A combination of PCR-Select cDNA subtraction and gene array hybridization was used to identify differentially expressed genomic markers in brains of rats fed for 3 weeks in utero and 2 weeks after birth on an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-deficient diet supplied to dams. Total RNA was isolated, switch mechanism at 5'-end of the RNA transcripts (SMART) applied and used for PCR-Select subtraction of PUFA-deficient and adequately-fed control preparations. Subtracted and amplified ds-cDNA end-products were fragmented, terminally labeled with biotin-ddUTP and hybridized with a RN-U34A gene array. A 10-fold increase in potential genes with log2(Tester/Driver) = 1.4 was found compared with traditional gene array technology when the same chip was tested using non-subtracted targets. Reverse transcription-real-time relative PCR confirmed 30% of the transcripts.
Among the validated transcripts, D1 and D2 receptors for dopamine (DA), were most prominent among a number of over-expressed neurotransmitter receptors and retinoic acid receptor (RXR alpha-2 and alpha-1). Immunohistochemical staining of brain sections from 2-week-old pups revealed a substantial enrichment of the D2 receptor in discrete regions of the mesolimbic and mesocortical pathways as well as in a large number of brain areas from the n-3 PUFA-deficient pups. Punches of the same areas run on western blots showed similar results.
The overwhelming expression of D1 and D2 receptors may be attributed to a behavioral hypersensitivity caused by the possible impairment of DA production during brain development, which may have implications in certain disorders of the nervous system.
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