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The Artificial Sweetener Splenda Promotes Gut Proteobacteria, Dysbiosis, and Myeloperoxidase Reactivity in Crohn’s Disease–Like Ileitis

Rodriguez-Palacios A, Harding A, Menghini P, Himmelman C, Retuerto M, Nickerson KP, Lam M, Croniger CM, McLean MH, Durum SK, Pizarro TT, Ghannoum MA, Ilic S, McDonald C, Cominelli F (2018) Inflammatory Bowel Diseases,  izy060, 2018 March https://doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izy060 

Web URL: Read the research on academic.oup here

Abstract:

Background

Epidemiological studies indicate that the use of artificial sweeteners doubles the risk for Crohn’s disease (CD). Herein, we experimentally quantified the impact of 6-week supplementation with a commercial sweetener (Splenda; ingredients sucralose maltodextrin, 1:99, w/w) on both the severity of CD-like ileitis and the intestinal microbiome alterations using SAMP1/YitFc (SAMP) mice.

Methods

Metagenomic shotgun DNA sequencing was first used to characterize the microbiome of ileitis-prone SAMP mice. Then, 16S rRNA microbiome sequencing, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), bacterial culture, stereomicroscopy, histology, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity analyses were then implemented to compare the microbiome and ileitis phenotype in SAMP with that of control ileitis-free AKR/J mice after Splenda supplementation.

Results

Metagenomics indicated that SAMP mice have a gut microbial phenotype rich in Bacteroidetes, and experiments showed that Helicobacteraceae did not have an exacerbating effect on ileitis. Splenda did not increase the severity of (stereomicroscopic/histological) ileitis; however, biochemically, ileal MPO activity was increased in SAMP treated with Splenda compared with nonsupplemented mice (P < 0.022) and healthy AKR mice. Splenda promoted dysbiosis with expansion of Proteobacteria in all mice, and E. coli overgrowth with increased bacterial infiltration into the ileal lamina propria of SAMP mice. FISH showed increase malX gene–carrying bacterial clusters in the ilea of supplemented SAMP (but not AKR) mice.

Conclusions

Splenda promoted gut Proteobacteria, dysbiosis, and biochemical MPO reactivity in a spontaneous model of (Bacteroidetes-rich) ileal CD. Our results indicate that although Splenda may promote parallel microbiome alterations in CD-prone and healthy hosts, this did not result in elevated MPO levels in healthy mice, only CD-prone mice. The consumption of sucralose/maltodextrin-containing foods might exacerbate MPO intestinal reactivity only in individuals with a pro-inflammatory predisposition, such as CD.

FAB RESEARCH COMMENT:

While findings from animal studies can never be guaranteed to generalise to humans. this study was carried out to investigate apparent strong links between the use of artificial sweeteners and Crohn's disease - a serious inflammatory bowel disease caused by auto-immune damage to the gut wall.

Results showed that the artificial sweetener sucralose (Splenda) did indeed promote gut inflammation in this animal model, and that it did so by changing the gut microflora.  However, the effects were only seen in animals with an existing predisposition to gut inflammation.  

Read the associated news article here:


And for more research indicating that artificial sweeteners not only fail to help with weight loss, but can have harmful effects on gut health and metabolism, see also: