Food and Behaviour Research

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Early skeletal muscle adaptations to short-term high-fat diet in humans before changes in insulin sensitivity.

Anderson AS, Haynie KR, McMillan RP, Osterberg KL, Boutagy NE, Frisard MI, Davy BM, Davy KP, Hulver MW. (2015) Obesity 23 (4) 720–724 

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Abstract:

OBJECTIVE:

The purpose of this investigation was to understand the metabolic adaptations to a short-term (5 days), isocaloric, high-fat diet (HFD) in healthy, young males.

METHODS:

Two studies were undertaken with 12 subjects. Study 1 investigated the effect of the HFD on skeletal muscle substrate metabolism andinsulin sensitivity. Study 2 assessed the metabolic and transcriptional responses in skeletal muscle to the transition from a fasted to fed state using ahigh-fat meal challenge before and after 5 days of the HFD.

RESULTS:

Study 1 showed no effect of a HFD on skeletal muscle metabolism or insulin sensitivity in fasting samples. Study 2 showed that a HFD elicits significant increases in fasting serum endotoxin and disrupts the normal postprandial excursions of serum endotoxin, as well as metabolic and transcriptional responses in skeletal muscle. These effects after 5 days of the HFD were accompanied by an altered fasting and postprandial response in the ratio of phosphorylated- to total-p38 protein. These changes all occurred in the absence of alterations in insulin sensitivity.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings provide evidence for early biological adaptations to high-fat feeding that proceed and possibly lead to insulinresistance.