatty acids in AD) and phospholipids (lower omega-3 fatty acids in AD). In brain, % DHA was lower only in phosphatidylserine of mid-frontal cortex and superior temporal cortex in AD compared to NCI (-14% and -12%, respectively; both p < 0.05). The only significant correlation between plasma and brainfatty acids was between % DHA in plasma total lipids and % DHA in phosphatidylethanolamine of the angular gyrus, but only in the NCI group (+0.77, p < 0.05). We conclude that AD is associated with altered plasma status of both DHA and other fatty acids unrelated to DHA, and that the lipid class-dependent nature of these differences reflects a combination of differences in intake and metabolism.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22269159View this and related abstracts via PubMed here
200111 Jan 2012 - MedicalXpress - Omega-3 fatty acids could prevent and treat nerve damage, research suggestsOmega-3 and nerve damageResearch from Queen Mary, University of London suggests that omega-3 fatty acids, which are found in fish oil, have the potential to protect nerves from injury and help them to regenerate.14/01/2012
When nerves are damaged because of an accident or injury, patients experience pain, weakness and muscle paralysis which can leave them disabled, and recovery rates are poor.
The new study, published this week in the Journal of Neuroscience, suggests that omega-3 fatty acids could play a significant role in speeding recovery from nerve injury.
For further information on the study reported in this news article, see
20059 Jan 2012 - MedPage Today - Pediatric Study: 'Healthy' Diet Best for ADHD KidsDiet and ADHDFast foods, sodas, and ice cream may be American kids' favorite menu items, but they're also probably the worst for those with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a new literature review suggests.09/01/2012By John Gever, Senior Editor, MedPage Today
According to two researchers from Children's Memorial Hospital in Chicago, a relatively simple diet low in fats and high in whole grains, fruits, and vegetables is one of the best alternatives to drug therapy for ADHD. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid supplements have also been shown to help in some controlled studies, they noted.
Writing online in Pediatrics, J. Gordon Millichap, MD, and Michelle M. Yee, CPNP, reviewed nearly 70 publications on diet-based interventions in ADHD, emphasizing recent research and controlled trials.
They noted that diet is one established contributor to ADHD that parents can modify.
It is good to see recognition of the increasing evidence that diet really can play a role in managing ADHD-type symptoms.
Furthermore, this important new review does a very good job of distinguishing between dietary approaches that are likely to help only small subgroups of ADHD children (and which usually require professional assistance as well as considerable effort), and those which are suitable for anyone wanting to reduce attentional problems, hyperactivity or impulsivity.
For more details, please use the link below to read the full article on MedPage today. See also:
19974 Jan 2012 - Medical Express - 'Silver bullet' supplement could slow brain agingProfessor David Rollo and a group of researchers at McMaster may have found a "silver bullet" when it comes to slowing the aging of the brain.Professor David Rollo and a group of researchers at McMaster University (Ontario, Canada) may have found a 04/01/2012By Andrew Baulcomb
The team's latest paper documents a new dietary supplement that completely maintains learning ability in older mice.
"These findings are not just significant, they're remarkable," says Rollo.
The tests were conducted by Vadim Aksenov, a PhD candidate in the Rollo laboratory in McMaster's Department of Biology.
A complex nutritional supplement containing 30 ingredients, including vitamins such as B1, C, D and E, along with beta-carotene, ginseng, green tea extract, cod liver oil and other acids and minerals, was used in the test. It was designed to offset five mechanisms associated with aging.
For mice aged 20-31 months (roughly equivalent to a 70-80-year-old human), those without the mixture in their diet showed no ability to learn new information. However, those who had taken the supplement displayed learning abilities equivalent to young mice, and more effectively completed the task.
The trials focused on a region of the brain associated with Alzheimer's disease.
Other findings revealed that brain mass was increased by up to 10 per cent as a result of taking the supplement. The function of the cellular furnaces that provide brain energy (mitochondria) was also increased.
But what does it all mean for humans?
"This diet was our first try, so the door is just opening up," says Rollo. "Whether these results will translate to humans remains to be seen."
A major goal in anti-aging research involves the reduction of poisonous "free radicals" and their associated damage, while also maintaining mitochondrial function and energy supply later in life. The new supplement does both.
Unlike stand-alone vitamins, pills or anti-aging products, the combination of ingredients is far more effective in maintaining brain function.
While human testing has yet to begin, Rollo is hopeful that the supplement may one day slow the progression of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and other neurodegenerative diseases in older adults.
If human trials prove safe and successful, most of the aging population could access the ingredients at local health food stores.
Jiangang Long, Jiankang Liu, Henry Szechtman, Parul Khanna and Sarthak Matravadia were also involved in the study.
199229 Dec 2011 - BBC News - Alzheimer's: Diet 'can stop brain shrinking'Alzheimer's: Diet 'can stop brain shrinking'A diet rich in vitamins and fish may protect the brain from ageing while junk food has the opposite effect, research suggests.29/12/2011By Helen Briggs, Health Editor, BBC News
Elderly people with high blood levels of vitamins and omega 3 fatty acids had less brain shrinkage and better mental performance, a neurology study found.
Trans fats found in fast foods were linked to lower scores in tests and more shrinkage typical of Alzheimer's.
A UK medical charity has called for more work into diet and dementia risk.
The best current advice is to eat a balanced diet with plenty of fruit and vegetables, not smoke, take regular exercise and keep blood pressure and cholesterol in check, said Alzheimer's Research UK.
The research looked at nutrients in blood, rather than relying on questionnaires to assess a person's diet.
US experts analysed blood samples from 104 healthy people with an average age of 87 who had few known risk factors for Alzheimer's.
They found those who had more vitamin B, C, D and E in their blood performed better in tests of memory and thinking skills. People with high levels of omega 3 fatty acids - found mainly in fish - also had high scores. The poorest scores were found in people who had more trans fats in their blood.
Trans fats are common in processed foods, including cakes, biscuits and fried foods.
The researchers, from Oregon Health and Science University, Portland; Portland VA Medical Center; and Oregon State University, Corvallis, then carried out brain scans on 42 of the participants.
They found individuals with high levels of vitamins and omega 3 in their blood were more likely to have a large brain volume; while those with high levels of trans fat had a smaller total brain volume.
Despite the news headline, this study did not actually involve patients with Alzheimer's disease, but 104 elderly healthy volunteers.
Nonetheless, the significant associations found between mental performance, blood nutrient profiles and brain volume deserve further investigation.
The findings also support other evidence that a healthy diet (rich in vitamins and omega-3 fats) is an important factor in preventing age-related cognitive decline and dementia; and conversely, that diets low in essential nutrients and high in trans fats are likely to increase the risk of dementia.
1993Bowman et al 2011 Nutrient biomarker patterns, cognitive function, and MRI measures of brain aging Nutrient biomarker patterns, cognitive function, and MRI measures of brain aging Nutrient biomarker patterns, cognitive function, and MRI measures of brain aging G.L. Bowman, L.C. Silbert, D. Howieson, H.H. Dodge, M.G. Traber, B. Frei, J.A. Kaye, J. Shannon, and J.F. Quinn28/12/2011Neurology78(4)241-9. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182436598. Epub 2011 Dec 28.
Objective: To examine the cross-sectional relationship between nutrient status and psychometric and imaging indices of brain health in dementia-free elders.
Methods: Thirty plasma biomarkers of diet were assayed in the Oregon Brain Aging Study cohort (n = 104). Principal component analysis constructed nutrient biomarker patterns (NBPs) and regression models assessed the relationship of these with cognitive and MRI outcomes.
Results: Mean age was 87 ± 10 years and 62% of subjects were female. Two NBPs associated with more favorable cognitive and MRI measures: one high in plasma vitamins B (B1, B2, B6, folate, and B12), C, D, and E, and another high in plasma marine ω-3 fatty acids. A third pattern characterized by high trans fat was associated with less favorable cognitive function and less total cerebral brain volume. Depression attenuated the relationship between the marine ω-3 pattern and white matter hyperintensity volume.
