Wu J, Song X, Chen GC, Neelakantan N, van Dam RM, Feng L, Yuan JM, Pan A, Koh WP (2019) Am J Clin Nutr. 2019 Oct;110(4): 912-920. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz150.
Prospective studies linking dietary pattern and cognitive function in the elderly are limited in Asian populations.
We examined the associations between various healthful dietary patterns and risk of cognitive impairment in Chinese adults.
We used data from the Singapore Chinese Health Study of 16,948 men and women who were aged 45-74 y at baseline (1993-1998) and reinterviewed at the third follow-up visit (2014-2016), ∼20 y later. Diet quality at baseline was assessed according to the alternate Mediterranean diet (aMED), the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, the alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010, overall plant-based diet index (PDI), and healthful plant-based diet index (hPDI). Cognitive function was evaluated using a Singapore-modified Mini-Mental State Examination during the third follow-up visit when subjects were aged 61-96 y. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to compute ORs and 95% CIs associated with the risk of cognitive impairment defined using education-specific cut-offs.
Cognitive impairment was present in 2443 (14.4%) participants. The OR (95% CI) for cognitive impairment comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of diet quality scores was 0.67 (0.59, 0.77) for aMED, 0.71 (0.62, 0.81) for DASH, 0.75 (0.66, 0.85) for AHEI-2010, 0.82 (0.71, 0.94) for PDI, and 0.78 (0.68, 0.90) for hPDI (all P values for trend <0.001). Each SD increment in different diet quality scores was associated with 7-16% lower risk of cognitive impairment.
These results provide evidence that adherence to healthy dietary patterns in midlife is associated with a lower risk of cognitive impairment in late life in Chinese adults.