Emerging evidence indicates that gut microbiota is important in the regulation of brain activity and cognitive functions. Microbes mediate communication among the metabolic, peripheral immune, and central nervous systems via the microbiota-gut-brain axis. However, it is not well understood how the gut microbiome and neurons in the brain mutually interact or how these interactions affect normal brain functioning and cognition. We summarize the mechanisms whereby the gut microbiota regulate the production, transportation, and functioning of neurotransmitters. We also discuss how microbiome dysbiosis affects cognitive function, especially in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.
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