Conclusion: Distinct nutrient biomarker patterns detected in plasma are interpretable and account for a significant degree of variance in both cognitive function and brain volume. Objective and multivariate approaches to the study of nutrition in brain health warrant further study. These findings should be confirmed in a separate population.
dementia, cognition, cognitive decline, ARCD, ageing, brain imaging, diet, micronutrients, vitamins, minerals, human study, observational study, experimental study, Vit_B12, folate, Vit_B, omega-3http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22205763View this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text of this article is available online.
2013Steer et al 2011 - Polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in blood during pregnancy, at birth and at 7 years: their associations with two common FADS2 polymorphismsPolyunsaturated fatty acid levels in blood during pregnancy, at birth and at 7 years: their associations with two common FADS2 polymorphismsPolyunsaturated fatty acid levels in blood during pregnancy, at birth and at 7 years: their associations with two common FADS2 polymorphismsSteer CD, Hibbeln JR, Golding J, Smith GD21/12/2011Hum Mol Genet. 2011 Dec 21.
Minor alleles of polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster have been associated with reduced desaturation of the precursor polyunsaturated fatty acids in small studies. The effects of these polymorphisms during progressive developmental stages have not been previously reported. Data from blood samples for 4342 pregnant women, 3343 umbilical cords reflecting the newborn's blood supply and 5240 children aged 7 years were analysed to investigate the associations of polyunsaturated fatty acids with rs1535 and rs174575 - two polymorphisms in the FADS2 gene. Strong positive associations were observed between the minor G allele for these two markers, especially rs1535, and the substrates linoleic (18:2n-6) and α-linolenic (18:3n-3) acid. Negative associations were observed for the more highly unsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), timnodonic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and cervonic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). Bivariable genetic associations using the mother and child genotypes suggested that the newborn metabolism had a greater capacity to synthesise the more highly unsaturated omega-6 than the more highly unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. Nevertheless, despite the immaturity of the neonate, there was evidence that synthesis of DHA was occurring. However, by 7 years, no associations were observed with the maternal genotype. This suggested that the children's fatty acid levels were only related to their own metabolism with no apparent lasting influences of the in utero environment.
FADS2 polymorphismshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22194195View this and related abstracts via PubMed here.
3622Adams et al 2011 - Effect of a vitamin/mineral supplement on children and adults with autismEffect of a vitamin/mineral supplement on children and adults with autismNutrition and autism - effects of vitamins and mineral supplementsAdams JB, Audhya T, McDonough-Means S, Rubin RA, Quig D, Geis E, Gehn E, Loresto M, Mitchell J, Atwood S, Barnhouse S, Lee W.12/12/2011BMC Pediatr. 11111. doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-11-111.
BACKGROUND: Vitamin/mineral supplements are among the most commonly used treatments for autism, but the research on their use for treating autism has been limited.
METHOD: This study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled three month vitamin/mineral treatment study. The study involved 141 children and adults with autism, and pre and post symptoms of autism were assessed. None of the participants had taken a vitamin/mineral supplement in the two months prior to the start of the study. For a subset of the participants (53 children ages 5-16) pre and post measurements of nutritional and metabolic status were also conducted.
