Food and Behaviour Research

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Caloric restriction prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in mice on a high fat diet

Younas H, Vieira M, Gu C, Lee R, Shin MK, Berger S, Loube J, Nelson A, Bevans-Fonti S, Zhong Q, D'Alessio FR, McCormack MC, Hansel NN, Mitzner W, Polotsky VY (2019) Sci Rep.  2019 Jan 22;9(1): 279. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-36651-2. 

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Abstract:

We have previously shown that high fat diet (HFD) for 2 weeks increases airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine challenge in C57BL/6J mice in association with an increase in IL-1β levels in lung tissue. We hypothesize that obesity increases AHR via the IL-1β mechanism, which can be prevented by caloric restriction and IL-1β blockade.

In this study, we fed C57BL/6J 
mice for 8 weeks with several hypercaloric diets, including HFD, HFD supplemented with fructose, high trans-fat diet (HTFD) supplemented with fructose, either ad libitum or restricting their food intake to match body weight to the mice on a chow diet (CD). We also assessed the effect of the IL-1β receptor blocker anakinra. All mice showed the same total respiratory resistance at baseline. All obese mice showed higher AHR at 30 mg/ml of methacholine compared to CD and food restricted groups, regardless of the diet. Obese mice showed significant increases in lung IL-1 β mRNA expression, but not the protein, compared to CD and food restricted mice. Anakinra abolished an increase in AHR.

We conclude that obesity leads to the 
airway hyperresponsiveness preventable by caloric restriction and IL-1β blockade.

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