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The importance of physical activity and aerobic fitness for cognitive control and memory in children.

Chaddock-Heyman L, Hillman CH, Cohen NJ, Kramer AF. (2014) Monogr Soc Res Child Dev. 79(4) 25-50 

Web URL: Read more and related articles on PubMed here

Abstract:

n this chapter, we review literature that examines the association among physical activityaerobic fitness, cognition, and the brain in elementary school children (ages 7-10 years).

Specifically, 
physical activity and higher levels of aerobic fitness in children have been found to benefit brain structure, brain function, cognition, and school achievement.

For example, higher fit 
children have larger brain volumes in the basal ganglia and hippocampus, which relate to superior performance on tasks of cognitive control and memory, respectively, when compared to their lower fit peers.
Higher fit 
children also show superior brain function during tasks of cognitive control, better scores on tests of academic achievement, and higher performance on a real-world street crossing task, compared to lower fit and less active children.

The cross-sectional findings are strengthened by a few randomized, controlled trials, which demonstrate that 
children randomly assigned to a physical activity intervention group show greater brain andcognitive benefits compared to a control group.

Because these findings suggest that the developing brain is plastic and sensitive to lifestyle factors, we also discuss typical structural and functional brain maturation in 
children to provide context in which to interpret the effects of physical activity andaerobic fitness on the developing brain.

This research is important because 
children are becoming increasingly sedentary, physically inactive, and unfit. An important goal of this review is to emphasize the importance of physical activity and aerobic fitness for the cognitive and brain health of today's youth.

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The related news item can be accessed here:

02 December 2014 - Science Daily - Why does physical activity during childhood matter?