RESULTS: The vitamin/mineral supplement was generally well-tolerated, and individually titrated to optimum benefit. Levels of many vitamins, minerals, and biomarkers improved/increased showing good compliance and absorption. Statistically significant improvements in metabolic status were many including: total sulfate (+17%, p = 0.001), S-adenosylmethionine (SAM; +6%, p = 0.003), reduced glutathione (+17%, p = 0.0008), ratio of oxidized glutathione to reduced glutathione (GSSG:GSH; -27%, p = 0.002), nitrotyrosine (-29%, p = 0.004), ATP (+25%, p = 0.000001), NADH (+28%, p = 0.0002), and NADPH (+30%, p = 0.001). Most of these metabolic biomarkers improved to normal or near-normal levels.The supplement group had significantly greater improvements than the placebo group on the Parental Global Impressions-Revised (PGI-R, Average Change, p = 0.008), and on the subscores for Hyperactivity (p = 0.003), Tantrumming (p = 0.009), Overall (p = 0.02), and Receptive Language (p = 0.03). For the other three assessment tools the difference between treatment group and placebo group was not statistically significant.Regression analysis revealed that the degree of improvement on the Average Change of the PGI-R was strongly associated with several biomarkers (adj. R2 = 0.61, p < 0.0005) with the initial levels of biotin and vitamin K being the most significant (p < 0.05); both biotin and vitamin K are made by beneficial intestinal flora.
CONCLUSIONS: Oral vitamin/mineral supplementation is beneficial in improving the nutritional and metabolic status of children with autism, including improvements in methylation, glutathione, oxidative stress, sulfation, ATP, NADH, and NADPH. The supplement group had significantly greater improvements than did the placebo group on the PGI-R Average Change.
This suggests that a vitamin/mineral supplement is a reasonable adjunct therapy to consider for most children and adults with autism.
Nutrition, diet, autism, ASD, children, adults, vitamins, minerals, dietary supplements, treatment, RCT, human study, FREE FULL TEXThttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22151477View this and related abstracts via PubMed here. Free full text of this article is available online.
1990Allergies Explained Allergy; Allergies; Allergies explainedThis website provides much in-depth, helpful information for the many millions of allergy sufferers in Great Britain, where allergy specialists are very difficult to find. 08/12/2011
This website is dedicated to the millions of British allergy sufferers who have great difficulty in obtaining expert advice regarding their problems. One reason is that the subject has been so rarely taught in British medical schools that most doctors know very little about allergies.
Two hundred years ago allergies were very uncommon, but have become more and more prevalent in developed countries, especially in the last fifty years. In 1997 a European White Paper was published, which declared Allergic Diseases to be a Public Health Problem in Europe which is so large that it should be called the First Epidemic of the 21st Century, but Britain took little or no notice. It is undoubtedly true that Allergies of all kinds have increased to the extent that over a quarter of the population in all developed nations is now predisposed to develop allergic problems. This increase in allergies has coincided with global changes, such as the industrial revolution, increased pollution of air and water, and huge changes in the diet and environment with the adoption of western life-styles.
http://www.allergiesexplained.com/index.htmVisit this excellent resource for more informationAE_logo.jpgAE logo
2075Bhatia et al 2011 - Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency during brain maturation reduces neuronal and behavioral plasticity in adulthoodOmega-3 fatty acid deficiency during brain maturation reduces neuronal and behavioral plasticity in adulthoodOmega-3 fatty acid deficiency during brain maturation reduces neuronal and behavioral plasticity in adulthoodBhatia HS, Agrawal R, Sharma S, Huo YX, Ying Z, Gomez-Pinilla F07/12/2011PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e28451
Omega-3-fatty acid DHA is a structural component of brain plasma membranes, thereby crucial for neuronal signaling; however, the brain is inefficient at synthesizing DHA. We have asked how levels of dietary n-3 fatty acids during brain growth would affect brain function and plasticity during adult life. Pregnant rats and their male offspring were fed an n-3 adequate diet or n-3 deficient diets for 15 weeks. Results showed that the n-3 deficiency increased parameters of anxiety-like behavior using open field and elevated plus maze tests in the male offspring. Behavioral changes were accompanied by a level reduction in the anxiolytic-related neuropeptide Y-1 receptor, and an increase in the anxiogenic-related glucocorticoid receptor in the cognitive related frontal cortex, hypothalamus and hippocampus. The n-3 deficiency reduced brain levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and increased the ratio n-6/n-3 assessed by gas chromatography. The n-3 deficiency reduced the levels of BDNF and signaling through the BDNF receptor TrkB, in proportion to brain DHA levels, and reduced the activation of the BDNF-related signaling molecule CREB in selected brain regions. The n-3 deficiency also disrupted the insulin signaling pathways as evidenced by changes in insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate (IRS). DHA deficiency during brain maturation reduces plasticity and compromises brain function in adulthood. Adequate levels of dietary DHA seem crucial for building long-term neuronal resilience for optimal brain performance and aiding in the battle against neurological disorders.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22163304View this and related abstracts on PubMed here. Free full text available online.
