Food and Behaviour Research

Donate Log In

Choline - A Neglected Nutrient Vital for Healthy Brains - BOOK HERE

Mental disorders affect more than a third of Europeans

Kerri Smith

Mental Health Matters - Photo by Marcel Strauß on Unsplash.jpg

Treatment of those afflicted is 'unusually deficient'.


According to the authors of this detailed report, “mental disorders as well as neurological disorders must be considered to be Europe's foremost health care challenge of the 21st century.”

For some, this rising 'mental health burden' is entirely to be expected. This is because nutrition affects mental as well as physical health - and the very same modern. western-type diets that are bad for the body are also bad for the brain, as FAB Researchers have been warning for some time: See

In the 1970s, Professor Michael Crawford predicted – based on scientific evidence that has stood the test of time - that unless urgent action was taken to correct the balance of fats in our diets in particular, an ‘epidemic’ of ‘brain disorders’ was bound to follow the rising rates of heart disease, obesity, diabetes, and other degenerative physical diseases that are already overwhelming our health services.

What this world-leading scientific expert in human nutrition and brain biochemistry knew then - and continues to emphasise in his pioneering work to this day - is the fact that

  • Sixty percent of the brain's dry mass is fat (or lipids) - and those fats need to be of the right kind for human brains to develop and function normally.
  • The omega-3 fatty acids found in fish and seafood are absolutely essential for the healthy development and function of the brain and nervous system (as well as for physical health and wellbeing).
  • Pregnancy and early life (the 'first 1000 days' from conception) are a critical period, during which nutrition of the mother will shape the future health and development of her child for its whole lifetime.
    • 70% of the brain cells we will ever have as adults are made before we are born - and omega-3 deficiencies during this period have been shown to compromise the development of a healthy and resilient brain and nervous system 
  • And yet modern, western-type diets leave most people seriously deficient in these vital omega-3 fats (and in many other brain-essential nutrients)

No such action was taken by governments to heed Profesor Crawford's warnings back in the 1970s, of course - and so here we now are.

Even now – governments in the UK and elsewhere still refuse to ban toxic, industrially-produced trans fats from our food supply despite hard evidence of their damaging effects on health (physical and mental).

Similarly, abundant scientific evidence has been completely ignored in the formulation of new European legislation on omega-3 fatty acids, with the result that most people will continue to consume insufficient quantities of the forms shown to be critical for normal brain development and mental health (which are the long-chain forms (EPA and DHA), found in fish and seafood, NOT the short-chain forms  like ALA, found in some plant and seed oils).

Findings from this new and comprehensive study show that each year, more than 1 in 3 of the entire European population has a fully diagnosable mental or neurological disorder (although two thirds of those affected are undiagnosed or untreated).

These data show just how urgently effective action is now needed.

And that means taking seriously the fundamental importance of nutrition at every stage of life - but particularly the nutrition of mothers-to-be, and young children.  

For details of the research: see:

See also: 

This report was released at the 24th ECNP Congress (3-7 Sept 11) Paris, France. (ECNP - European College of Neurophyschopharmacy), and is available to read at the foot of the news item on their website here.

5 Sept 2011 - NatureNews


Mental disorders affect more than 160 million Europeans — 38% of the population — each year
, says a report issued today by the European Brain Council and the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. Yet, fewer than a third of those affected receive treatment.

Led by Hans-Ullrich Wittchen, a psychologist at the Technical University of Dresden in Germany, the three-year study covered the 27 countries in the European Union (EU) as well as Switzerland, Norway and Iceland.

The researchers found that the most common disorders are anxiety, insomnia and depression, which account for 14%, 7% and 6.9% of the total, respectively.

The researchers originally aimed to study all disorders of the brain, split into two major categories: mental or psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia, and neurological diseases such as stroke, multiple sclerosis or Parkinson's disease.

Ultimately, they weren't able to estimate the combined prevalence, because so many of them occur together. So Wittchen says the true figure is likely be "considerably larger" than 38%. 

The cost of stigma

The researchers were, however, able to estimate the combined burden of the two types of disorder. Taken together, mental and neurological diseases are Europe's largest disease burden, in terms of life-years lost to death or disability and of productivity and health-care costs. The most debilitating disorders were depression, dementia, alcohol use disorders and stroke, which together account for more than 10 million life-years lost to ill health or death. 

In a previous report also led by Wittchen, health-care costs to the EU for mental disorders were estimated at around €277 billion (US$394 billion). In October, Wittchen and his colleagues will publish a report estimating the present cost of these diseases to governments. Wittchen hints that the true figure, with the addition of new conditions, age ranges and countries, could be more than double the 2005 estimates. 

But when it comes to treatment, especially for psychiatric conditions, the situation is "unusually deficient", says Wittchen, even in countries with good healthcare systems. "It's very rare that you get treatment in the year after onset."

This is partly because the conditions themselves are complex and difficult to treat. But, Wittchen says, the stigma attached to mental disorders is also to blame. "Most people have the feeling that once you have a mental disorder you have it for the rest of your life," he says, but many of these disorders can be treated. 

Neglecting to treat one mental disorder can easily lead to another later on, Wittchen says. Anxiety disorder, for example, often leads to depression in later life.

David Nutt, a neuropsychopharmacologist at Imperial College London, agrees that rapid treatment is key. "If we can get in early we may be able to change the trajectory of illness," he says. 

Mind matters 

This kind of synthesis of the burden of mental and neurological conditions hasn't been done before. "It's a highly impressive study, and it's unique in scope," says Nutt, who was not involved in the study. 

In 2008, the World Health Organization estimated that brain disorders account for about 13% of the global disease burden, a greater burden than cardiovascular diseases and cancer.

The World Mental Health Survey, published in 2008 and covering 28 countries, estimated that one in three adults suffers from a mental disorder. And a new study from the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia, pulled together data from surveys to reveal that 6.8% of adults had moderate to severe depression.

The new report is an update on a 2005 paper that estimated that 27% of the EU population was affected by mental disorders each year. The higher figure resulted from the addition of 14 previously excluded disorders, many of which affect children and the elderly. But the frequency of mental disorders has probably not gone up substantially, Wittchen says. "There's no evidence for changing rates."


Wittchen, H.-U. et al. Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol. 21, 655-679 (2011).

Wittchen, H.-U. & Jacobi, F. Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol. 15, 357-376 (2005). | Article | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |

World Health Organization. The Global Burden of Disease: 2004 Update (WHO, 2008).

Kessler, R. C. & Ustun, T. B. The WHO World Mental Health Surveys: Global Perspectives on the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2008).