Food and Behaviour Research

Donate Log In

Diet-induced extinctions in the gut microbiota compound over generations.

Sonnenburg ED, Smits SA, Tikhonov M, Higginbottom SK, Wingreen NS, Sonnenburg JL. (2016) Nature. 2016 529(7585) 212-5. doi: 10.1038/nature16504. 

Web URL: View this and related abstracts via PubMed here.

Abstract:

The gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that have fundamental roles in many aspects of human biology, including immune function and metabolism.

The reduced diversity of the gut 
microbiota in Western populations compared to that in populations living traditional lifestyles presents the question of which factors have driven microbiota change during modernization. Microbiota-accessible carbohydrates (MACs) found in dietary fibrehave a crucial involvement in shaping this microbial ecosystem, and are notably reduced in the Western diet (high in fat and simple carbohydrates, low in fibre) compared with a more traditional diet.

Here we show that changes in the 
microbiota of mice consuming a low-MAC diet and harbouring a human microbiota are largely reversible within a single generation. However, over several generations, a low-MAC diet results in a progressive loss of diversity, which is not recoverable after the reintroduction of dietary MACs.

To restore the 
microbiota to its original state requires the administration of missing taxa in combination with dietary MAC consumption. Our data illustrate that taxa driven to low abundance when dietary MACs are scarce are inefficiently transferred to the next generation, and are at increased risk of becoming extinct within an isolated population.

As more diseases are linked to the Western 
microbiota and the microbiota is targeted therapeutically, microbiota reprogramming may need to involve strategies that incorporate dietary MACs as well as taxa not currently present in the Western gut.

FAB RESEARCH COMMENT:

For a summary of this research and its implications, see the associated news article:
And see also: