Paquet C, Propsting SL, Daniel M. (2014) Public Health Nutrition Volume 17 pp 1337-1341 Cambridge Journals Online
Objective: The present study sought to investigate the associations of total n-3 fatty acid and SFA intakes with insulin resistance in a Canadian First Nation sample at risk for type 2 diabetes.
Design: Fasting values for glucose and insulin were used to estimate insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Intakes of n-3 fatty acids and SFA were computed from dietary food and drink data obtained using 3 d food records. Associations between HOMA-IR and dietary n-3 and SFA consumption were tested using linear regression models accounting for age, sex, community, education, physical activity, waist circumference, fibre, protein and carbohydrate intakes, and HDL-cholesterol and TAG concentrations.
Setting: Rural Okanagan region of British Columbia, Canada.
Subjects: On-reserve First Nation individuals (Interior Salishan) aged 18 years and over, recruited for community-based diabetes screening and determined to be normoglycaemic (n 126).
Results: HOMA-IR was negatively associated with dietary n-3 fatty acid intake (β = −0·22; 95 % CI −0·39, −0·04; P = 0·016) and positively associated with dietary SFA intake (β = 0·34; 95 % CI 0·15, 0·53; P = 0·0 0 1).
Conclusions: Intake of dietary n-3 fatty acids may be protective against whereas SFA intake may promote insulin resistance in this high-risk Canadian First Nation sample. Reduced dietary SFA intake and greater n-3 fatty acid intake may assist the prevention of glycaemic disease among First Nations peoples. More rigorous, controlled trials are required to test whether dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids in natural or supplement-based form might reduce diabetes risk in high-risk aboriginal groups.