Kim Y, Keogh JB, Clifton PM (2019) Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2019 Nov;21(12): 49. doi: 10.1007/s11883-019-0814-6.
The consumption of foods and beverages containing non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) has increased worldwide over the last three decades. Consumers' choice of NNS rather than sugar or other nutritive sweeteners may be attributable to their potential to reduce weight gain.
It is not clear what the effects of NNS consumption are on glycaemic control and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. This review aims to examine this question in epidemiological, human intervention and animal studies. It is not clear that NNS consumption has an effect on the incidence of type 2 diabetes or on glycaemic control even though there is some evidence for the modification of the microbiome and for interaction with sweet taste receptors in the oral cavity and the intestines' modification of secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), ghrelin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), which may affect glycaemia following consumption of NNS. In conclusion, long-term studies of NNS consumption are required to draw a firm conclusion about the role of NNS consumption on glycaemic control.