Food and Behaviour Research

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Energy drink consumption and sleep parameters in college and university students: a national cross-sectional study

Kaldenbach S, Hysing M, Strand T, Sivertsen B (2024) BMJ Open Jan 23;14(2):e072951 doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2023-072951 

Web URL: Read this article on BMJ Open


Objectives: To investigate the frequency of energy drink (ED) consumption, and the association between ED consumption and selected sleep characteristics and parameters in Norwegian college and university students. We also explored whether these associations varied based on sex.

Design: Cross-sectional.

Setting: Data were gathered from the SHOT2022 study (Students' Health and Well-being Study), a national survey.

Participants: 53 266 students, aged 18-35 years, enrolled in higher education in Norway (2022).

Main outcome measures: Estimated marginal means were computed from general linear models investigating the association between ED consumption and continuous sleep outcomes, while log-link binomial regression analysis was used for dichotomous sleep outcomes of sleep measures. All models were adjusted for age.

Results: Among the participants, 4.7% of men and 3.3% of women reported consuming ED daily. The frequency of ED consumption was inversely associated with sleep duration and sleep efficiency, while a direct association was observed with the frequency of ED consumption and sleep patterns such as sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset across sexes. The strongest association was found between daily ED consumption and short sleep duration where men had a risk ratio (RR) of 2.07; 95% CI 1.77 to 2.42, and women had a RR of 1.87; 95% CI 1.64 to 2.14.

Conclusion: ED consumption was a strong determinant for negative sleep outcomes. Even small amounts of ED were associated with poorer sleep outcomes, which warrant more attention towards the consequences of consuming ED among college and university students.