Background:Adherence to a Mediterraneandiet is associated with higher cognitivefunction and reduced risk of dementia in Mediterranean populations. However, few studies have investigated the association between Mediterraneandietadherence and cognition in populations outside of the Mediterranean basin. Furthermore, it is currently unknown whether the association between Mediterraneandietadherence and cognitivefunction differs between middle-aged and older individuals.
Methods: Cross-sectional (n = 894) and longitudinal (n = 530) multivariable analyses were undertaken using data from community-dwelling adults from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Mediterraneandietadherence was measured by applying a literature-based Mediterraneandiet score to food frequency questionnaire data. Cognitivefunction was assessed with a battery of tests and composites scores were computed for global cognitivefunction, Visual-Spatial Organisation and Memory, verbal memory, working memory, scanning and tracking and abstract reasoning.
Results: No cross-sectional associations between Mediterraneandietadherence and cognitivefunction were detected. Over a period of five years, higher adherence to a Mediterraneandiet was associated with improvements in Global CognitiveFunction, Visual-Spatial Organisation and Memory and scanning and tracking in participants ≥70 years. No significant longitudinal associations were observed for participants <70 years.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that higher adherence to a Mediterraneandiet is associated with better cognitive performance, and therefore less cognitive decline, in older but not middle-aged individuals.
Medical opinion and guidance should always be sought for any symptoms that might possibly reflect a known or suspected disease, disorder or medical condition. Information provided on this website (or by FAB Research via any other means) does not in any way constitute advice on the treatment of any medical condition formally diagnosed or otherwise.