Kliewer KL, Ke JY, Lee HY, Stout MB, Cole RM, Samuel VT, Shulman GI, Belury MA (2015) J Nutr Biochem. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2015.01.010. [Epub ahead of print]
Rodents are commonly used in food restriction refeeding studies to investigate weight regain. Mice that are rationed food every 24h may consume all allocated food in a short time (gorge) and therefore undergo a brief well-fed period followed by an extended fasted period until the next day's foodallotment. These exaggerated metabolic states are not typical in mice fed ad libitum (nibbling). The aim of the current study was to elucidate the intraday and cumulative metabolic consequences of gorging (induced by food restriction) in mice during controlled refeeding. Accordingly, following a temporary food restriction, mice were fed rations similar to intakes of controls fed ad libitum. Temporary food restriction initiated gorging behavior that persisted during refeeding; consequently, metabolism-related measurements were obtained in the gorging mice during their daily fed and fasted metabolic states. Robust differences in adipose tissue lipogenic and inflammatory gene expression were found in the gorging mice by metabolic state (fed versus fasted). Additionally, despite a reduced cumulative food intake compared to mice fed ad libitum, restriction-induced gorging mice had increased intraabdominal fat accumulation, diminished hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and a gene expression profile favoring lipiddeposition. Our findings highlight the intraday differences in gene expression in gorging mice before and after feeding that confound comparisons withmice fed ad libitum, or nibbling. The present study also provides evidence that weight regain following food restriction is associated with cumulative metabolic and behavioral abnormalities in mice.