1999Aksenov et al 2011 - A complex dietary supplement augments spatial learning, brain mass, and mitochondrial electron transport chain activity in aging miceA complex dietary supplement augments spatial learning, brain mass, and mitochondrial electron transport chain activity in aging miceA complex dietary supplement augments spatial learning, brain mass, and mitochondrial electron transport chain activity in aging miceAksenov V, Long J, Liu J, Szechtman H, Khanna P, Matravadia S, Rollo CD27/11/2011Age (Dordr). 2011 Nov 27. [Epub ahead of print]
We developed a complex dietary supplement designed to offset five key mechanisms of aging and tested its effectiveness in ameliorating age-related cognitive decline using a visually cued Morris water maze test. All younger mice (<1 year old) learned the task well. However, older untreated mice (>1 year) were unable to learn the maze even after 5 days, indicative of strong cognitive decline at older ages. In contrast, no cognitive decline was evident in older supplemented mice, even when ∼2 years old. Supplemented older mice were nearly 50% better at locating the platform than age-matched controls. Brain weights of supplemented mice were significantly greater than controls, even at younger ages. Reversal of cognitive decline in activity of complexes III and IV by supplementation was significantly associated with cognitive improvement, implicating energy supply as one possible mechanism. These results represent proof of principle that complex dietary supplements can provide powerful benefits for cognitive function and brain aging.
198625 Nov 2011 - BBC News - Jamie Oliver says healthy school food standards 'eroded'Jamie Oliver; healthy school foodThe TV chef Jamie Oliver has accused the Education Secretary Michael Gove of eroding healthy school food standards.25/11/2011by Angela Harrison
A campaign by the chef led to tough new legal standards for meals in England's schools.
But now caterers are saying that some of England's new academy schools - which do not have to abide by the regulations - are asking for "unhealthy food".
The government says it trusts schools to act in their pupils' best interest.
And it says it has no reason to believe that academies will not provide healthy, balanced meals that meet the current nutritional standards
Jamie Oliver told BBC Breakfast News: "The bit of work that we did which is law was a good bit of work for any government.
"So to erode it, which is essentially what Mr Gove is doing - his view is we let schools do what they want."
Several years ago, British chef Jamie Oliver, campaigned to ban junk food and get fresh, tasty and nutritious food back on the school dinners menu. Research undertaken since, has shown that banning unhealthy options from school canteens and introducing more fruit and vegetables has improved educational achievement.
But, like Jamie Oliver, we should all be worried - it would seem we still have far to go to stem the tide of obesity:
a quarter of all children under the age of 10 are obese
a third of all children over the age of 11 are obese
we are the most unhealthy nation in Europe
the cost of obesity alone is £4 billion per year
the cost of diabetes is £10 billion a year
and it is predicted that these figures will double in the next 15 to 20 years.
To allow junk food back on the school menu, and the re-introduction of vending machines filled with sugary and salty snacks and fizzy drinks, would be a backward step that we simply can't afford in terms of the future health of our children and the staggering cost to our National Health Service.
Getting the 'healthy eating in schools' message across has been an unstinting and monumental task, with very good results, but a greater challenge lies in convincing the wider population, beyond their school years, of the need to cut out the junk and eat a healthier and more balanced diet. Getting this message into every home is the next step.
The School Food Trust is urging anyone with concerns about food in academy schools to share their evidence - to help the Trust ensure all pupils are getting the healthy lunchtime they need ... Read more here.
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